and to release my soldiers, returning one gun and retaining
two, as just and equitable tribute. The cook was afterward
reported to me to be murdered.
From Simbo to Rebenneko in Usagre, extends the terrible
Makata Swamp, a distance of twenty-five miles. It is knee
deep of water and black mire, and for five days we marched
through this cataclysm. From here commenced the list of
calamities which afterwards overtook me. First, the white
man, Shaw, caught the terrible fever of East Africa, then the
Arab boy, Selim, then myself, then the soldiers, one by one,
and small pox and dysentery raged among us. As soon as I
IN DISTRESS A MISERABLE PLIGHT. 405
had recovered from the effects of the fever, I was attacked
with dysentery, which brought me to the verge of the grave.
Prom a stout and fleshy person, weighing one hundred and
seventy pounds, I was reduced to a skeleton, a mere frame
of bone and skin, weighing one hundred and thirty pounds.
Two pagazis fell victims to this dysentery. Even the dog,
" Omar," was attacked by it, and presently died.
At Rebenneko we experienced the last of the rainy season.
It had rained almost every day since we had left Bagomoyo,
but until we had arrived at the verge of the Makata Swamp,
we did not experience much inconvenience from it.
Two days beyond Rebenneko we caught up with the fourth
caravan, which had been sent out under the leadership of the
Scotchman. I found the white man in a most miserable
plight. All the donkeys numbering nine that I had sent
out with him were dead, and he was attacked by dropsy, or
elephantiasis a disease of which he has since died. He had
wasted upward of six bales of cloth, five of which had been
entrusted to him to convey to Unyanyembe. An Arab pro-
prietor would have slaughtered him for his extravagance and
imbecility ; but I I had no other course but to relieve him
of all charge of such goods. Had I not foreseen some such
mismanagement, and provided plenty of cloth against such
loss, I should have been compelled to return to the coast for
more bales to replace them.
By the 24th of May we had traveled two hundred and'
seventy-eight miles, and had entered the dangerous land of
the Wagogo. We had passed through the territories of the
Wakami, Wakwere, Wadoe, Wasegura, Wasagara,, and
"Wahehe. We had crossed the rivers Kingani, Ungerengori,
Little Makata, Great Makata, Rudewa, and Mukondokwa.
We had discovered the sources of the Kingani, Wami, and
Mukondokwa rivers, and the Lake of Ugombo, three miles
long by two and one-half miles wide. Our losses up to thia-
date were seventeen donkeys dead, one coil of wire stolen..,
one tent eaten up by white ants, one tent lost; also one axef
one pistol, twenty pounds of bullets, and Captain! Bombay's-
406 IN THE MAKATA SWAMP WAGOGO LAND.
stock of uniform clothes, all of which losses I ascribe to the
fatigues experienced during the transit of the Makata Swamp.
Three pagazis had deserted, two were dead ; also, one white
man and two natives of Malabar had died. The two horses
died on the third day after leaving Bagomoyo so fatal is
this land to both men and animals.
In entering Ugogo we were entering a new land, to
.meet with different dangers, different accidents from those
\we had now left behind us. We had ascended a plateau three
rthousand seven hundred to four thousand two hundred feet
.above the level of the sea ; the extraordinary fertility and
Drivers of the maritime region we should not see in Ugogo,
.but a bare and sterile plateau, though cultivated by the
The Wagogo are the Irish of Africa clanish and full of
fight. To the Wagogo all caravans must pay tribute, the
refusal of which is met by an immediate declaration of hostil-
ities. The tribute which I alone paid to these people,
.amounted to one hundred and seventy dot! (one hundred and
seventy dollars in gold), for the mere privilege of traveling
through their country to tlnyanyembe beyond.
On the thirtieth day after entering Ugogo we arrived in
"Unyanyembe, at the Arab village of Kwihara so called from
the plain of Kwihara, in which it is situated. The march of
this last month had been very rapid, we having traveled two
hundred and forty-seven and one-half miles, while the pre-
vious march of two hundred and seventy-eight miles, viz.,
from Bagomoyo to Ugogo, had occupied fifty-four days.
Altogether we had traveled five hundred and twenty -five and
one-half miles in eighty-four days, including halts, which
makes our rate of marching per day six and a quarter miles.
Burton and Speke traveled the same distance, from Kaole
to Unyanyembe, in one hundred and thirty-four days, which
is .at the rate of three and one-sixth miles per day. You must
not imagine that I am stating this in order to make an in vid-
ious comparison, but simply to show you how expeditiously
we have traveled. The Arabs travel the distance in from two
RUMORS OF LIVINGSTONE" VERY FAT." 407
months and twelve days to four months. On the second
visit of Speke with Grant to Unyanyembe, he made the march
in one hundred and fifteen days.
I shall here proceed to relate what I have heard of Living-
On the 12th of April I met at Moussoudi, on the Ungeren-
geri River, four marches from Senibawenni, Salini bin
Rasheed, who gave me the following intelligence concerning
" I saw the musungu, who came up from the Nyassa a long
time ago, at Ujiji last year. He lived in the next tembe to
me. He has a long white mustache and beard, and was very
fat. He was then about going to Marungu and TJniema."
On the 18th of May, Sheikh Abdullah bin Wasib found
me encamped at Mpwapwa, and gave me the following :
" The musungu (white man) has gone to Maniema, a month's
march from Ujiji. He has met with a bad accident, having
shot himself in the thigh while out hunting buffalo. When
he gets well he will return to Ujiji. There are many lakes
on the other side of the Tanganyika. Lake Ujiji is very
great ; Lake Uruwa is also great, Lake Bangucolo is great,
but Lake Maniema is great, exceedingly great."
At Kusuri, in Mgunda Mkhali, or the land of the Wayanzi,
on the 13th of June, I met Sheikh Thani bin Massoud, who
imparted the following :
" You are asking me about the musungu w r hom people call
' Dochter Fellusteen ' (Dr. Livingstone) ?"
" I lived near him about three months at Ujiji. His men
have all deserted him, except three slaves, whom he was
obliged to buy."
" He used to beat his men very hard, if they did not do
instantly what he told them. At last they all ran away ; no
one would stop with him. He had nothing with him, no
cloth nor beads, to buy food for a long time ; so he had to
go out and hunt buffalo every day. He is a very old man,
408 STANLEY'S PROMISE.
and very fat, too ; has a long white beard. He is a great
eater, Mashallah 1 lie would eat a pot of ghee and a big plate-
ful of rice three or four times a day. Mashallah ! but do you
see this thing (pointing to a tea saucer) ?"
" Well he would eat that full of butter, with a pot-full of
On the 16th of Juno I met Hassan, a Balooch soldier of
Sheikh Said bin Salim, of Unyanyembe, who gave news
about Livingstone to this effect :
" He is a very old man, with a beard nearly white. His
left shoulder is out of joint from a fight he had with a suriba
(lion). He has gone to Maniema with some Arabs. Maniema
is three months' march from Ujiji. He is about returning to
Ujiji soon, owing to a letter he received from the ' Balyuz '
(Consul). They say that although he has been out here so
long he has done nothing. He has fifteen bales of cloth at
Unyanyembe, not yet sent to him."
At this place I have received the following additional infor-
" He is on the road to TJiiii from Lake Maniema, which
is west of Ugubba. The lake is fifteen camps from the
Tanganyika, in a south-southwest direction."
With me are going to Ujiji, for him, fifteen loads of cloth,
eight loads of beads, and twelve boxes, containing wine, provis-
ions such as sugar, tea, salt, pepper, spices, and such little lux-
uries besides clothes, books, and newspapers. If at Ujiji in
one month more I shall see him, the race for home shall begin.
Until I hear more of him, or see the long absent old man face
to face, I bid you farewell ; but wherever he is, be sure I
shall not give up the chase. If alive, you shall hear what he
has to say ; if dead, I will find and bring his bones to you.
THE WAK IN UNYANYEMBE.
TTNYAMWEZI, Country of the Moon, must have once
U been one of the largest kingdoms of Africa ; but instead
of being united, it is now cut up into petty states, the results
of quarrels and wars. The largest and most central district
is Unyanyembe, which has a native ruler called a sultan, and
also a governor of the Arab colony there located.
The central position and comparative safety of Unyan-
yembe have made it the head-quarters of the Omani, or pure
Arabs, who in many cases live here for years, while their
slaves and agents penetrate the interior.
This part of Unyanyembe was first colonized about 1852,
when the Arabs who had been settled for nearly ten years at
Kegandu, a long day's march northward from Tabora, were
induced by the African ruler of the district to aid them
against Msimbira, a rival chief.
The Arabs, after five or six days of skirmishing, were upon
the point of carrying the palisade of Msimbira, when sudden-
ly at night their slaves, tired of eating beef and raw ground-
nuts, secretly deserted to a man. The masters awaking in the
morning found themselves alone, and made up their minds
for annihilation. Fortunately for them, the enemy, suspect-
ing an ambuscade, remained behind their walls, and allowed
the merchants opportunity to withdraw to central Unyan-
yembe, where they located themselves.
In such a country and surrounded by such people, wars and
4:10 WARS IN UXYAXYEMBE.
rumors of wars are no novelty to the Arabs of Unyanyembe.
They are frequently involved in the quarrels between the na-
tive tribes around them, and sometimes badly defeated. When
Speke visited Unyanyembe in 1861, the Arabs were at war
with Sera, a young Wanyamuezi chief, who had attempted to
The Arabs had an army of four hundred slaves ready to
take the field against Sera when Speke arrived, and he
endeavored unsuccessfully to effect a reconciliation between
them, as Sera's father who was dead, had been his friend.
The quarrel, however, went on. The Tura people who
had sheltered Sera, were attacked by the Arabs, shot and
murdered and their district plundered ; a report that Sera
was about to attack Tabora, recalled the Arabs and set the
place in a blaze of excitement. Much fighting ensued, and
when Speke left the neighborhood the Arabs were boasting
that if Sera " ran to the top of the highest mountain or down
into hell, they would follow him and put him to death."
It is not strange therefore that Mr. Stanley soon after his
arrival at Unyanyembe, found himself in the midst of a war
between the Arabs and a native chief. He had intended to
remain at this place only long enough to rest his men and
obtain such supplies as would be necessary on his journey to
TJjiji on Lake Tanganyika, where he expected to find Living-
stone or obtain news of him.
The Expedition up to its arrival at Unyanyembe, had
suffered considerably in its personnel and transport. Mr.
Farquhar, the Scotchman, was dead ; two of the armed escort
and eight of the porters had also died from dysentery and
small-pox. Two horses and twenty seven donkeys had either
died or strayed away. As a consequence a considerable
quantity of the goods were either lost or wasted ; but the
rolls of cloth, beads and wire had been as far as possible pre-
served, they being the only money current in Central Africa.
Early in July, every thing was prepared for a start, but
before long it .was found that almost insuperable difficulties
were interposed. The country there is composed of thick
MIRAMBO'S THREATS. 411
jungle, with large clearings for the cultivation of holcns.
The utmost alarm and excitement were spread through the
native villages at the expectation of a war. The inhabitants
were shy of intercourse, and it was with great difficulty that
supplies could be obtained. A little further on, the villages
on either side of the track were found to be filled with Arab
caravans, afraid to advance and gathered together for security
the cause of all this alarm was soon discovered.
Mirambo, king of Uyoweh, in western Unyamwezi, had
been levying black-mail to an unconscionable amount, upon all
caravans bound westward to Ujiji, the lake and the regions
lying beyond ; to Urundi, to Karague, Uganda and ITnyoro.
The road to these countries led through his country a serious
misfortune not only to the expedition but to all caravans
bound anywhere westward. About the time the expedition
arrived, Mirambo capped his arbitrary course by taking from a
caravan five bales of cloth, five guns and five kegs of powder,
and then refusing it permission to pass, declaring that none
should do so except over his body.
The cause of Mirambo's conduct was this : Having an old
grudge against Mkasiwa, sultan of Unyanyembe with whom
the Arabs were living on extremely friendly terms Mirambo
proposed to the Arabs that they should join with him in a
campaign against Mkasiwa. The Arabs refused to do this, as
Mkasiwa was their friend with whom they were living on
peaceable terms. Mirambo then sent a message to them as
" For many years I have fought against "Washeuse (the
natives), but this year is a great year with me. I intend to
fight all the Arabs, as well as Mkasiwa, King of Unyan-
This of course led to a declaration of war on the part of
Arabs, who were so confident of easy victory over the Afri-
can Sultan, declaring that fifteen days at the most would suf-
fice to settle him, that Stanley was tempted in an unlucky
moment, to promise them his aid, hoping that by this means,
he would be enabled to reach Livingstone sooner than by
412 STANLEY JOINS THE ARABS.
stopping at Unyanyembe, awaiting the tnra of events.
Mirambo was twenty-seven hours march from Unyanyembe.
The Arabs appeared to anticipate a speedy victor}-, and
preparations for a jungle fight were accordingly made. The
ammunition was looked to, muskets inspected, and matchlocks
cleaned. The superior armament of the Herald Expedition
made their assistance a matter of great importance to the
An address was delivered to the members of the expedi-
tion through Selim, the interpreter, and the forces, with the
American flag flying, were marshalled by Captain Seedy
At daybreak on the day following, according to previous
arrangement, the armed men were divided into three parties.
The van-guard for attack, the rear guard as immediate reserve,
and the remainder, consisting of the less active, were stationed
with the impedimenta and slaves in the kraals. Mr. Stanley
gives the incidents of the campaign as follows :
"On the 20th of July, a force of two thousand men, the
slaves and soldiers of the Arabs, marched from Unyanyembe
to fight Mirambo. The soldiers of the Herald Expedition to
the number of forty, under my leadership, accompanied
them. Of the Arabs' mode of fighting I was totally igno-
rant, but I intended to be governed by circumstances. We
made a most imposing show, as you may imagine. Every
slave and soldier was decorated with a crown of feathers,
and had a lengthy crimson cloak flowing from his shoulders
and trailing on the ground. Each was armed with either a
flintlock or percussion gun the Baloches with matchlocks,
profusely decorated with silver bands.
Our progress was noisy in the extreme as if noise would
avail much in the expected battle. While traversing the
Unyanyembe plains the column was very irregular, owing to
the extravagant show of wild fight which they indulged in as
we advanced. On the second day we arrived at Mfuto, where
we all feasted on meat freely slaughtered for the braves.
Here I was attacked with a severe fever, but as the army
THE FIGHT WITII MIRAMBO. 413
was for advancing I had myself carried in my hammock,
almost delirious. On tl*e fourth day we arrived at the vil-
lage of Zimbizo, which was taken without much trouble.
"We had arrived in the enemy's country. I was still suffer-
ing from fever, and while conscious had given strict orders
that unless all the Arabs went together none of my men
should go to fight with any small detachment.
On the morning of the fifth day a small detachment went
out to reconnoitre, and while out captured a spy, who was
thrown on the ground and had his head cut off immediately.
Growing valiant over this little feat, a body of Arabs under
Soud, son of Said bin Majio, volunteered to go and capture
Wilyankuru, where Mirambo was just then with several of
his principal chiefs. They were five hundred in number
and very ardent for the fight. I had suggested to the Gov-
ernor, Said bin Salirn, that Soud bin Said, the leader of the
five hundred volunteers, should deploy his men and fire the
long dry grass before they went, that they might rout all
the forest thieves out and have a clean field for action. But
an Arab will never take advice, and they marched out of
Zimbizo without having taken this precaution. They arrived
before "Wilyankuru, and after firing a few r volleys into the
village, rushed in at the gate and entered the village.
"While they entered by one gate Mirambo took four hun-
dred of his men out by another gate, and instructed them to
lie down close to the road that led from Wilyankuru to
Zimbizo, and when the Arabs would return to get up at a
given signal, and each to stab his man. The Arabs found a
good deal of ivory and captured a large number of slaves,
and, having loaded themselves with everything they thought
valuable, prepared to return by the same road they had
gone. When they had arrived opposite to where the
ambush party was lying on each side the road, Mirambo
gave the signal, and the forest thieves rose as one man.
Each taking hold of his man speared him and cut off his
Not an Arab escaped, but some of their slaves managed to
414 A PANIC-STANLEY DESERTED
escape and bring the news to us at Zimbizo. There was
great consternation at Zimbizo wtyen the news was brought,
and some of the principal Arabs were loud for a retreat,
but Khamis bin Abdallah and myself did our utmost to
prevent a disgraceful retreat Next morning, however, when
again incapacitated by fever from moving about, the Gov-
ernor came and told me the Arabs were going to leave for
Unyanyembe. I advised him not to think of such a thing,
as Mirambo would then follow them to Unyanyembe and
fio-ht them at their own doors. As he retired I could hear a
great noise outside. The Arabs and Wanyamwezi auxiliaries
were already running away, and the Governor, without say-
ing another word, mounted his donkey and put himself at
their head, and was the first to reach the strong village of
Mfuto, having accomplished a nine hours' march in four
hours, which shows how fast a man can travel when in a
One of my men came to tell me there was not one soldier
left ; they had all run away. With difficulty I got up, and I
then saw the dangerous position I had placed myself in
through my faith in Arab chivalry and bravery. I was
deserted except by one Khamis bin Abdallah, and he was
going. I saw one of my soldiers leaving without taking my
tent, which lay on the ground. Seizing a pistol, I aimed it
at him and compelled him to take up the tent. The white
man, Shaw, as well as Bombay, had lost their heads. Shaw
had saddled his donkey with my saddle and was about leav-
ing his chief to the tender mercies of Mirambo, when Selim,
the Arab boy, sprung on him, and, pushing him aside, took
the saddle off, and told Bombay to saddle my donkey.
Bombay I believe would have stood by me, as well as
three or four others, but he was incapable of collecting his
senses. He was seen viewing the flight of the Arabs with an
angelic smile, and with an insouciance of manner which can
only be accounted for by the charitable supposition that his
senses had entirely gone. "With bitter feelings toward the
Arabs for having deserted me, I gave the order to march,
MIRAMBO INVADES UNYANYEMBE. 415
and in company with Selim, the brave Arab boy ; Shaw, who
was now penitent; Bombay, who had now regained his wits;
Inabraki, Speke, Chanda, Sarmeen and Uredi Manu-a-Sera,
arrived at Mf uto at midnight. Tour of my men had been
slain by Mirambo's men.
The next day was but a continuation of the retreat to
Unyanyembe with the Arabs ; but I ordered a halt, and on
the third day went on leisurely. The Arabs had become
demoralized; in their hurry they had left their tents and
ammunition for Mirambo.
Ten days after this, what I had forewarned the Arabs
of, came to pass. Mirambo, with one thousand guns, and
one thousand and five hundred Watulas, his allies, invaded
Unyanyembe, and pitched their camp insolently within view
of the Arab capital of Tabora. Tabora is a large collection
of Arab settlements, or tembes, as they are called here.
Each Arab house is isolated by the fence which surrounds it.
Not one is more than two hundred yards off from the other,
and each has its own name, known, however, to but a few
outsiders. Thus the house of Amram bin Mousoud is called
by him the " Two Seas," yet to outsiders it is only known as
the " tembe of Amram bin Mousoud," in Tabora, and the
name of Kaze, by which Burton and Speke have designated
Tabora, may have sprung from the name of the enclosed
grounds and settlement wherein they were quartered. South
by west from Tabora, at the distance of a mile and a half,
and in view of Tabora, is Kwihara, where the Herald expedi-
tion has its quarters. Kwihara is a Kinyamwezi word, mean-
ing the middle of the cultivation. There is quite a large
settlement of Arabs here second only to Tabora.
But it was Tabora and not Kwihara that Mirambo, his for-
est thieves and the Watula came to attack. Khamis bin
Abdallah, the bravest Trojan of them all of all the Arabs
went out to meet Mirambo with eighty armed slaves and five
Arabs, one of whom was his little son, Khamis. As Khamia
bin Abdallah's party came in sight of Mirambo's people,
Khamis' slaves deserted him, and Mirambo then gave the
4:16 KWIHARA FORTIFIED DEATH OF ABDALLAH.
order to surround the Arabs and press on them. This little
group in this manner became the targets for about one thou-
sand guns, and of course, in a second or so were all dead
not, however, without having exhibited remarkable traits of
They had barely died, before the medicine-men came up, and
with their scalpels skinned their faces and their abdom-
inal portions, and extracted what they call " mafuta," or
fat, and their genital organs. With this matter which they
had extracted from the dead bodies, the native doctors, or
waganga made a powerful medicine, by boiling it in large
earthen pots for many hours, with many incantations and
shakings of the wonderful gourd that was only filled with peb-
bles. This medicine was drunk that evening with great cer-
emony, with dances, drum beating and general fervor of
Khamis bin Abdallah dead, Mirambo gave his orders to
plunder, kill, burn and destroy, and they went at it with a
will. When I saw the fugitives from Tabora coming by the
hundred to our quiet valley of Kwihara, I began to think the
matter serious, and commenced my operations for defence.
First of all, however, a lofty bamboo pole was procured,
and planted on the roof of our^brtlet, and the American flag
was run up, where it waved joyously and grandly, an omen
to all fugitives and their hunters.
Then began the work of making ditches and rifle pits all
around the court or enclosure. The strong clay walls were
pierced in two rows for the muskets. The great door was
kept open, with material close at hand to barricade it when
the enemy came in sight, watchmen were posted on top of
the house, every pot in the house was filled with water, pro-
visions were collected, enough to stand a siege of a month's
duration, the ammunition boxes were unscrewed, and when I
saw the three thousand bright metallic cartridges for the Amer-
ican carbines, I laughed within myself at the idea that, after
all, Mirambo might be settled with American lead, and all
this furor of war be ended without much trouble. Before
PLUNDER AND BURNING OF TABORA. 417