covery by others. He was also, doubtless, led to undertake
his last expedition by the restless spirit of adventure, which
seems to be generated in the breast of every traveler, and to
grow upon what it sees.
"The eye is never satisfied with seeing," says the wise
man. As wishes on wishes grow, so the love of sight-seeing
increases the more the sights are seen. So long as Living-
stone was occupied in the preparation of his book, he was
apparently contented; but this work having been accom-
plished, he became uneasy, and turned his face again towards
Of Livingstone's last expedition to Africa, his start into
the interior where he becomes finally lost to the civilized
world, his long absence and unaccountable silence, his reported
murder, the English Expeditions for his rescue, his discovery
by the gallant Stanley, and the great explorer's adventures
and wanderings in the unexplored regions of Inner Africa,
subsequent chapters will treat.
LIVINGSTONE'S THIRD EXPEDITION.
DR. LIVINGSTONE, having been appointed Consul for
Central Africa, left England on his third journey to
Africa, Aug. 14, 1865. His daughter accompanied him as
far as Paris. He arrived in Bombay Jan. 3, 1866, and com-
menced his preparations for exploring a portion of Africa
north of Lake Nyassa, the country south of that lake hav-
ing been pretty well examined.
From Bombay he proceeded to Zanzibar, accompanied by
two boys he had picked up in the Shire country Channia
and Wakotani as well as by a number of men from Johanna
Island (one of the Comoro Isles), a native Havildar (a Sepoy
sergeant of India), a few enlisted Sepoys and some Suahili
from a school at Bombay. On the 28th of March, 1866, the
great explorer and his motley followers crossed over to the
main-land, from the island of Zanzibar, and at once started
for the interior by way of the river Rovuma, which flows
into the Indian Ocean at Mikindany, about five degrees south
In May 1866, he was at a point thirty miles up the Rovuma
river. As he journeyed on, letters came from him occasion-
ally, informing the delighted public of his progress, and of
the extremely interesting incidents which would naturally
characterize his lonely march to the interior. But in Decem-
ber of the same year, Moosa, the leader of the Johanna men
who had accompanied the Doctor, arrived at Zanzibar with a
tale which saddened all who heard it that Dr. Livingstone,
LIVINGSTONE REPORTED DEAD.
the great African traveler, had been murdered on the shores
of Lake Nyassa, by a band of the Ma-zitus. He, Moosa, alone
of all Livingstone's party, had escaped to convey the grievous
The following is the copy of a letter written by Dr. Seward,
the English Qonsul at Zanzibar, to Lord Stanley, conveying
the particulars of Moosa's story :
ZANZIBAR, Dec. 10, 1866.
MY LORD I send you the saddest news. Dr. Livingstone,
in his despatch from Nyomano, informed your Lordship that
he stood " on the threshold of the unexplored." Yet, as if
that which should betide him had already thrown its shadow,
he added : " It is but to say little of the future."
My Lord if the report of some fugitives from his party be
true, this brave and good man has " crossed the threshold of
the unexplored " he has confronted the future and will never
return. He was slain, so it is alleged, during a sudden and
unprovoked encounter with those very Zulus of whom he
says, in his despatch, that they had laid waste the country
round about him, and had " swept away the food from above
and in the ground." With an escort reduced to twenty by
desertion, death and dismissals, he had traversed, as I believe,
that terra incognita between the confluence of the Loende
and Kovuma rivers, at Nyomano, and the eastern or northeast-
ern littoral of Lake Nyassa ; had crossed the lake at some
point as yet unascertained ; had reached a station named
Kompoonda or Mapoonda, on its western, probably its north-
western, shore, and was pushing west or northwest, into dan-
gerous ground, when between Marenga and Mukliosowa a
band of implacable savages stopped the way a mixed horde
of Zulus, or Mafilte and Nyassa folk. The Nyassa folk were
armed with bow and arrow, the Zulus with the traditional
shield, broad-blades, spears and axes. "With Livingstone
there were nine or ten muskets ; his Johanna men were rest-
ing with their loads far in the rear.
The Mafilte instantly came on to fight ; there was no par-
ley, no avoidance of the combat ; they came on with a rush,
31G MOOSA'S STORY.
with war cries, and rattling on their shields their spears. As
Livingstone and his party raised their pieces their onset was
for a moment checked, but only for a moment. Livingstone
fired and two Zulus were shot dead ; his boys fired too, but
their fire was harmless ; he was in the act of reloading when
three Mafilte leaped upon him through the smoke. There
was no resistance there could be none and one cruel axe-
cut from behind him put him out of life. He fell, and when
he fell his terror-stricken escort fled, hunted by the Mafilte.
One at least of the fugitives escaped ; and he it is who tells
the tale Ali Moosa, chief of his escort of porters.
The party had left the western shores of JSyassa about five
days. They had started from Kompoonda, on the lake's bor-
ders (they left the havildar of Sepoys there dying of dysentery ;
Livingstone had dismissed the other Sepoys of the Bombay
Twenty-first at Mataka), and had rested at Marenga, where
Livingstone was cautioned not to advance. The next station
was Mahlivoora ; they were traversing a flat country, broken
by small hills, and abundantly wooded.
Indeed, the scene of the tragedy so soon to be consummated
would appear to have been an open forest glade. Livingstone,
as usual, led the way, his nine or ten unpractised musketeers
at his heels. Ali Moosa had nearly come up with them, hav-
ing left his own Johanna men resting with their loads far in
the rear. Suddenly he heard Livingstone warn the boys
that the Ma-zitus were coming. The boys in turn beckoned
Moosa to press forward. Moosa saw the crowd here and there
between the trees.
He had just gained the party and sunk down behind a tree
to deliver his own fire when his leader fell. Moosa fled for
his life along the path he had come. Meeting his Johanna
men, who threw down their loads and in a body really passed
Moosa, his escape and that of his party verges on the marvel-
ous. However, at sunset, they, in great fear, left their forest
refuge, and got back to the place where they hoped to find
their baggage. It was gone, and then, with increasing dread,
they crept to where the slain traveler lay.
MOOSA'S STORY. 317
Near him, in front, lay the grim Zulus who were killed
under his sure aim ; here and there lay scattered some four
dead fugitives of the expedition. That one blow had killed
him outright ; he had no other wound but this terrible gash.
It must have gone, from their description, through the neck
and spine up to the throat in front, and it had nearly decapi-
tated him. Death came mercifully in its instant suddenness,
for David Livingstone was ever ready.
They found him stripped of his upper clothing ; the Ma-zitus
had respected him when dead. They dug with some stakes
a shallow grave, and hid from the starlight the stricken tem-
ple of a grand spirit the body of an apostle, whose martyr-
dom should make sacred the shores of that sea which his labors
made known to us, and which now, baptized with his life's
blood, men should henceforth know as " Lake Livingstone."
The names of those who stood before the Ma-zitus with
Livingstone should not be unremembered :
ADAMS, JAMES CHOOMA,
WALKER, ABRAHAM PARIELLA,
SIMON PRICE, EDWARD GARDNER,
ALBERT BURAHER, LACOOMBO,
MAEOWOH JOOMA, ALI MOOSA.
Of these, four were seen dead near the corpse of Living-
stone ; the rest, save Ali Moosa, are missing.
The Johanna men made the best of their way back to
Kompoonda, or Mapoonda, not venturing near any village or
station. They lost themselves in the jungle and were four-
teen days on their way. At Kompoonda they witnessed the
end of the Havildar of Sepoys, Bombay Twenty-first native
infantry. He alone of all the Indians was faithful. On the
threshold of this Consulate at Zanzibar he pledged himself at
the moment of starting never to forsake his leader. Nor did
he. To the last he struggled on, worn with dysentery, but
broke down hopelessly on the road to Marenga. A day or
two later and he would have shared his leader's fate. Insub-
ordinate, lazy, impracticable and useless, Livingstone had dis-
missed the other Sepoys at Mataka. Had they been faithful,
318 MOOSA'S STORY.
like tlieir Ilavildar, I should not have had to inscribe a record
of this sad happening. Their imfitness for African travel
might have been predicted.
At Kompoonda the Johanna men were deprived of their
weapons by the chief, who also kept the Havildar's. Here
they joined an Arab slave caravan, recrossed the Nyassa,
and made for Keelwa, the great slave outlet on the Zanzi-
bar coast. But here again, and when least expected, they
encountered the Ma-zitus. They had reached Keepareygree,
eight days southwest of Keelwa, when the appearance of a
baud of these savages scattered the caravan. Abandoning
ivory, slaves, their all, the Arab leaders thought but of
saving their lives. The Johanna men again made their
escape and reached Keelwa, whence, by the kindness of the
Customs people, they were at once sent on to Zanzibar.
They arrived here on the 6th of December.
It will be gratifying to the many and true friends of Dr.
Livingstone to learn that when his sad end was known the
British flag was lowered at this Consulate ; the French, the
American, and Hanseatic flags were at once flown half-mast
high, the Consuls paying a spontaneous tribute to his memory
an example shortly followed by all the foreign vessels in
the harbor. The Sultan's flag was also lowered.
I must reserve other details for a subsequent letter ; but I
may state that no papers, eifects or relics of Livingstone are
likely to be recovered.
G. EDWARD SEWARD.
Such was the story of Livingstone's death, as told by Moosa
on his return to Zanzibar. Everybody believed or feared it
was true, because there could be no reason suggested for unbe-
lief. The sorrow felt at the reading of this dispatch was deep
and world-wide. A good man, a brave Christian, the most
indefatigable of travelers had died a martyr, just as he stood
on the threshold of the unexplored.
Dr. Kirk, of Zanzibar, a companion in former years of some
of Livingstone's travels in South Africa, took Moosa under
his own special attention, questioned him and cross-examined
THE ENGLISH SEARCH EXPEDITION. 319
him in every way, but was obliged to believe liis story, and
wrote a long letter confirming Mr. Seward's dispatch. And
60 it became a deep-settled conviction in the minds of almost
all, that David Livingstone, the great traveler, was dead.
But the story was doubted by Sir Roderick Murchison,
President of the Geographical Society, and others, including
Mr. Young, an African traveler or trader, who testified that
he had once a servant who was a Mahometan, who was a
perfect rascal of a fellow, -and that the Mahometans of South-
ern Africa were all very similar in disposition and character
to Ali Moosa. Mr. Young believed the story to be a cun-
ning fabrication ; and so it was. Moosa and his companions
had deserted the doctor, and without such a tale as this to
justify their return could not claim their pay of an English
An expedition to search for Dr. Livingstone was started
in England, and on the 25th of July 1867, the steamship
Petrel, which conveyed the party, arrived at the mouth of
the Zambesi. On the 8th of August, the party, with Mr. E.
D. Young as leader, started up the river in a small steel boat,
named the Search.
On the 4rth of September, the expedition heard that a white
man had been seen at Pamfunda, on Lake Pamalombi, and
that he had two Ajawa boys with him. But as this lake is
far south of Lake Nyassa, it was barely possible that Living-
stone had drifted so far from the destination agreed upon
before the Geographical Society.
On the 7th of September, Mr. Young arrived at Lake
Pamalombi, and became convinced that the white man seen
south of Lake Nyassa was Livingstone himself. Livingstone
had not gone northward, as it was expected he would, but
to make his travels and researches complete he had proceeded
southward. Thus it was the Doctor was found out in several
ways by his naval cap, his mustache, his size, the color of
his hair, and the goodness that never left him. The two boys
also who accompanied him were instantly identified by their
names, which the old chief remembered as Chuma and Wako
320 ON THE EXPLORER'S TRACK.
(short for "Wakotani). Moosa was also known ; the- Havildar
of the Sepoys, and a little dog named Chitani were recognized
by the accurate pantomimic description given by the chief.
On the 10th of the same month other reports, confirmatory
of those previously received, were hailed by the " searchers "
as indubitable proofs that Moosa's story was an able and most
cunning conception of a brain prompted by a most cowardly
heart. An empty cartridge case and an iron spoon of Eng-
lish make, marked " Patent," were brought to Mr. Young. A
photographic album with Livingstone's picture in it, was
handed to one of the natives, who remembered the "good
white man" who had given him these things, and he was
asked to show the man among all those pictures who mostly
resembled him. The native turned over the leaves curiously,
and when he came to Livingstone's said triumphantly, " That
is like him ; that is like him, only his dress was not like that."
On the 13th, a small English prayer book was brought.
Two days afterwards a knife was produced to the searchers,
which the natives said the white man had exchanged for
some rice. A village where the Ajawa boy Wakotani
had been very ill, and had laid several weeks while the
Doctor had continued his discoveries northward, was found.
Mr. Young crossed Lake Nyassa at the Arab ferry where
Dr. Livingstone crossed. At Marengas an account of a white
man was had, who was immediately identified again as
Livingstone, with his dog and his servants, from a native
who had helped him over with his luggage.
Mr. Young was directed from here to a village called
Pacahoma, where the white man had only seven men with
him carrying guns "Moosa and company being conspic-
uously absent in this enumeration of his followers." When
Mr. Young told the people at Pacahoma that he had come
to look after him, the natives said, laughing, "Why he is
gone to the Bahisa country ; how are you to catch him up ?
It would take three moon's journey to reach it."
Mr. Young replied that he had heard he had been killed
by the Ma-zitus; but they said, "Oh, no; why, he went that
THE GRAVE OF MRS. LIVINGSTONE. 321
way on purpose to avoid them, and we know he went far
beyond, where it would take month's to walk."
On the 25th of September the searchers reached Mapunda.
At this place a book entitled "The First Footsteps in the
Way of Knowledge " was exhibited, on which was written.
" This book belongs to Wakotani ; Bombay, 15th December,
1864." The boy had left Mapunda after long waiting for
Livingstone for the coast.
At Chibissa, on the Shire River, on the 18th of October,
the party of Mr. Young heard that Dr. Livingstone had shot
one of the principal chiefs of the Ma-zitu tribe in an encoun-
ter he had with him, and the Ma-zitus had run away from
him in consequence, leaving him to pursue his travels
"When going up the Zambesi River the expedition visited,
at Shupanaza, the grave of Mrs. Livingstone the faithful
and courageous wife of a noble man. Along both banks of
the Zambesi, the dark natives of the country nocked to see
their friends, the English, with many anxious inquiries as to
the whereabouts of the " Father " (Dr. Livingstone). The
good seed sown by this eminent missionary had fallen on
ground where it brought forth fruit abundantly. Much evil
had been abolished, and blessed tranquility reigned in conse-
quence in many portions of the continent which he had
visited. Much of the slave trade had diminished ; in short,
Livingstone had morally revolutionized the country.
The expedition becoming satisfied that Livingstone was
alive, but far to the northward, returned to Zanzibar.
In addition to the information obtained by this expedition,
something was known concerning Dr. Livingstone at the
time Mr. Stanley reached Zanzibar, from earlier letters writ-
ten by himself, and from occasional rumors from the interior.
The following letter was addressed to a friend in Scotland.
BEMBA, Inner Africa, Latitude 10 10' South,
Longitude 31 50' East, March 2, 1867.
I have been unable to send anything to coast since I left
it till now, and have heard nothing from the coast. We
322 AN OLD LETTER.
have been very long in our progress hither, but I think we
are now on the watershed between the Zambesi and Isaputi,
which flows, as report says, into Tanganyika. I have only
nine following me, but hope to get on in time and
do what I have undertaken. In some parts we had plenty
of meat ; I could easily supply the pot with my rifle. In
other parts nothing could be procured, and we had to go on
as best we could. It is the rainy season, and we had a long
trndge through dripping forest, with the soil often so sloppy
the feet were constantly wet. This was made worse by
want of food not of fine dishes, but of even a little por-
ridge. The people could not sell grain ; they were subsist-
ing themselves on mushrooms, which are very good as catsup,
but wretched, watery food, producing vivid visions of the
roast beef of bygone days. Here we have come to a land
where food is to be bought, and mean to rest a little. When
we get to Tanganyika Lake we hope for news, and to find a
second supply of goods. I shall write to you from thence.
Tell that his dog turned out a famous one, and I was
never so sorry for any animal as when we lately lost him.
He had more spunk than fifty country dogs ; and as soon as
we got a hut in a village he kept it clear of all curs, and
never stole himself. He was as much of an attraction as the
white man himself; took charge of the whole line of march,
and was so spirited he went at anything. We had to wade a
marsh a mile wide and waist deep a peaty bottom, with
holes made by buffaloes' feet, made us all flounder. I went
first and forgot the poor doggie. lie must have swam
among the dogs, each one minding himself till he was
drowned ; no one noticed him. I am unable to write to Dr.
Wilson, though I ought, but the slave trader will not give
me more time. I consumed Mr. 's extract of meat from
real gnawing hunger, and found it excellent. I have lost all
my medicines the sorest loss of goods I ever sustained.
You will excuse my brevity. The slavery party leaves, and
I must write several letters.
Blessings from the Highest be on you all, my dear friends.
RUMORS FROM THE INTERIOR. 323
In the month of April, 1867, Livingstone discovered Lake
Liemba, south of Tanganyika, and going westward thence
found Lake Moero on the 8th of September. In December,
1867, he was at the Cazembe's town.
From this point he made an attempt to go northward in
the country west of Tanganyika, intending to cross the lake
to Ujiji, but was brought to a standstill by the abundance of
water which flooded the country, and returned to Cazembe's
in February or March, 1868
Then he went south of Lake Bangweolo, whence he sent
his last important letters in July, 1868.
From this he appears to have repassed the Cazembe's town,
and to have gone north to Ujiji, along the eastern shore of
Tanganyika. He had probably made an excursion to the
north of Tanganyika before this time, and announced his
intention of going to Manyema, on the west of Tanganyika,
where there was said to be a great lake to which the
waters of the western drainage converge.
The last letter received from Dr. Livingstone was dated
May 30, 1869, from Ujiji, Lake Tanganyika. In it he speaks
of the unwillingness of the Arab traders to take charge of his
letters to Zanzibar. He writes for fresh stores and men, and
says that in the meantime he may explore the Manyema
country and the lakes west of Tanganyika.
In June 1870, the English government granted 1,000 to
supply him with fresh stores and men not by means of a
relief expedition sent from England, but by parties of natives
sent by the Consul from Zanzibar to the interior. One only
of these native parties, with a portion of the stores, had suc-
ceeded in attaining a point within reach of Livingstone at
Manyema ; but neither letters from Livingstone, nor proof of
the stores having reached him, had reached Zanzibar. The
native in charge of the stores simply stated that he had recei-
ved a letter from Livingstone dated October 15, 1870, which
letter he had not transmitted to Zanzibar. It was doubted,
therefore, whether the traveler had been provided with the
means either of continuing his explorations or returning to
324 LOST DISPATCHES.
the coast ; and it was probable he was detained against his
In June, 1869, according to information received by Bishop
Tozer, at Zanzibar, Livingstone was still at Ujiji.
In June, 1870, Sheikh Said, writing from Unyanyembe,
gave the news that Dr. Livingstone had gone westward to
Manimes(Manyema,) and was expected to return soon.
March 10, 1871, Dr. Kirk had letters from two Arab traders
in Ujiji, announcing that Dr. Livingstone was at a place
named Manakoso, in Menama (Manyema), with Mohammed
Bin Gharib, during October or November, 1870, "helpless,
without means and with few followers."
Of the last thirty-four letters which Dr. Livingstone had
written to Great Britain before June, 1869, not one came to
hand. lie was, at that date, about to explore a lake which
lies westward of Tanganyika, in the Manyema country, in the
hope of connecting it with the Nile. A report reached Eng-
land at the end of 1870, that he was at Manakoso, waiting for
supplies, and unable to move.
The above is about all that was known concerning Dr.
Livingstone at the commencement of the year 1871, when the
Herald Expedition for his aid was in preparation at Zanzibar.
THE HERALD LIVINGSTONE EXPEDITION.
IN an age when philanthropic sentiments, through the
extension of Christianity and civilization, are on the.
increase, a fit occasion for their display is offered in the perils
of a bold and daring explorer, who, taking his life in his hand
and without hope of pecuniary reward, goes forth in the
service of Humanity and his Master. The life of such a
man is sacred and most valuable, and his death a great loss
to all the nations of the earth.
Dr. Livingstone was reported dead murdered in cold
blood on the shores of Lake Nyassa by a band of the Mazitus,
For a long time no letters had been received from him, and
nothing definite had been heard respecting him. Although
the report was somewhat indefinite, it was sufficient to sadden
the thoughts, to moisten the eye, and to send a pulsation
to the great heart of the civilized world.
Such an event was not at all improbable. Alone among
savages, who could at any moment sacrifice him as a victim
to their passions, among the wild beasts of the forests which
tracked his every footstep, in a country where fevers raged,
malignant diseases prevailed, and storms were most terrific,
how easily his life could have been taken and the shadow
of death fallen upon him, had he not been protected by
a wise and good Providence.
The world is governed by ideas, and Providence selects
fit occasions and men for their illustration. Although the
great mass of people believed that Livingstone had shared
326 THE HERALD EXPEDITION.
the fate of many other renowned explorers, and like Sir John
Franklin disappeared to be seen no more, there were some
who in the absence of material facts and positive testimony
thought otherwise. Among this latter class was James
Gordon Bennett Jr., manager of the New York Herald.
The intense, popular, and scientific interest in Livingstone's
fate and in the vexed problem of the sources of the Nile,
suggested to Mr. Bennett the grand idea, that the bounteous
means of a great newspaper might be worthily, and perhaps
advantageously employed, in the humanitarian, scientific, but