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timid, unsuspecting disposition : this renders it an easy prey,
and they are slaughtered without mercy on the introduction
of fire-arms. The black possesses a more savage nature, and,
like the ill-natured in general, is never found with an ounce
of fat in its body.

" Mr. Oswell was once stalking two of these beasts, and, as
they came slowly to him, he, knowing that there is but little
chance of hitting the small brain of this animal by a shot in
the head, lay expecting one of them to give his shoulder till
he was within a few yards. The hunter then thought that by
making a rush to his side he might succeed in escaping, but
the rhinoceros, too quick for that, turned upon him, and,
though he discharged his gun close to the animal's head, he
was tossed in the air. My friend was insensible for some
time, and, on recovering, found large wounds on the thigh
and body : I saw that on the former part still open, and five
inches long. The white, however, is not always quite safe,
for one, even after it was mortally wounded, attacked Mr.
Oswell's horse, and thrust the horn through to the saddle, toss-
ing at the time both horse and rider. I once saw a white
rhinoceros give a buffalo, which was gazing intently at myself,
a poke in the chest, but it did not wound it, and seemed only
to hint to get out of the way."

The travelers now came among the Banyai, a people whose
government is a sort of feudal republicanism. The chief is
elected ; the candidate is usually a son of the deceased chief's
brother or sister, but never his own son or daughter. At
first, the successor chosen considers himself unworthy of the
honor, but finally accepts the position, and with it all the goods,
wives, and children of his predecessor, and the latter are kept
in a dependent position and have fewer privileges than com-
mon freemen.

One of the chiefs, Monina, near whose village the party
encamped at night, was dissatisfied* because Livingstone had
nothing to give him, and said that he had absolute power over
the country in front of them.



274: LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

" In the evening a war dance was got up about a hundred
yards from our encampment, as if to put us in fear and force
us to bring presents. They beat their drums furiously, and
occasionally fired a gun. As this sort of a dance is never got
up unless there is an intention to attack, my men expected
an assault. "We sat and looked at them for some time, and
then, as it became dark, lay down, all ready to give them a
warm reception. But an hour or two after dark the dance
ceased, and as we saw no one approaching us, we went to
sleep.

" During the night, one of my head men, Monahin, was
seen to get up, look toward the village, and say to one who
was half awake : ' Don't you hear what these people are say-
ing? Go and listen.' He then walked off in the opposite
direction, and never returned. It was probably either a sud-
den fit of insanity, or, having gone a little way out from the
camp, he may have been carried off by a lion, as this part of
the country is full of them. 1 felt his loss greatly, and spent
three days in searching for him. He was a sensible and most
obliging man.

" As we came away from Monina's village, a witch-doctor,
who had been sent for, arrived, and all Monina's wives went
forth into the fields that morning fasting. There they would
be compelled to drink an infusion of a plant named ' goho,'
which is used as an ordeal. This ceremony is called l rnuavi,'
and ia performed in this way. "When a man suspects that
any of his wives has bewitched him, he sends for the witch-
doctor, and all the wives go forth into the field, and remain
fasting till that person has made an infusion of the plant.
They all drink it, each one holding up her hand to heaven in
attestation of her innocency. Those who vomit it are con-
sidered innocent, while those whom it purges are pronounced
guilty, and put to death by burning. The innocent return
to their homes, and slaughter a cock as a thank-offering to
their guardian spirits. The practice of ordeal is common
among all the negro nations north of the Zambesi.

" "When in Angola, a half-caste was pointed out to me who



THE ORDEAL. 275

is one of the most successful merchants in that country ; and
the mother of this gentleman, who was perfectly free, went,
of her own accord, all the way from Ambaca to Cassange, to
be killed by the ordeal, her rich son making no objection.
The same custom prevails among the Barotse, Bashubia, and
Batoka, but with slight variations. The Barotse, for instance,
pour the medicine down the throat of a cock or of a dog,
and judge of the innocence or guilt of the person accused
according to the vomiting or purging of the animal. I hap-
pened to mention to my own men the water-test for witches
formerly in use in Scotland ; the supposed witch, being bound
hand and foot, was thrown into a pond ; if she floated, she
was considered guilty, taken out and burned ; but if she sank
and was drowned, she was pronounced innocent. The wis-
dom of my ancestors excited as much wonder in their minds
as their custom did in mine.

" At the village of Nyakoba, the person appointed to be
our guide, came and bargained that his services should be
rewarded by a hoe. I had no objection to give it, and
showed him the article ; he was delighted with it, and went
off to show it to his wife. He soon afterward returned, and
said that, though he was perfectly willing to go, his wife
would not let him. I said, ' Then bring back the hoe ; ' but
he replied, ' I want it.' * "Well, go with us, and you shall
have it.' * But my wife won't let me.' I remarked to my
men, ' Did you ever hear such a fool ? ' They answered,
4 Oh, that is the custom of these parts ; the wives are the
masters.'

" When a young man takes a liking for a girl of another
village, and the parents have no objection to the match, he is
obliged to come and live at their village. He has to perform
certain services for the mother-in-law, such as keeping her
well supplied with firewood ; and when he comes into her
presence he is obliged to sit with his knees in a bent position,
as putting out his feet toward the old lady would give her
great offense. If he becomes tired of living in this state of
vassalage, and wishes to return to his own fkmily, he is



276 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

obliged to leave all his children behind they belong to the
wife. My men excited the admiration of the Bambiri who
took them for a superior breed on account of their bravery
in elephant hunting, and wished to get them as sons-in-law
on the usual conditions, but none yielded to the temptation.

"We passed several villages by going roundabout ways
through the forest, and continued a very winding course in
order to avoid the chief Katolosa, who is said to levy large
sums upon those who fall into his hands.

" As we were now near Tete, we were congratulating our-
selves on having avoided those who would only have plagued
us ; but next morning some men saw us, and ran off to inform
the neighboring villages of our passing. A party imme-
diately pursued us, and, as they knew we were within call of
Katolosa, they threatened to send information to that chief
of our offense, in passing through the country without leave.
"We were obliged to give them two small tusks ; for, had they
told Katolosa of our supposed offense, we should, in all prob-
ability, have lost the whole. We then went through a very
rough, stony country without any path.

" Being pretty well tired out in the evening of the 2d of
March, I remained at about eight miles distance from Tete,
Tette, or Nyungwe. My men asked me to go on ; I felt too
fatigued to proceed, but sent forward to the commandant the
letters of recommendation with which I had been favored in
Angola by the bishop and others, and lay down to rest. Our
food having been exhausted, my men had been subsisting for
some time on roots and honey.

" About two o'clock in the morning of the 3d, we were
aroused by two officers and a company of soldiers, who had
been sent with the materials for a civilized breakfast and a
" masheela " to bring me to Tete. My companions thought
that we were captured by the armed men, and called me in
alarm. When I understood the errand on which they had
come, and had partaken of a good breakfast, though I had
just before been too tired to sleep, all my fatigue vanished.
It was the most refreshing breakfast I ever partook of, and I



ARRIVAL AT TETE. 277

walked the last eight miles without the least feeling of wea-
riness, although the path was so rough that one of the officers
remarked to me, ' This is enough to tear a man's life out of
him.' The pleasure experienced in partaking of that break-
fast was only equaled by the enjoyment of Mr. Gabriel's bed
on my arrival at Lcanda. It was also enhanced by the news
that Sebastopo! had fallen, and the war was finished."



CHAPTER XVI.

LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.
(ACROSS THE CONTINENT FKOM TETE TO THE EAST COAST.)

B~K. LIVINGSTONE was most kindly received at Tete
by the commandant, Major Sicard, who did everything
in his power to restore him from his emaciated condition, and
invited him to remain for a month, when it would be healthier
down the Zambesi. On the day of his arrival he was visited
by all the gentlemen of the village, both white and colored.

" The village of Tete is built on a long slope down to the
river, the fort being close to the water. There are about
thirty European houses ; the rest are native, and of wattle and
daub. A wall about ten feet high is intended to inclose the
village, but most of the native inhabitants prefer to live on
different spots outside. There are about twelve hundred huts
in all, which with European households would give a popula-
tion of about four thousand five hundred souls. Only a small
proportion of these, however, live on the spot ; the majority
are engaged in agricultural operations in the adjacent country.
Generally there are not more than two thousand people resi-
dent, for, compared with what it was, Tete is now a ruin.
The number of Portuguese is very small ; if we exclude the
military, it is under twenty. In former times, considerable
quantities of grain, as wheat, millet, and maize, were exported ;
also coffee, sugar, oil, and indigo, besides gold-dust and ivory.
The gold-dust was procured by washing at various points on
the north, south, and west of Tete."

The fort at Tete has proved the salvation of the power of

278



TETE A JESUIT MISSION. 279

the Portuguese in that section. On one occasion its com-
mandant armed the whole body of slaves and marched against
the stockade of a man named Nyaude, who had established
himself a short distance up the Zambesi, and repudiated the
Portuguese authority.

Nyaude, in the meantime, dispatched a strong party to
attack Tete, which \vas undefended except by a few soldiers
in the fort. The force plundered and burned nearly the
whole town, excepting the fort, and the church into which the
the women and children all fled. Here they were safe, for the
natives of this region never attack a church. JSTyaude kept
the Portuguese shut up in their fort for two years. Living-
stone was approaching Tete just after peace had been estab-
lished, and the Portuguese had not deemed it possible that
any European could come safely through the tribes at that
time.

As Livingstone was to leave most of his men at Tete, the
commandant gave them land to cultivate, and allowed them
to hunt elephants with his servants. He also supplied their
wants abundantly. They were delighted at the liberality
shown them, and engaged successfully in Imnting and agri-
culture.

While at Tete, Livingstone went about ten miles to visit
the former site of a Jesuit settlement. He was accompanied
by an officer, whose great-grandfather, when a captain at Tete,
received sealed orders to be opened only on a certain da}*.

""When that day arrived, he found the command to go with
his company, seize all the Jesuits of this establishment, and
march them to the coast. The riches of the fraternity, which
were immense, were taken possession of by the state. Large
quantities of gold had often been sent to their superiors at
Goa, inclosed in images. The Jesuits here do not seem to
have possessed the sympathies of the people as their brethren
in Angola did. They were keen traders in ivory and gold-
dust. All praise their industry. Whatever they did, they
did with all their might, and probably their successful labors
in securing the chief part of the trade to themselves had



230 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

excited the envy of the laity. None of the natives here can
read ; and though the Jesuits are said to have translated some
of the prayers into the language of the country, I was unable
to obtain a copy.

" The only religious teachers now in this part of the coun-
try are two gentlemen of color, natives of Goa. There is but
a single school in Tete, and it is attended only by the native
Portuguese children, who are tajight to read and write. The
black population is totally uncared for. The soldiers are
marched every Sunday to hear mass, and but feAV others
attend church. During the period of my stay, a kind of the-
atrical representation of our Savior's passion and resurrection
was performed. The images and other paraphernalia used
were of great value, but the present riches of the Church arc
nothing to what it once possessed."

Livingstone had made preparation to leave Tcts 3s*'y la
April, but on the 4th he and the commandant were t^kga
down by a fever, which caused a further delay.

" A Portuguese lady who had come with her brother frorn
Lisbon, having been suffering for some days from a severe
attack of fever, died about three o'clock in the morrrn^ of
the 20th of April. I attended the funeral in the evening,
and was struck by the custom of the country. A number of
slaves preceded us, and fired off many rounds of gunpowder
in front of the body. When a person of much popularity is
buried, all the surrounding chiefs send deputations to fire
over the grave. On one occasion at Tete, more than thirty
barrels of gunpowder were expended. Early in the morning
of the 21st, the slaves of the deceased lady's brother went
round the village making a lamentation, and drums were
beaten all day, as they are at such times among the heathen."

Livingstone left Tete on the 22d of April. He selected
sixteen of his men who could manage canoes, to convey him
down the river. The commandant provided for the journey
abundantly. Three large canoes were procured ; they were
strongly built, and the men sat at the stern when paddling.



DOWN THE ZAMBESI AT SENNA. 281

A little shed was erected over a part of the canoe in which
Livingstone went, rendering it quite comfortable.

On the 24th, they passed through the gorge of Lupata.
Its western side rises perpendicular from the water to a
height of about six hundred feet. The stream here is about
three hundred yards wide, and said to be very deep. Below
the gorge, the river spreads out to a breadth of more than two
miles and is full of islands.

On the 27th, Livingstone reached Senna, about twenty-
four hours sail from Tete. Here everything was in a state
of stagnation and ruin. " The Landeens visit the village
periodically, and levy fines upon the inhabitants, as they
consider the Portuguese a conquered tribe, and very rarely
. does a native come to trade. When I was there, a party of
Kisaka's people were ravaging the fine country on the oppo-
site shore. They came down with the prisoners they had
captured, and forthwith the half-castes of Senna went over to
buy slaves.

" Encouraged by this, Kisaka's people came over into
Senna, fully armed and beating their drums, and were
received into the house of a native Portuguese. They had
the village at their mercy, yet could have been driven off by
half a dozen policeman. The commandant could only look
on with bitter sorrow. He had soldiers it is true, but the
native militia never think of standing fight, but invariably
run away, and leave their officers to be killed.

"The common soldiers sent out from Portugal received
some pay in calico. They all marry native women, and, the
soil being very fertile, the wives find but little difficulty in
supporting their husbands. There is no direct trade with
Portugal. A considerable number of Banians, or natives of
India, come annually in small vessels with cargoes of English
and Indian goods from Bombay.

" On the llth of May, the whole of the inhabitants of
Senna, with the commandant, accompanied us to the boats.
A venerable old man, son of a judge, said they were in much
sorrow on account of the miserable state of decay into which



282 LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

they had sunk, and of the insolent conduct of the people of
Kisaka now in the village. We were abundantly supplied
with provisions hy the commandant and Senhor Ferrao, and
sailed pleasantly down the broad river. About thirty miles
below Senna we passed the mouth of the River Zangwe on
our right, which farther up goes by the name of Pungwe ;
and about five miles farther on our left, close to the end of a
low rano-e into which Morumbala merges, we crossed the
mouth of the Shire, which seemed to be about two hundred
yards broad.

" A little inland from the confluence there is another rebel
stockade, which was attacked by Ensign Eebeiro with three
European soldiers, and captured ; they disarmed the rebels and
threw the guns into the water. This ensign and Miranda
volunteered to disperse the people of Kisaka who were riding
rough shod over the inhabitants of Senna ; but the offer was
declined, the few real Portuguese fearing the disloyal half-
castes among whom they dwelt. Slavery and immorality
have here done their work ; nowhere else does the European
name stand at so low an ebb ; but what can be expected ?

" Few Portuguese women are ever taken to the colonies, and
here I did not observe that honorable regard for the offspring
which I noticed in Angola. The son of a late governor of
Tete was pointed out to me in the condition and habit of a
slave. There is neither priest nor school at Senna, though
there are ruins of churches and convents.

"A few miles beyond the Shire.we left the hills entirely,
and sailed between extensive flats. The banks seen in the
distance are covered with trees. We slept on a large inhab-
ited island, and then came to the entrance of the Eiver Mutu ;
the point of departure is called Mazaro, or 'mouth of the
Mutu.'

"The Zambesi at Mazaro is a magnificent river, more than
half a mile wide, and without islands. The opposite bank is
covered with forests of fine timber; but the delta which
begins here is, only an immense flat, covered with high, coarse



DOWN THE MUTU. 283

grass and reeds, with here and there a few mango and cocoa-
nut trees.

"I was seized \>y a severe tertian fever at Mazaro, but went
along the right bank of the Mutu to the N. N. E. and E. for
about fifteen miles. "We then found that it was made navi-
gable by a river called the Pangazi, which comes into it from
the north. Another river, flowing from the same direction,
called the Luare, swells it still more ; and last of all, the Lik-
uare, with the tide, make up the river of Kilimane. The
Mutu at Mazaro is simply a connecting link, such as is so
often seen in Africa, and neither its flow nor stoppage affects
the river of Kilimane. At the point of departure, it was only
ten or twelve yards broad, shallow, and filled with aquatic
plants. Trees and reeds along the bank overhang it so much,
that, though we had brought canoes and a boat from Tete, we
were unable to enter the Mutu with them, and left them at
Mazaro. During most of the year this part of the Mutu is
dry, and we were even now obliged to carry all our luggage
by land for about fifteen miles.

As Kilimane is called, in all the Portuguese documents, the
capital of the rivers of Senna, it seemed strange to me that
the capital should be built at a point where there was no
direct water conveyance to the magnificent river whose name
it bore ; and, on inquiry, I was informed that the whole of
the Mutu was large in days of yore, and admitted of the,
free passage of great launches from Kilimane all the year
round, but that now this part of the Mutu had been filled, up..

" At Interra we met Senhor Asevedo, a man who is well
known by all who visited Kilimane, and who was presented
with a gold chronometer watch by the Admiralty for his
attentions to English officers. He immediately tendered, his
large sailing launch, which had a house in the stern. This
was greatly in my favor, for it anchored in the middle of the
stream, and gave me some rest from the musquitoes, which in
the whole delta are something frightful.

" Sailing comfortably in this commodious launch along the
river of Kilimane, we reached that village on the 20th o



28-t LIVINGSTONE'S LIFE AND TRAVELS.

May, 1S56, which wanted only a few days of being four years
since I started from Cape Town. Here I was received into
the house of Colonel G'aldino Jose Nunes, one of the best
men in the country. I had been three years without hearing
from my family ; letters having frequently been sent, but
somehow or other, with but a single exception, they never
reached me. I received, however, a letter from Admiral Trot-
ter, conveying information of their welfare, and some news-
papers, which were a treat indeed.

" Eight of my men begged to be allowed to come as far as
Kilimane, and, thinking that they would there see the ocean,
I consented to their coming, though the food was so scarce in
consequence of a dearth that they were compelled to suffer
some hunger. They would fain have come farther ; for when
Sekeletu parted with them, his orders were that none of them
should turn until they had reached Ma Robert and brought
her back with them. On my explaining the difficulty of cross-
ing the sea, he said, ' "Wherever you lead, they must follow.'

" As I did not know well how I should get home myself, I
advised them to go back to Tete, where food was abundant,
and there await my return. I bought a quantity of calico and
brass wire with ten of the smaller tusks which we had in our
charge, and sent the former back as clothing to those who
remained at Tete. As there were still twenty tusks left, I
deposited them w r ith Colonel Nunes, that, in the event of any
thing happening to prevent my return, the impression might
not be produced in the country that I had made away with
Sekeletu's ivory. I instructed Colonel Nunes, in case of my
death, to sell the tusks and deliver the proceeds to my men ;
but I intended, if my life should be prolonged, to purchase
the goods ordered by Sekeletu in England with my own
money, and pay myself on my return out of the price of the
ivory. This I explained to the men fully, and they, under-
standing the matter, replied, l Nay, father, you w r ill not die ;
you will return to take us back to Sekeletu.' They promised
to wait till I carne back, and, on my part, I assured them that
nothing but death would prevent my return."



ARRIVAL AT THE EAST COAST. 285

Having reached the East Coast, Livingstone thus graphi-
cally sums up the noble and unselfish ends he had in view
in his late journeyings across the continent.

" As far as I am concerned, the opening of the new central
country is a matter for congratulation only in so far as it
opens up a prospect for the elevation of the inhabitants. As
I have elsewhere remarked, I view the end of the geographi-
cal feat as the beginning of the missionary enterprise. I take
the latter term in its most extended signification, and include
every effort made for the amelioration of our race, the promo~
tion of all those means by which God in His providence is
working, and bringing all His dealings with man to a glori-
ous consummation. Each man in his sphere, either knowingly
or unwittingly, is performing the will of our Father in heaven.
Men of science, searching after hidden truths, which, when
discovered, will, like the electric telegraph, bind men more
closely together soldiers battling for the right against tyr-
anny sailors rescuing the victims of oppression from the
grasp of the heartless men-stealers merchants teaching the
nations lessons of mutual dependence and many others, as
well as missionaries, all work in the same direction, and all
efforts are overruled for one glorious end."

The village of Kilimane is situated on a great mud bank,
surrounded by extensive swamps and rice grounds. The
houses are well built of brick and lime, the latter brought



Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 18 of 51)