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rency, to pay our way down to the coast. The remaining
two were sold for money to purchase a horse for Sekeletu at
Loanda.

" The superiority of this market was quite astounding to
the Makololo, and they began to abuse the traders by whom
they had, while in their own country, been visited, and, as
they now declared, t cheated.' "

At this place Livingstone's men told him that they had
been thinking it would be better not to go any further, as
the colored people there had told them that Livingstone was
leading them to the sea-coast only to sell them, and that they
would be put on board ship, fattened, and eaten by the white
men. Livingstone had no trouble in convincing them that
the English never bought or sold people, and they told him
that they would follow wherever he led the way. This affair
being disposed of for the time, the commandant gave Living-
stone a parting dinner and an ox to his men, and the travel-
ers left Cassange on the 21st of April.

' All the merchants of Cassange accompanied us in their



LEAVE CASSANGE OUR GUIDE. 229

hammocks carried by slaves, to the edge of the plateau on
which the village stands, and we parted with the feeling in
my mind that I should never forget their disinterested kind-
ness. May God remember them in their day of need !

" The latitude and longitude of Cassange, the most easterly
station of the Portuguese in "Western Africa, is lat. 9 3*"'
36V S., and long. 17 49.' E.; consequently we had still
about three hundred miles to traverse before we could reach
the coast. We had a black militia corporal as a guide. He
was a native of Ambaca, and, like nearly all the inhabitants
of that district, known by the name of Ambakistas, could
both read and write. He had three slaves with him, and
was carried by them in a " tipoia," or hammock slung to a
pole. His slaves were young, and unable to convey him far
at a time, but he was considerate enough to walk except
when we came near to a village. He then mounted his
tipoia and entered the village in state ; his departure was
made in the same manner, and he continued in the hammock
till the village was out of sight.

" It was interesting to observe the manners of our soldier-
guide. Two slaves were always employed in carrying his
tipoia, and the third carried a wooden box, about three feet
long, containing his writing materials, dishes, and clothing.
He was cleanly in all his ways, and, though quite black him-
self, when he scolded any one of his own color, abused him
as a * negro.' When he wanted to purchase any article from
a village, he would sit down, mix a little gunpowder as ink,
and write a note in a neat hand to ask the price, addressing it
to the shopkeeper with the rather pompous title " Illnstris-
simo Senhor " (Most Illustrious Sir). This is the invariable
mode of address throughout Angola. The answer returned
would be in the same style, and, if satisfactory, another note
followed to conclude the bargain. There is so much of this
note correspondence carried on in Angola, that a very large
quantity of paper is annually consumed. Some other pecu-
liarities of our guide were not so pleasing.

" A gentleman of Cassange described Tala Mungongo as a



230 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

ran i*e of very high mountains, which it would take four
hours to climb. The path was steep and slippery ; deep gorges
appear on each side of it, leaving but a narrow path along
certain spurs of the sierra for the traveler ; but we accom-
plished the ascent in an hour, and when there, found we had
just got on to a table-land similar to that we had left before
we entered the great Quango valley. We had come among
lofty trees again. One of these, bearing a fruit about the
size of a thirty -two pounder, is named Mononga-zambi.

" "We took a glance back to this valley, which equals that
of the Mississippi in fertility, and thought of the vast mass
of material which had been scoped out and carried away in
its formation. This naturally led to reflection on the count-
less ages required for the previous formation and deposition
of that same material (clay shale), then of the rocks, whose
abrasion formed that, until the mind grew giddy in attempt-
ing to ascend the steps which lead up through a portion of
the eternity before man. The different epochs of geology
are like landmarks in that otherwise shoreless sea. Our own
epoch, or creation, is but another added to the number of
that wonderful series which presents a grand display of the
mighty power of God ; every stage of progress in the earth
and its habitants is such a display. So far from this science
having any tendency to make men undervalue the power or
love of God, it leads to the probability that the exhibition of
mercy we have in the gift cf his Son may possibly not be the
only manifestation of grace which has taken place in the
countless ages during which works of creation have been
going on.

" Passing through a fine, fertile, and well-peopled country
to Sanza, we found the Quize Eiver again touching our path,
and here we had the pleasure of seeing a field of wheat grow-
ing luxuriantly without irrigation. The ears were upward
of four inches long, an object of great curiosity to my com-
panions, because they had tasted my bread at Linyanti, but
had never before seen wheat growing. This small field was
cultivated by Mr. Miland, an agreeable Portuguese merchant.



MORE TROUBLE WITH SINBAD. 231

" We spent Sunday, the 30th of April, at Nigo, close to
the ford of the Quize as it crosses our path to fall into the
Coanza, The country becomes more open, but is still abund-
antly fertile, with a thick crop of grass between two and
three feet high. It is also well wooded and watered. Yil-
lages of Basongo are dotted over the landscape, and frequently
a square house of wattle and daub, belonging to native Port-
uguese, is placed beside them for the purposes of trade. The
people here possess both cattle and pigs. The different sleep-
ing-places on our path, from eight to ten miles apart, are
marked by a cluster of sheds made of sticks and grass. There
is a constant stream of people going and returning to and
from the coast. The goods are carried on the head, or on
one shoulder, in a sort of basket attached to the extremities
of two poles between five and six feet long, and called
Motete.

" It would have afforded me pleasure to have cultivated a
more intimate acquaintance with the inhabitants of this part
of the country, but the vertigo produced by frequent fevers
made it as much as I could do to stick on the ox, and crawl
along in misery. In crossing the Lombe, my ox, Sinbad, in
the indulgence of his propensity to strike out a new path for
himself, plunged overhead into a deep hole, and so soused
me that I was obliged to move on to dry my clothing, with-
out calling on the Europeans who live on the bank."

At Ambaca, a Portuguese village a few miles beyond the
river Lucalla, Livingstone was kindly received by the com-
mandant, who spoke a little English.

" He recommended wine for my debility, and here I took
the first glass of that beverage I had taken in Africa. I felt
much refreshed, and could then realize and meditate on the
weakening effects of the fever. They were curious even to
myself ; for, though I had tried several times since we left
Nigo to take lunar observations, I could not avoid confusion
of time and distance, neither could I hold the instrument
steady, nor perform a simple calculation ; hence many of the
positions of this part of the route were left till my return
12



232 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

from Loanda. Often, on getting up in the mornings, I found
ray clothing as wet from perspiration as if it had been dipped
in water. In vain had I tried to learn or collect words of
the Bunda, or dialect spoken in Angola. I forgot the days
of the week and the names of my companions, and, had I
been asked, I probably could not have told my own. The
complaint itself occupied many of my thoughts. One day
I supposed that I had got the true theory of it, and would
certainly cure the next attack, whether in myself or compan-
ions ; but some new symptoms would appear, and scatter all
the fine speculations which had sprung up, with extraordina-
ry fertility, in one department of my brain.

' "We spent Sunday, the 14th of May, at Cabinda, which is
one of the stations of the sub-commandants, who are placed
at different points in each district of Angola as assistants of
the head commandant, or chief. It is situated in a beautiful
glen, and surrounded by plantations of bananas and manioc.
The country was gradually becoming more picturesque the
farther we proceeded west ; we were entering upon a wild-look-
ing mountainous district called Golungo Alto.

"There is something so exhilarating to one of Highland blood
in being near or on high mountains, that I forgot my fever
as we wended our way among the lofty tree-covered masses
of mica schist.

" "We left Golungo Alto on the 24th of May, the winter in
these parts. Every evening, clouds come rolling in great
masses over the mountains in the west, and pealing thunder
accompanies the fall of rain during the night or early in the
morning. The clouds generally remain on the hills till the
morning is well spent, so that we become familiar with morn-
ing mists, a thing we never once saw at Kolobeng. The ther-
mometer stands at 80 by day, but sinks as low as 76 by
night.

' As we were now drawing near to the sea, my companions
were looking at every thing in a serious light. One of them
asked me if we should all have an opportunity of watching
each other at Loanda. * Suppose one went for water, would



FIRST VIEW OP THE ATLANTIC. 235

the others see if he were kidnapped ?' I replied, ' I see what
you are driving at ; and if you suspect me, you may return,
for I am as ignorant of Loanda as you are ; but nothing will
happen to you but what happens to myself. We have stood
by each other hitherto, and will do so to the last.' The plains
adjacent to Loanda are somewhat elevated and comparatively
sterile. On coming across these we first beheld the sea : my
companions looked upon the boundless ocean with awe.

"On describing their feelings afterward, they remarked that
* we marched along with our father, believing that what the
ancients had always told us was true, that the world has no
end ; but all at once the world said to us, ' I am finished ; there
is no more of me !' ' They had always imagined that the
world was one extended plain without limit.

" As we came down the declivity above the city of Loanda
on the 31st of May, I was laboring under great depression of
spirits, as i understood that, in a population of twelve thou-
sand souls, there was but one genuine English gentleman. I
naturally felt anxious to know whether he were possessed of
good-nature, or was one of those crusty mortals one would
rather not meet at all.

" This gentleman, Mr. Gabriel, our commissioner for the
suppression of the slave-trade, had kindly forwarded an invi-
tation to meet me on the way from Cassange, but, unfortu-
nately, it crossed me on the road. When we entered, his
porch, I was delighted to see a number of flowers cultivated
carefully, and inferred from this circumstance that he was,
what I soon discovered him to be, a real whole-hearted
Englishman.

" Seeing me ill, he benevolently offered me his bed. Never
shall I forget the luxurious pleasure I enjoyed in feeling
myself again on a good English couch, after six months' sleep-
ing on the ground. I was soon asleep; and Mr. Gabriel,
coming in almost immediately, rejoiced at the soundness of
my repose."

At Loanda, Livingstone found himself among friends.
Several Portuguese gentlemen called on him, and the Bishop



236 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

of Angola, then the acting governor of the province, sent his
secretary to do the same, and offer the services of the govern-
ment physician.

Some English cruisers also came into the port, and seeing
Livingstone's emaciated condition, offered to convey him to
St. Helena, or homeward. But as he had brought with him
a party of Sekeletu's people, who could not possibly return
home alone, on account of the unfriendliness of the tribes
near the western coast, he resolved to return with them.

Dr. Livingstone's health improved under medical treatment,
and on the 14th he was able to call on the bishop accompa-
nied by his men, who were dressed in robes of striped cotton
cloth and red caps, all presented to them by Mr. Gabriel.

" Every one remarked the serious deportment of the Mako-
lolo. They viewed the large stone houses and churches in
the vicinity of the great ocean with awe. A house with two
stories was, until now, beyond their comprehension. Some
Makololo, who had visited my little house at Kolobeng, in
trying to describe it to their countrymen at Linyanti, said,
* It is not a hut ; it is a mountain with several caves in it.' "

The party were invited to visit an English cruiser, and
nearly all of them went, as Livingstone assured them there
was no danger in doing so. When safely aboard, finding that
the men were all like tjieir leader, their fears vanished, and
they were soon on intimate terms with the jolly tars, who
shared with them their dinner of bread and beef. A cannon
was tired off, which gave them exalted ideas of its power, and
they were greatly pleased when told that it was what the
slave-trade was put down with.

Dr. Livingstone speaks of St. Paul de Loanda as follows :

" It has been a very considerable city, but is now in a state
of decay. It contains about twelve thousand inhabitants,
most of whom are people of color. There are various evi-
dences of its former magnificence, especially two cathedrals,
one of which, once a Jesuit college, is now converted into a
work-shop ; and in passing the other, we saw with sorrow a
number of oxen feeding within its stately walls. Three forts



LITE IN ST. PAUL DE LOANDA. 937

continue in a good state of repair. Many large stone houses
are to be found. The palace of the governor and government
offices are commodious structures, but nearly all the houses of
the native inhabitants are of wattle and daub. Trees are
planted all over the town for the sake of shade, and the city
presents an imposing appearance from the sea.

" In 1839, my friend, Mr. Gabriel, saw thirty -seven slave-
ships lying in this harbor, waiting for their cargoes, under
the protection of the guns of the forts. At that time slavers
had to wait many months at a time for a human freight, and
a certain sum per head was paid to the government for all
that were exported."

In the beginning of August, Livingstone had a relapse,
which reduced him to a mere skeleton, but he slowly recov-
ered. During his sickness, his men employed themselves in
collecting fire-wood in the country and selling it in the city.
They also earned something in unloading coal from a ship,
and were greatly astonished at the quantity of * stones that
burn ' which the ship held. With the money thus earned
they bought clothing, beads, etc., to take home with them.



CHAPTER XIV.

LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TKAYELS.
(ACROSS THE CONTINENT LOANDA TO LINYANTI.)

ON the 20th of September 1854, Livingstone set out on his
return journey, having been supplied with a good tent and
other necessaries and comforts by his English and Portuguese
friends. He also carried with him, as a present to Sekeletu
from the government and merchants of Loanda, a colonel's
complete uniform and a horse, with other articles.

The party proceeded by sea as far as the mouth of the river
Bengo, thence up the river to Icallo i Bengo, accompanied
thus far by his friend and generous host, Edmund Gabriel.
The Governor of Angola had furnished the explorer with
twenty attendants, and sent forward orders to all the com-
mandants of the districts through which he was to pass to
render him every assistance in their power.

II is general route was the same as on the advance across the
continent to the Atlantic coast. He, however, made several
detours, one of which was to the famous rocks of Pungo
Andongo, which he thus describes :

"In all my previous inquiries respecting the vegetable pro-
ducts of Angola, I was invariably directed to Pungo Andongo.
Do you grow wheat? 'Oh, yes, in Pungo Andongo.'
Grapes, figs, or peaches ? * Oh, yes, in Pungo Andongo.'
Do you make butter, cheese, etc. ? The uniform answer was,
'Oh, yes, there is an abundance of all these in Pungo
Andongo.' But when we arrived here, we found that the
answers all referred to the activity of one man, Colonel Man.-

238



AGRICULTURE IN ANGOLA. 239

nel Antonio Pires. The presence of the wild grape show that
vineyards could be cultivated with success ; the wheat grows
well without irrigation ; and one who tasted the butter and
cheese at the table of Colonel Pires would prefer them to tlie
stale produce of the Irish dairy, in general use throughout
that province. The cattle in this country are seldom milked,
on account of the strong prejudice which the Portuguese
entertain against the use of milk. They believe that it may
be used with safety in the morning, but if taken after midday,
that it will cause fever.

" The fort of Pungo Andongo is situated in the midst of a
group of curious columnar-shaped rocks, each of which is
upward of three hundred feet in height. They are conglom-
erate, made up of a great variety of rounded pieces in a
matrix of dark red sandstone. They rest on a thick stratum
of this last rock, with very few of the pebbles in its substance.
On this a fossil palm has been found, and if of the same age as
those on the eastern side of the continent, on which similar
palms now lie, there may be coal underneath this, as well as
under that at Tete.

" The gigantic pillars of Pungo Andongo have been formed
by a current of ,the sea coming from the S. S. E. ; for, seen
from the top, they appear arranged in that direction, and
must have withstood the surges of the ocean, at a period of
our world's history when the relations of land and sea were
totally different from what they are now.

"Colonel Pires is a good example of what an honest, indus-
trious man in this country may become. He came as a ser-
vant in a ship, and, by a long course of persevering labor, has
raised himself to be the richest merchant in Angola. He
possesses some thousands of cattle ; and on any emergency,
can appear in the field with several hundred armed slaves.

"While enjoying the hospitality of this merchant-prince in
his commodious residence, which is outside the rocks and
commands a beautiful view of all the adjacent country, I
learned that all my despatches, maps, and journal had gone
to the bottom of the sea in the mail-packet " Forerunner." I



24:0 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

felt BO glad that my friend Lieutenant Bedingfeld, to whose
care I had committed them, though in the most imminent
danger, had not shared a similar fate, that I was at once rec-
onciled to the labor of rewriting. I availed myself of the
kindness of Colonel Pires, and remained till the end of the
year reproducing my lost papers.

"It is surprising that so 'little has been done in the way of
agriculture in Angola. Raising wheat by means of irrigation
has never been tried ; no plow is ever used ; and the only
in.-.t runient is the native hoe in the hands of slaves. The chief
object of agriculture is the manioc, which does not contain
nutriment sufficient to give proper stamina to the people.
The half-caste Portuguese have not so much energy as their
fathers. They subsist chiefly on the manioc, and, as that can.
be eaten either raw, roasted, or boiled, as it comes from the
ground ; or fermented in water, and then roasted or dried
after fermentation, and baked or pounded into fine meal ; or
rasped into meal and cooked as farina ; or made into confec-
tionery with butter and sugar, it does not so pall upon the
palate as one might imagine, when told that it constitutes
their principal food. The leaves boiled make an excellent
vegetable for the table ; and when eaten by goats, their milk
is much increased."

Marriages and funerals in Angola are thus described. It
will be seen that the folly of expensive funerals is not con-
fined to civilization.

" The chief recreations of the natives of Angola are mar-
riages and funerals. When a young woman is about to be
married, she is placed in a hut alone and anointed with vari-
ous unguents, and many incantations are employed in order
to secure good fortune and fruitfulness. Here, as almost
every where in the south, the height of good fortune is to
bear sons. They often leave a husband altogether if they
have daughters only. In their dances, when any one may
wish to deride another, in the accompanying song a line is
introduced, ' So and so has no children, and never will get



RECREATIONS OF THE NATIVES. 241

any.' She feels the insult so keenly that it is not uncommon
for her to rush away and commit suicide.

" After some days the bride elect is taken to another hut,
and adorned with all the richest clothing and ornaments that
the relatives can either lend or borrow. She is then placed
in a public situation, saluted as a lady, and presents made by
all her acquaintances are placed around her. After this she
is taken to the residence of her husband, where she has a hut
for herself, and becomes one of several wives, for polygamy
is general. Dancing, feasting, and drinking on such occasions
are prolonged for several days. In case of separation, the
woman returns to her father's family, and the husband receives
back what he gave for her.

" In cases of death the body is kept several days, and there
is a grand concourse of both sexes, with beating of drums,
dances, and debauchery, kept up with feasting, etc., according
to the means of the relatives. The great ambition of many
of the blacks of Angola is to give their friends an expensive
funeral. Often, when one is asked to sell a pig, he replies,'!
am keeping it in case of the death of any of my friends.' A
pig is usually slaughtered and eaten on the last day of the
ceremonies, and its head thrown into the nearest stream or
river. A native will sometimes appear intoxicated on these
occasions, and, if blamed for his intemperance, will reply,
* Why ! my mother is dead !' "

Livingstone left Pungo Andongo on the first day of Janu-
ary 1855. At Tala Mungongo he met a native of Bihe who
had visited the country of Shinte three times :

" He gave us some of the news of that distant part, but not
a word of the Makololo, who have always been represented
in the countries to the north as a desperately savage race,
whom no trader could visit with safety. The half-caste tra-
ders whom we met at Shinte's had returned to Angola with
sixty -six slaves and upward of fifty tusks of ivory. As we
came along the path, we daily met long lines of carriers bear-
ing large square masses of beeswax, each about a hundred
pounds weight, and numbers of elephants' tusks, the property



242 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

of Angolese merchants. Many natives were proceeding to
the coast also on their own account, carrying beeswax, ivory,
and sweet oil.

" They appeared to travel in perfect security ; and at different
parts of the road we purchased fowls from them at a penny
i-a.-h. My men took care to celebrate their own daring in
having actually entered ships, while the natives of these parts,
who had endeavored to frighten them on their way down, had
only seen them at a distance. Poor fellows ! they were more
than ever attentive to me ; and, as they were not obliged to
erect sheds for themselves, in consequence of finding them
already built at the different sleeping-places, all their care was
bestowed in making me comfortable. Mashauana, as usual,
made his bed with his head close to my feet, and never dur-
ing the entire journey did I have to call him twice for any
thing I needed."

About the middle of April, Livingstone was taken sick at
a village in the Chiboque territory. When about to start on
again he had some trouble with the natives :

" It happened that the head man of the village where I had
lain twenty-two days, while bargaining and quarreling in my
camp for a piece of meat, had been struck on the mouth by
one of my men. My principal men paid five pieces of cloth
and a gun as an atonement ; but the more they yielded, the
more exorbitant he became, and he sent word to all the sur-
rounding villages to aid him in avenging the affront of a
blow on the beard. As their courage usually rises with suc-
cess, I resolved to yield no more, and departed. In passing



Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 15 of 51)