Josiah Tyler.

Livingstone lost and found online

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' rapiere au vent /' presently second thoughts suggested how
beautiful is peace, and thirdly, they begged so hard that I
was compelled to ransom for them the article purloined. I
had unwittingly incurred the animosity of Kannena. On the
day after his appearance in. rich clothing, he had entered un-
announced with bare head, a spear or two in hand, and a bun-
dle of wild-cats' skins by way of placket ; not being recog-
nized, he was turned out, and the ejectment mortally offended
his dignity."

The travelers, too, and many of their men, were taken sick
at Ujiji ; all energy seemed to have abandoned them. Bur-
ton lay for two weeks, " too blind to read or write except
with long intervals, too weak to ride, and too ill to converse."
Speke suffered from a painful opthalmia, and otherwise. Be-
ing determined to explore the northern part of the lake, they
finally shook off the lethargy, and Speke started on the 2d of
March, in a small boat with four of his men, to cross the lake
for the purpose of hiring from an Arab the only dhow, or
sailing craft, then in existence on the lake, in which they
might start on their explorations northward. Mr. Burton re-
mained behind, and thus speaks of his residence there:

" During my twenty-seven days of solitude the time sped
quickly ; it was chiefly spent in eating and drinking, smoking
and dozing Awaking at 2 or 3 A. M., I lay anxiously ex-
pecting the gray light creeping through the door-chinks and
making darkness visible ; the glad tidings of its approach were
announced by the cawing of the crows and the crowing of
the village cocks. "When the golden rays began to stream
over the red earth, the torpid Valentine was called up ; he


brought with him a mess of suji, or rice-flour boiled in water
with a little cold milk as a relish. Then entered Muhabanya,
armed with a leafy branch, to sweep the floor and to slay the
huge wasps that riddled the walls of the tenement. This
done he lit the fire. Ensued visits of ceremony from Said bin
Salim and the jemadar, who sat, stared, and, somewhat disap-
pointed at seeing no fresh symptoms of approaching dissolu-
tion, told me so with their faces, and went away.

" From T A. M. till 9 A. M., the breakfast hour, Valentine
was applied to tailoring, gun-cleaning, and similar light work,
over which he groaned and grumbled, while I settled down
to diaries and vocabularies, a process interrupted by sundry
pipes. Breakfast was again a mess of suji and milk such
civilized articles as tea, coffee, and sugar had been unknown
to me for months. Again the servants resumed their labor,
and they worked, with the interval of two hours for sleep at
noon, till 4 P. M. During this time the owner lay like a log
upon his cot, smoking almost uninterruptedly, dreaming of
things past, and visioning things present, and sometimes in-
dulging himself in a few lines of reading and writing. Din-
ner was an alternation of fish and fowl, game and butcher's
meat being rarely procurable at Ujiji.

" As evening approached I made an attempt to sit under
the broad eaves of the tembe, and to enjoy the delicious spec-
tacle of this virgin Nature and the reveries to which it gave

" A pleasing land of drowsihed it was,

Of dreams that wave before the half-shut eye,

And of gay castles in the clouds that pass,
Forever flushing round a summer sky."

" It reminded me of the loveliest glimpses of the Mediter-
ranean ; there were the same ' laughing tides,' pellucid sheets
of dark blue water borrowing their tints from the vinous
shores beyond ; the same purple light of youth upon the cheek
of the earlier evening, the same bright sunsets, with their ra-
diant vistas of crimson and gold opening like the portals of a
world beyond the skies ; the same short-lived grace and love-
liness of the twilight ; and, as night closed over the earth, the

378 L^E AT

same cool flood of transparent moonbeam pouring on the
tufty heights and bathing their sides with the whiteness of
virgin snow.

"At 7 P. M., as the last flush faded from the Occident, the
lamp a wick in a broken pot of palm-oilwas brought in ;
Said bin Salim appeared to give the^news of the day how A.
had abused B., and how C. had nearly been beaten by D., and
a brief conversation led to the hour of sleep. A dreary, dis-
mal day, you will exclaim, gentle reader ; a day that

" Lasts out a night in Russia,
Where days are longest there."

Yet it had its enjoyments. There were no post-offices, and
this African Eden had other advantages which, probably, I
might vainly attempt to describe.

" On the 29th of March, the rattling of matchlocks announc-
ed my companion's return. The masika had done its worst upon
him. I never saw a man so thoroughly moist and mildewed ;
he justified even the French phrase l wet to the bone.' His
paraphernalia were in a similar state ; his guns were grained
with rust, and his fire-proof powder-magazine had admitted
the monsoon-rain.

Captain Speke having returned without the dhow, Kannena,
the headman, who was preparing for a cruise on the lake,
was hired to convey the travelers and seven of their men on
a voyage up the lake. The expedition started from Ujiji on
the 12th of April 1858. There were two boats, paddled by
fifty-five Wajiji. Kannena also accompanied them.

" The Wajiji, and indeed all these races, never work silently
or regularly. The paddling is accompanied by a long monot-
onous melancholy howl, answered by the yells and shouts of
the chorus, and broken occasionally by a shrill scream of
delight from the boys which seems violently to excite the
adults. The bray and clang of the horns, shaums, and tom-
toms, blown and banged incessantly by one or more men in
the bow of each canoe, made worse by brazen-lunged imita-
tions of these instruments in the squeaking trebles of the
younger paddlers, lasts throughout the livelong day, except


when terror induces a general silence These " Wana Maji"
sons of water work in " spirts," applying lustily to the
task till the perspiration pours down their sooty persons.
Despite my remonstrances, they insisted upon splashing the
water in shovelfuls over the canoe. They make terribly long
faces, however, they tremble like dogs in a storm of sleet, and
they are ready to whimper when compelled by sickness or
accident to sit with me under the endless cold wave-bath in
the hold.

" After a few minutes of exertion, fatigued and worn, they
stop to quarrel, or they progress languidly till recruited for
another effort. When two boats are together they race
continually till a bump the signal for a general grin and
the difficulty of using the entangled paddles affords an excuse
for a little loitering, and for the loud chatter and violent
abuse, without which apparently this people can not hold con-
verse. At times they halt to eat, drink, and smoke : the
bhang-pipe is produced after every hour, and the paddles are
taken in while they indulge in the usual screaming convulsive
whooping-cough. They halt for their ow r n purposes but not
for ours."

On the 26th of April the two boats arrived at ITvira, the
most northern station to which merchants had then been

" Great rejoicings ushered in the end of our outward-bound
voyage. Crowds gathered on the shore to gaze at the new
merchants arriving at Uvira, with the usual concert, vocal and
instrumental, screams, shouts, and songs, shaums, horns, and
tom-toms. The captains of the two canoes performed with
the most solemn gravity a bear-like dance upon the mat-cov-
ered benches which form the ' quarter-decks,' extending their
arms, pirouetting upon both heels, and springing up and
squatting down till their hams touched the mats. The crews,
with a general grin which showed all their ivories, rattled
their paddles against the sides of their canoes in token of
greeting, a custom derived probably from the ceremonious


address of the lakists, which is performed by rapping their
elbows against their ribs."

The travelers pitched their tents on the sands, and made
preparation for exploring the head of the lake which extends
a few miles north of Uvira. They had been told at Ujiji, by
an Arab, that a river flowed out of the lake, and were greatly
disappointed when the three fine sons of the Sultan Maruta,
visited them, and declared unanimously that they had visited
the river, and that the Eusizi entered into and did not flow
out of Tanganyika.

Burton and Speke remained nine days at Uvira, and found
it impossible to proceed further north. " Majid and Bekkari,
the Arab agents of Said bin Majid, replied to the offer of an
exorbitant sum, that they would not undertake the task for
ten times that amount. The sons of Maruta had volunteered
their escort ; when I wanted to close with them, they drew
off. Kannena, when summoned to perform his promise, and
reminded of the hire that he had received, jumped up and
ran out of the tent ; afterward at Ujiji he declared that he
had been willing to go, but that his crews w r ere unanimous in
declining to risk their lives, which was perhaps true. Toward
the end of the halt I suffered so severely from ulceration of
the tongue that articulation was nearly impossible, and this
was a complete stopper to progress. It is a characteristic of
African travel that the explorer may be arrested at the very
bourne of his journey, on the very threshold of success, by a
single stage, as effectually as if all the waves of the Atlantic
or the sands of Arabia lay between."

The party started from Uvira on the 6th of May, and pro-
ceeded without adventure. On the 10th of May, at sunset,
they left Mzimu, an island, and two hours after sunset struck
out boldly towards the eastern shore of Tanganyika. Before
reaching the mid-channel they were overtaken by a terrific
storm of wind, rain, thunder and lightning ; the crew, though
blinded by the shower, and frightened by the gusts, worked
gallantly, some of them now and then exclaiming, " Oh, my
wife !" Bombay spent the whole wild night in saying remi-


niscences of prayers. At seven A. M., they landed safely on
the coast of Urundi. Here the travelers pitched their tents
and retired to sleep.

" I was suddenly aroused by Mabruki, who, rushing into
the tent, thrust my sword into my hands, and exclaimed that
the crews were scrambling into their boats. I went out and
found everything in dir6 confusion. The sailors, hurrying
here and there, were embarking their mats and cooking-pots,
some were in violent parley with Kannena, while a little knot
was carrying a man, mortally wounded, down to the waters
of the lake. I saw at once that the affair was dangerous. On
these occasions the Wajiji, whose first impulse is ever flight,
rush for safety to their boats, and push off, little heeding
whom or what they leave behind. We therefore hurried in
without delay.

" When both crews had embarked, and no enemy appeared,
Kannena persuaded them to reland, and, proving to them
their superior force, induced them to demand, at the arrow's
point, satisfaction of Kanoni, the chief, for the outrage com-
mitted by his subjects. During our sleep a drunken man
had rushed from the crowd of Warundi, and, knobstick in
hand, had commenced dealing blows in all directions. A
general melee ensued. Bombay, when struck, called to the
crews to arm. The Goanese, Valentine, being fear-crazed,
seized my pistol and probably fired it into the crowd ; at all
events, the cone struck one of our own men below the right
pap, and came out two inches to the right of the backbone.
Fortunately foi us he was a slave, otherwise the situation
would have been desperate. As it was, the crowd became
violently excited ; one man drew his dagger upon Valentine,
and with difficulty I dissuaded Kannena from killing him."

Kannena succeeded in obtaining from the sultan of the coun-
try, a small girl and a large sheep as a recompense for the trou-
ble occasioned by his drunken subject. The wounded man
died after reaching Ujiji, where the boats arrived on the 13th
of May.

The travelers joined a homeward bound caravan, and left


Ujiji on their return trip May 26th,. 1858 ; their departure
resembled a flight more than a peaceable expedition. " Kan-
nena," says Burton, " showed no pity to the homeless stran-
ger may the world show none to him !"

There was little novelty in the return march to Unyanyem-
be. The Rusigi River was forded on the 1st of June. At
the salt-pass, where a short halt was made to lay in a supply
of salt, several porters deserted. "The guide, who had
accompanied the expedition from the coast, remained behind,
because his newly -purchased slave girl had become foot-sore,
and unable to advance ; finding the case hopeless, he cut off
her head, lest of his evil, good might come to another. The
bull-headed Mabruki had invested his capital in a small ser-
vile, an infant phenomenon, who, apparently under six years,
trotted manfully alongside the porters, bearing his burden of
hide-bed and water-gourd upon his tiny shoulder. For some
days he was to his surly master as her first doll to a young
girl : when tired he was mounted upon the back, and after
crossing every swamp his feet were carefully wiped. When
the novelty, however, wore off, the little unfortunate was so
savagely beaten that I insisted upon his being committed to
the far less hard-hearted Bombay.

" The land in the higher levels was already drying up, the
vegetation had changed from green to yellow, and the strips
of grassy and tree-clad rock, buttressing the left bank of the
river, afforded those magnificent spectacles of conflagration
which have ever been favorite themes with the Indian muse :

" ' Silence profound

Enwraps the forest, save where bubbling springs
Gush from the rock, or where the echoing hills
Give back the tiger's roar, or where the boughs
Burst into crackling flame and wide extends
The blaze the dragon's fiery breath has kindled.' "

The travelers reached Kazeh on the 20th of June, and were
warmly welcomed by Snay bin Amir, and reinstated in their
old quarters.

On the 10th of July Captain Speke started from Kazeh on


an excursion northward to visit a sea or lake which the Arabs
said they had discovered. The trip was a very successful
one and resulted in the discovery, on the 30th of July, of
Victoria N'yanza. Speke rejoined Burton at Kazeh on the
25th of August, and on the 26th of September they started
for the coast.

At Hanga, Speke was dangerously ill, which occasioned a
halt of nine days.

On the third of November, the caravan issuing from Tura
plunged manfully into the Fiery Field, and after seven
marches in as many days, halted for breath and forage at
Jiwe la Mkoa, the Round Stone.

" The transit of Ugogo occupied three weeks, from the
14th of November to the 5th of December. In Ivanyenye
we were joined by a large down-caravan of Wanyamwezi,
carrying ivories ; the musket-shots which announced the con-
clusion of certain brotherly ties between the sons of Ramji
and the porters, sounded in my ears like minute-guns announc-
ing the decease of our hopes of a return to the coast via Kilwa.

" The morning of the 15th of December commenced with a
truly African scene. The men were hungry, and the air was
chill. They prepared, however, to start quietly betimes.
Suddenly a bit of rope was snatched, a sword flashed in the
air, a bow-horn quivered with nocked arrow, and the whole
caravan rushed frantically with a fearful row to arms. As no
one dissuaded the party from fighting it out,' they apparently
became friends, and took up their loads. My companion and
I rode quietly forward : scarcely, however, had we emerged
from the little basin in which the camp had been placed, than
a terrible hubbub of shouts and yells announced that the sec-
ond act had commenced. After a few minutes, Said bin
Salim came forward in trembling haste to announce that the
jemadar had again struck a pagazi, who, running into the
nullah, had thrown stones "with force enough to injure his
assailant, consequently that the Baloch had drawn their sabres
and had commenced a general massacre of porters.

"Well understanding this misrepresentation, we advanced


about a mile, and thence sent back two of the sons of Ramji
to declare that we would not be delayed, and that if not at
once followed, we would engage other porters at the nearest
village. This brought on a denouement : presently the com-
batants appeared, the Baloch in a high state of grievance, the
Africans declaring that they had not come to fight but to
carry. I persuaded them both to defer settling the business
till the evening, when both parties, well crammed with food,
listened complacently to that gross personal abuse, which, in
these lands, represents a reprimand."

Proceeding onward, the travelers reached Zumgomero on
the 29th of December, and remained there till January 21st.
Twelve marches brought them to the East Coast, at a place
a few miles southerly of Bagamoyo. " There was but little
of interest or adventure on this return line."

" On the 30th of January our natives of Zanzibar scream-
ed with delight at the sight of the mango-tree, and pointed
out to one another, as they appeared in succession, the old fa-
miliar fruits, jacks and pine-apples, limes and cocos. On the
2d of February we greeted, with doffed caps and three times
three and one more, as Britons will do on such occasions, the
kindly smiling face of our father Neptune, as he lay basking
in the sunbeams between earth and air. Finally, the 3d of
February, 1859, saw us winding through the poles decorated
with skulls a negro Temple-bar which pointed out the way
into the little maritime village of Konduchi.

" Our entrance was attended with the usual ceremony, now
familiar to the reader ; the warmen danced, shot, and shout-
ed, a rabble of adults, youths, and boys crowded upon us, the
fair sex lulliloo'd with vigor, and a general procession con-
ducted their strangers to the hut swept, cleaned, and garnish-
ed for us by old Premji, the principal Banyan of the head-
quarter village, and there stared and laughed till they could
stare and laugh no more."


MR. STANLEY arrived at Zanzibar on the 6th of January
1871, and after preparing for his journey as far as it
could be done on the island, he sailed over to Bagamoyo, a
distance of about twenty-five miles, where he completed his
outfit and final arrangements.

On the first day of April he started from Bagamoyo,
bringing up the rear of his caravan, portions of which had
been sent ahead, with orders to proceed to Unyanyembe as
fast as possible and there await the arrival of the balance of
the caravan.

Unyanyembe, the central and principal province of Unyam-
wezi, is the great bandari or meeting place of traders, going
from the Coast to Lake Tanganyika, and the point of depart-
ure for caravans, which thence radiate into the interior of
Central Intertropical Africa. Here it is customary for
travelers to take a long rest before resuming the journey, and
caravans are frequently delayed here from two to three

Between the two places are three or more well-worn cara-
van routes, which occasionally meet and again diverge. Mr.
Stanley's route, for a portion of the way, was a little north-
erly of that taken by Mr. Burton, and consequently some-
what shorter. Burton and Speke were one hundred and
thirty-four days in making the journey, but were delayed
come by sickness.

20 383


Kwihara, where tlie Stanley Expedition was quartered
during its stay at Unyanyembe, is a little settlement situated a
short distance from the larger village of Tabora. The follow-
ing narrative of the journey from Bagamoyo to Unyanyembe,
was written at Kwihara, July 4th, 1871, and forwarded to
the Herald.

" Your Expedition, sent out under me, has arrived in Unyan-
yembe. "Were you living at Zanzibar, or on the East African
coast, you would have a much better idea what the above few
words meant than you have now. You would know, with-
out any explanation, that it had traveled five hundred and
twenty-five and one-half miles, and if you heard that we had
traveled that great distance within eighty-two days & little
under three months you would at once know that we had
marched it in a very short time ; but since you and your
readers live in America, I must return to the Island of Zan-
zibar, close to the coast of East Africa, whence we started,
and give you a brief summary of the incidents and misfor-
tunes which befell us throughout the march.

The instructions which I received from you close on two
years ago, were given with the usual brevity of the Herald.
They were,

" Find out Livingstone, and get what news you can relating
to his discoveries."

But before seeking Livingstone in the unknown wilds of
Africa, I had other orders to fulfill which you had given me.
I had to be present at the inauguration of the Suez Canal ; I
had to ascend the Nile to the first cataract ; I had to write
full accounts of what I had seen and what was done a guide
to Lower and Upper Egypt.

From Egypt I was instructed to go to Jerusalem, write up
what "Warren was discovering under that famous city ; thence
I had to proceed to the Crimea, whence I was to send you
descriptions of Sebastopol as it stands to-day, of the grave-
yards in and about it, of the battle-fields where England and
France met Eussia in the shock of war. This done, I had to
travel through the Caucasus, visit Turkestan, find out what

Volcano Mt.Settima ^^? ; ;4"
Doenyomburo|ftj _ "'^luji-t' Keni

VICTORIA 1 Volcano



Stoletoff and the Russians were doing towards the conquest
of the Oxias Valley, and then advance towards India. Next
I had to travel through the length of Persia, and write about
the Euphrates Valley, the railroad that has been on the tapis
BO long, and its prospects.

Lastly, I had to sail to the African Coast, and, according as
circumstances guided me, seek out Livingstone, and ascertain
from him what discoveries he had made only such facts as
he would be pleased to give to one who had made such efforts
to reach him. Quickly and briefly as the instructions were
given by you, their performance required time, and a large
expenditure of money. What I have already accomplished
has required nineteen months.

I arrived at Zanzibar on the 6th of January of this year,
and at once set about making the necessary inquiries from
parties who ought to know about the whereabouts of Dr. Liv-
ingstone. The most that I could glean was, that he was in
the neighborhood of Ujiji, which was a little over nine hun-
dred miles from the coast. It would never do to return to
Bombay or Aden with such scanty and vague news, after the
time and money expended in reaching Zanzibar. Why, all
the world knew or supposed such to be the fact. "What was
I to do ? Go by all means, and never to return unless I could
better such information. Go I did.

It occupied me a month to purchase such things as were
necessary, and to organize an expedition to collect such infor-
mation as would be useful to me in the long march, and
would guide me in the new sphere in which I found myself.
The expense which you were incurring frightened me consid-
erably ; but then " obey orders if you break owners " is a
proverb among sailors, and one which I adopted. Besides, I
was too far from the telegraph to notify you of such an
expense, or to receive further orders from you ; the prepara-
tions for the expedition therefore went on. Eight thousand
dollars were expended in purchasing the cloth, beads, and
wire necessary in my dealings with the savages of the terri-
tories through which I would have to traverse. As each


tribe has its peculiar choice of cloth, beads, and wire, much
care was to be bestowed in the selection and arrangement of
these things ; also, one had to be careful that an over-great
quantity of any one kind of cloth or beads should not be pur-
chased, otherwise such things would soon become a mere
impediment of travel, and cause a waste of money. The
various kinds of beads required great time to learn, for the
women of Africa are as fastidious in their tastes for beads as
the women of New York are for jewelry. The measures
also had to be mastered, which, seeing that it was an entirely

Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 25 of 51)