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Josiah Tyler.

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new business in which I was engaged, were rather complicated,
and perplexed me considerably for a time.

These things having been purchased, arranged, and adjusted
in bales and packages, there remained for me to raise a small
company of faithful men, who should act as soldiers, guards
to the caravan, and servants when necessary. Some of Speke's
faithfuls and Burton's soldiers yet lived in Zanzibar. These
were found out by Johari, the American Consul's dragoman,
and, as they were willing to accompany me, were immediately
engaged. Bombay, the honestest of black men, who served
with Burton, and subsequently with Speke, was commissioned
captain, and ordered to collect a company of twenty men, in
which he succeeded most admirably. All these men are with
me to-day. I could not have been better served by any set
of men than I have by these faithful people. By twos and
threes I sent them out with the carriers as they were collected,
and entrusted to them my bales of cloth, bags of beads, and
coils of wire, which you must recollect are as gold, silver, and
copper money in Africa. Three months afterward I found
every bale, every bag of beads, every coil of wire, in Unyan-
yembe, five hundred and twenty-five and one-half miles from
Bagomoyo, their initial point on the African coast.

Arms were purchased for these men who were to be my
soldiers ; a musket, a hatchet, a knife, a shot pouch, and pow-
der flask, flints, bullets, and powder were to be served out to
each man. Then there were cooking utensils and dishes,
tents to cover the property during the rainy season, which



390 MAKING SADDLES DONKEYS.

was fast approaching, to be required. In order to guard
against such contingencies as might very possibly arise viz :
lack of carriers on the coast, one very grave one I was
obliged to purchase twenty-five donkeys, in which task I had
to be careful lest any worthless animals might be passed on
me. Twenty-five saddles for the donkeys had to be manu-
factured by myself, or by such men as could understand what
kind of saddles I needed, for there were nothing of the kind
obtainable at Zanzibar.

To assist me in such work, and in tasks of similar nature, I
hired two white men, sailors, who had been mates of ships
one an Englishman and the other a Scotchman and having
cut the canvas for the saddles, and cloth for the tents, gave to
these practical men the task to sew them up. After they had
finished their work I re-engaged them to accompany me to
Africa, to fill the respective duties of first and second mates.

As I had the success of the New York Herald Expedition
near and dear to my heart, constant thinking, about it, and
the contingencies that might arise to prevent its success, over
and over I had long sketched its march from the sea coast to
Ujiji, and knew almost as well as if I had been there before,
what kind of difficulties I should meet. The following is one
of my sketches made on board ship, while coming to Zanzi-
bar:

" One hundred pagazis will be required to convey cloth,
beads, and wire enough to keep me and my soldiers for one
year, and to pay expenses, such as hire of fresh pagazis, etc. ;
twenty men, to act as guards or soldiers ; fifty bales of cloth,
ten bags of beads, and five loads of wire, for food and pagazi
hire. In three months I will try to reach Unyanyembe.
Shall stop in Unyanyembe two weeks probably. From
Unyanyembe is one month's march to Ujiji, on the Tangan-
yika Lake. And after ! where is Livingstone ? If Living-
stone is at Ujiji my work is easy. I will get what informa-
tion I can, and return to Unyanyembe. The race is now for
the telegraph. It is three months to Zanzibar and from Zan-
zibar ; as I was three months coming to Zanzibar from Bom-



PLANS FOR THE JOURNEY. 393

bay, I may be three months going from Zanzibar to Bombay.
That will not do. "We will try another road. To Lake Yic-
toria N'Yanza from Unyanyembe is twenty-six days. By
boat to Uganda would be fifteen days. From Uganda to
Gondokoro twenty days. From Gondokoro by Dahabech
down the Nile to Cairo, forty or fifty days. I have then the
telegraph from Unyanyembe to Bombay from five to six
months, from Unyanyembe three to four months. The latter
route is the best by far.

"Again: I have reached Ujiji. "Where is Livingstone?
He may be in Marungu, Ubembe, Ugahha, Usige, Urundi, or
somewhere else on the other side of the Lake Tanganyika.
Shall I expose my mission, which requires speed, to the
caprice of a King Kanuena, or a Hamed Bin Sulayyam ? No !
I shall take my own boat from Zanzibar, carry it with me to
Ujiji, and with it search its coast from Ujiji to Marungu,
Marungu to Usige, Usige to Ujiji, for the long absent Living-
stone ; and the same boat shall carry me from Muanza, at the
southern extremity of the lake, to the Ripon Falls, the point
where the Nile issues out of the N'Yanza."

This was one of many sketches I made, and the one I
adopted for my guidance. I purchased two boats in Zanzi-
bar one twenty-five feet long arid six feet wide, the other
ten feet long and four and a half feet wide. I stripped them
of their boards, and packed up the timbers, or ribs, with a
few of the boards, keel, stem and stern pieces, thwarts and"
knees, which should be screwed together as the boat was;
required, and covered with double canvas skins well tarred.
These were my boats, and having such men as sailors with
me I doubted not but they could be made to answer. In the-
absence of anything better they must be made to answer.

Before leaving Zanzibar, Captain Francis R. "Webb, United!
States Consul, introduced me to Syed Barghash, Sultan of
Zanzibar and Pemba. After a very kind reception, besides
furnishing me with letters to Said Bin Salirn (formerly Ras
Cafilah to Burton,) now Governor of Unyanyembe, and
Sheikh Bin Nasib and to all his Arab subjects, he presented



394: DEPARTURE FROM ZANZIBAR.

me with an Arab horse. Mr. Goodhue, an American gentle-
man, residing at Zanzibar, also made me a present of a blood-
ed horse, imported from the Cape of Good Hope. To the
other American gentlemen Mr. Spalding, Mr. Morse and
Mr. Sparhawk I am indebted for many courtesies, but more
particularly to Captain Webb and Mrs. "Webb, whose many
.kindnesses were innumerable. It was at Captain Webb's
house I lived for a month, and during that time his for-
bearance knew no bounds; for, as you may imagine, I
Uttered his house with tons upon tons of bulky material of
cloth, beads, wire, tar, canvas, tents, utensils and a thousand
other things.

On the morning of the 5th of February, one month after
arriving at Zanzibar, a fleet of dhows bore the expedition and
its effects from the Island of Zanzibar to Bagomoyo, on the
main-land, distant about twenty-five miles from the island.
We were detained at Bagomoyo nearly two months for lack
of -sufficient pagazis ; but as fast as they were obtained a small
number was at once fitted out, and despatched to the interior
under guard of two or three soldiers. But despite the utmost
efforts and double prices which I paid in order to induce the
pagazis or carriers, the collecting together of over a hundred
men proceeded but slowly. The reason of this was, that the
cholera, which last year desolated Zanzibar and the coast, had
frightened the Wanyamuezi from coming to a place where
:they were almost certain to meet their fate. They were but
just recovering from the effects of, their fear, when the expe-
dition disembarked at Bagomoyo.

As I must employ the word pagazi often in this letter, I had
best explain what it means. A pagazi is a Wanyamuezi
word for " carrier " one who carries ivory or any other goods
on his shoulders. This useful person is the camel, the horse,
the mule, the ass, the train, the wagon, and the cart of East
and Central Africa. Without him Salem would not obtain
her ivory, Boston and New York their African ebony, their
frankincense, myrrh, and gum copal. He travels regions
where the camel .could not enter, and where the horse and



THE HALT AT BAGOMOYO. 395

the ass could not live. He carries the maximum weight of
seventy pounds on his shoulders from Bagomoyo to Unyan-
yembe, where he belongs, for which he charges from fifteen
doti to twenty -five doti of American sheeting or Indian calico,
dyed blue, called kam ki, mixed with other cloths, imported
from Muscat and Cutch, equal to from $7.50 to $12.50. He
is therefore very expensive to a traveler. For the carriage
of my goods I had to disburse nearly two thousand dollars'
worth of cloth.

The pagazi belongs to Unyamuezi (Land of the Moon), an
extensive country in Central Africa, in which TJnyanyembe,
the central depot of the Arabs, is situated, and which all car-
avans for the interior must reach, and where they must obtain
fresh relays of carriers before they can proceed further.. The
doti in which he is paid, and which is equivalent to his dollar,
measures four yards. A shukka is half a doti, or two yards.
The proprietor of a caravan purchases his cloth by the bale,
or gorah. A gorah of Merikani (a corrupted name for Amer-
ican sheeting), means a piece of Merikani of thirty yards, into
which they are folded up by the mills of Salem and Nashua,
N. H. The gorah, therefore, contains seven and a half doti,
or fifteen shukka.

During the two months we were halted at Bagomoyo there
was plenty of work for us. The eight thousand yards of
American sheeting which I had purchased, had to be made
into bales for the pagazis. A bale is a package of cloth
weighing not more than seventy pounds, wherein pieces of
American sheeting must be laid in layers alternately with
the cloths of India, Cutch, and Muscat ; so that if one bale or
two are lost, you do not lose too much of one thing, which
might by and by prove fatal to your enterprise. When the
cloths are thus laid in alternate layers, and the scale indicates
the maximum weight, a doti of cloth spread out receives
them, and after being tied or pinned over it neatly, it is then
bound as firmly as possible with coil rope, and pounded by
two men until the bail is, one solid roll, three and a half feet
long, a foot wide, and a foot deep. It is then taken and put



396 A HINT TO SUICIDES.

in a makanda, or a mat bag, until the pagazi coming for his
load and hire, cradles it in three long sticks arranged in a
fork to receive it, and binds the fork firmly on the bale, for
the purpose of protecting the bale from injury from rain,
moisture, and white ants, and for the convenience of lifting
it on his shoulder and stacking it when his day's march is
over. Beads are placed in long narrow bags of domestics,
and not more than sixty-two pounds are put into one bag, as
the bead load is not so flexible as the cloth bale. Wire is
conveyed in coils six coils generally considered a handsome
load averaging sixty pounds. It is arranged for carriage, in
three coils, at each end of a five-foot pole.

My life at Zanzibar I thought hard, but my 'two months at
Bagamoyo a convict at Sing Sing would not have envied. It
was work all day, thinking all night ; not an hour could I
call my own. It was a steady grind on body and brain, this
work of starting. I state with truth, now resting at Unyan-
yembe, after the fatigues of the long march, after the dangers
and vexations we have suffered, that I would prefer the three
months' march, with all its horrors, anxieties, swamps, and
fevers, to the two months' preparation for the expedition I
had at Bagamoyo. The greatest trouble of all that I endured
at Bagamoyo I am sure you will smile at the thought was
with my agent, who obtained me my pagazis, without whom
I could not have started even to this day probably never ; for
had I stayed so long, I would have thrown up the job as
impracticable, and would have committed suicide by putting
my head in a barrel of sand, which I imagine to be a most easy
death, and one I gratuitously recommend to all would-be sui-
cides. Smile now, please, when I tell you that his name was
Soor Hadji Palloo, and his age nineteen.

During my whole stay at Bagamoyo, this young lad gave
me more trouble than all the scoundrelism of the city of New
York gives to its Chief of Police. Half a dozen times a day
I found him in dishonesty, yet the boy was in no way abashed
by it ; otherwise there had been hopes for him. Each day
he conceived a new system of roguery. Every instant of his



A YOUNG RASCAL. 397

time seemed to be devoted to devising how to plunder me,
until I was at my wits' end how to thwart or check him.
Exposure before the people brought no shame to his cheeks.
A mere shrug of the shoulders, which I was to interpret any
way I pleased, was the only proof he gave that he heard me.
A threat to reduce his present had no effect on him " a bird
in the hand was worth two in the bush ;" so ten dollars
worth of goods stolen from me was worth the promise of
twenty dollars when his work should be finished. Several
times a day the young Hindoo dog escaped a thrashing,
because I knew his equal for collecting pagazis was not to be
found. Will you believe it, that after the most incompar-
able rascality, at the end of two months he had escaped a
flogging and received a present of money for his services ?
The reason was, at last he had released me from torment, and
I was free to go.

The convict free to go after a protracted imprisonment
the condemned man on the scaffold, with the awful cord dang-
ling before his eyes, the executioners of the dread sentence
of the law ready to perform their duties, when told he was at
liberty to depart, could not feel keener pleasure than I felt
when my business was concluded with Soor Hadji Palloo, and
I felt myself at liberty to depart on my mission. Five cara-
vans had already been dispatched four under the protection
of soldiers, the fifth under the Scotchman who acted as my
first mate. The sixth and last was to be led by myself. .

Burton and Speke arrived at Zanzibar in 1857, in January
the same month that I, fourteen years later, had arrived.
But as the masika, or rainy season, which lasts for forty days,
was then drawing near, they preferred to wait on the coast,
and defer their departure until after the masika. It was not
until the 16th of June that they left Zanzibar for Kaole (three
miles below Bagomoyo), and not until the 27th of the same
month that they made the great start, the pagazis, soldiers, and
donkeys having been collected for them by Ladha Danyee,
the most influential man in Zanzibar, second only to the Sul-
tan of the island. But my mission was one that required



398 THE CARAVAN ON THE MARCH.

speed ; any delay would render it valueless ; immediate depart-
ure was essential to success departure from the coast after
which my movements would depend, in a great measure, on
my own energy. Forty days' rain, and a two hundred mile
swamp, must not prevent the New York Herald correspondent
from marching, now that the caravan is ready.

On Saturday, the 1st of April, exactly eighty-three days
after arrival at Zanzibar, the sixth caravan, led by myself,
left the town of Bagomoyo for our first journey westward,
with " Forward" for its mot de guet, and the American flag
borne aloft by the Kirangozi, or guide of the caravan. As it
defiled out of the town, we bid a long farewell to the dolce
far nwnte of civilization, to the blue sea and its open road to
home, and to the hundreds of dusky spectators, who were
gathered to witness our departure with repeated salvos of
musketry.

The caravan which I led consisted of ten pagazis, carrying
the boats; nine soldiers, under Captain Bombay, in charge
of seventeen donkeys and their loads ; Selim, my boy inter-
preter ; a Christian Arab from Jerusalem, who had been with
me through Persia ; one cook and sub from Malabar, and
Shaw, the English sailor, now transformed into a rear guard
and overseer, mounted on a good riding donkey ; one dog
from Bombay, called Omar, from his Turkish origin, who
was to guard my tent at night, and bark at insolent Wagogo,
if not to bite their legs a thing he is very likely to do and,
lastly, myself, mounted on the splendid bay horse given me
by Mr. Goodhue, the mtongi leader, the thinker, and reporter
of the expedition.

Altogether, the expedition numbers three white men, twen-
ty-two soldiers, four supernumeraires, with transport train of
eighty-two pagazis, twenty-seven donkeys and two horses,
conveying fifty-two bales of cloth, seven man-loads of wire,
sixteen man-loads of beads, twenty loads of boat fixtures,
three loads of tents, four loads of clothes and personal bag-
gage, two loads of cooking utensils and dishes, one load of
medicines, three of powder, five of bullets, small shot, and



FAREWELL TO BAGOMOYO. 399

metallic cartridges ; three of instruments and small necessaries,
such as soap, sugar, tea, coffee, Liebig's extract of meat, pem-
mican, candles, etc., which make a total of one hundred and
sixteen loads equal to eight and a half tons of material.

The weapons of defence which the expedition possesses
consist of one double-barrelled smooth bore No. 12, two
American Winchester rifles or " sixteen shooters," two Starr's
breech-loading carbines, one Jocelyn breech-loader, one
elephant rifle, carrying balls eight to the pound ; two breech-
loading revolvers, twenty-four flint-lock muskets, six single-
barrelled pistols, one battle-axe, two swords, two daggers, one
boar spear, two American axes, twenty-four hatchets, and
twenty-four long knives.

The expedition has been fitted up with care ; whatever was
needed for its success was not stinted ; everything was pro-
vided ; nothing was done too hurriedly, yet everything was
purchased, collected, manufactured, and compounded, with
the utmost despatch consistent with efficiency and means.
Should it fail of success in its errand, of rapid marching to
Ujiji and back, it must simply happen from an accident which
could not be controlled. So much for the personnel of the
expedition and its purpose.

We left Bagomoyo, the attraction of all the curious, with
noisy eclat, and defiled up a narrow lane, shaded to twilight
by the dense umbrage of two parallel hedges of murlosas.
We were all in the highest spirits the soldiers sang extem-
pore, the Kirangozi lifted his voice into a loud, bellowing
note, and fluttered the American flag, which told all on-look-
ers, " Lo, a musungre's (white man) caravan," and my heart,
I thought, palpitated much too quickly for the sobriety of a
leader. But I could not help it. The enthusiasm of youth
still clung to me despite my traveled years, my pulses bounded
with the full glow of staple health ; behind me were the
troubles which had harassed me for over two months ; with
Soor Hadji Palloo I had said my last word ; with the blatant
rabble of Banyans, Arabs, and Beloochees, I had taken my
last look, and before me beamed the sun of promise as he



400 THE CAMP AT NIGHT.

sped toward the Occident. Loveliness glowed around me as
I looked at the fertile fields of maiiioc, the riant vegetation
of the tropics, the beautiful, strange trees and flowers, plants,
and herbs, and heard the cry of pee-wit and cricket, and the
noisy sibilance of many insects ; methought each and all whis-
pered to me, " At last you are started." At such a time what
more appropriate could I do than lift up my face toward the
pure, glassy dome of heaven, and cry u God be thanked !"

We camped that night on the banks of the Kingani, our
dreams being sadly disturbed by the sportive hippopotami,
which emerged at night for their nocturnal feed on the tall,
high grass that grows on the savannahs to the westward of
the Kingani River.

" Sofari, Sofari, leo a journey, a journey to-day," shouted
the Kirangozi, as he prepared to blow his kudu horn the
usual signal for a march.

" Set out, set out," rang the cheery voice of Captain Bom-
bay, echoed by that of my drum major, servant, general help,
and interpreter, Selim. As I hurried my men to their work,
lent a hand with energy to drop the tents, I mentally resolved
that if my caravans ahead gave me clear room for travel, I
should be in Unyanyembe before that day three months. By
six o'clock A. M. our early breakfast was despatched, and the
pagazis and donkeys were en route for Kikoka. Even at this
early hour there were quite a collection of curious natives, to
whom we gave the parting " quahary " with sincerity. My
bay horse was found to be invaluable for the service of a
quartermaster of a transport train, for as such was I compelled
to compare myself. I could stay behind until the last strag-
gler had left the camp, and by a few moments' gallop, put
myself at the head of the caravan, leaving the white man,
Shaw, to bring up in the rear.

The road, as it is, throughout Africa, was a mere footpath,
leading over a sandy soil of surprising fertility producing
grain a hundred fold, though the sowing of it might be done
in the most unskillful manner. In their fields, at heedless
labor, were men and women in the scantiest costumes, com-




STANLEY AS AN EXPLORER



CLOTHELESS MEN AND WOMEN. 403

pared to which the fig-leaf apparel of our first parents must
have been en grande tenue. Nor were they at all abashed
by the devouring gaze of men who were strangers to clothe-
less living men and women ; nor did they seem to understand
why their inordinate curiosity should be returned with more
than interest. They left their work as the Wasungu drew near
such hybrids were they in white flannels, solar topees, and
horse boots ! But were the Wasungu desirous of studying
the principles of comparative anatomy and physiology, what
a rich field for study ! We passed them with serious faces
enough, while they giggled and laughed outright, pointing
with their index fingers at this or that thing in our dress
which to them seemed so strange and bizarre.

The western side of the Kingani was a considerable improve-
ment upon the eastern. "We were traveling over a forest-clad
and jungly plain, which heaved upward as smoothly as the
beach of a watering place, culminating at intervals in rounded
ridges, whence fair views might be obtained of the new and
strange land. The scenery was as beautiful as that which
many an English nobleman is proud to call his " park." On
the whole, it was lawn and sward, with boscage sufficient to
agreeably diversify it.

Passing Kikoka, we traversed on the next day, a young
forest of ebony trees, where guinea fowl were seen, besides
pigeons, jays, ibis sacra, golden pheasants, quails, moorhens,
florican, hawks, eagles, and now and then a solitary pelican
winged its way to the distance. As we advanced further into
the interior, antelopes bounded away to our right and left,
the steinbok and noble kudu fled in terror, giraffes rushed
away from us like moving forests, and zebra galloped frantic
toward the far horizon at the sound of the strange noises which
the caravan made.

By Sunday, the 23d of April, we had traveled one hundred
and twenty-five miles, and had reached Simbawenni, situated
in longitude 3Y 42' east, latitude 6 20' south. We had
experienced no trouble on the road up to this place. The
country was like that above described park-like abounding



404 AN AFRICAN SULTANA DEMANDS TRIBUTE.

in large and noble game. Not until we had left Siinbawenni
did we experience any trouble.''

The first which we experienced was from the Sultana of
Simbawenni, in Usagre, which we found to be a large and
well built town, fortified by four towers and a stone wall,
having considerable pretensions to architectural skill. The
Sultana sent her ambassadors to demand tribute from me. I
refused to pay, though she possessed three hundred muskets
and five hundred slaves, on the ground that as my caravans
had paid already, I was exempted from it according to her
custom. The ambassadors retired with a " Ngema " very
well.

Soon after passing the town we arrived at Simbo Khombi,
and here I was compelled to order my cook to be flogged for
his incorrigible dishonesty and waste. Upon leaving Simbo
for the wilderness and swamp of Makata, I was made aware
that the cook had deserted. I despatched three soldiers in
pursuit, who, in the ardor of following his tracks, fell into
the hands of the Sultana of Simbawenni, who robbed them
of their guns and put them in chains. Some Arabs happen-
ing to see them in this condition, and knowing they were
my men, made haste to inform the Sultana that she did not
know what white people were capable of doing if they were
angered ; that I had guns with me that would kill her in her
house at the distance of half a mile. This extraordinary
announcement caused her to mitigate her anger against me,



Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 26 of 51)