six P. M. I had one hundred and twenty-five muskets and
stout fellows who had enlisted from the fugitives, and the
house, which only looked like a f ortlet at first, became a fort-
let in reality impregnable and untakable.
All night we stood on guard ; the suburbs of Tabora were
in flames ; all the Wanyamwezi and Wanguana houses were
destroyed, and the fine house of Abid bin Sulemian had been
ransacked and then committed to the flames, and Mirambo
boasted that " to-morrow " Kwihara should share the fate of
Tabora, and there was a rumor that that night the Arabs
were going to start for the coast.
But the morning came, and Mirambo departed, with the
ivory and cattle he had captured, and the people of Kwihara
and Tabora breathed freer.
And now I am going to say farewell to Unyanyembe for a
while. I shall never help an Arab again. He is no fighting
man, or, I should say, does not know how to fight, but knows,
personally, how to die. They will not conquer Mirambo
within a year, and I cannot stop to see that play out. There
is a good old man waiting for me somewhere, and that impels
me on. There is a journal afar off which expects me to do
my duty, and I must do it.
But Mr. Stanley did not succeed in getting away from
Unyanyembe as quickly as he anticipated. Severe attacks
of sickness, the cowardice of his men, and the importunities
of the Arabs who predicted ruin and death for the whole
expedition if it started for Ujiji, conspired to detain him at
Kwihara. His life and experiences there, are described in the
LIFE AT UNYANYEMBE.
MR. STANLEY describes Unyanyembe and his expe-
riences at Kwihara as follows :
"Unyamwezi is a romantic name. It is "Land of the Moon"
rendered into English as romantic and sweet in Kinyamwezi
as any that Stamboul or Ispahan can boast is to a Turk or a
Persian. The attraction, however, to a European lies only in
the name. There is nothing of the mystic, nothing of the
poetical, nothing of the romantic, in the country of Unyam-
wezi. I shudder at the sound of the name. It is pregnant
in its every syllable to me. Whenever I think of the word,
immediately come thoughts of colycinth, rhubarb, calomel,
tartar emetic, ipecacuanha and quinine into my head, and I
feel qualmish about the gastric regions, and I wish I were a
thousand miles away from it. If I look abroad over the coun-
try I see the most inane, and the most prosaic country one
could ever imagine. It is the most unlikely country to a
European for settlement ; it is so repulsive, owing to the
notoriety it has gained for its fevers. A white missionary
would shrink back with horror at the thought of settling in it.
An agriculturist might be tempted ; but then there are so
many better countries where he could do so much better, he
would be a madman if he ignored those to settle in this.
And, supposing it w r ere necessary to send an expedition, such
as that which boldly entered Abyssinia, to Unyamwezi, the
results would be worse than the retreat of Napoleon from
Moscow. No, an ordinary English soldier could never live here.
UNYAMWEZI SCENERY. 421
Yet you must not think of Unyamwezi as you would
of an American swamp ; you must not imagine Unyamwezi
to have deep morasses, slushy beds of mud, infested with all
abominable reptiles, or a jungle where the lion and the leop-
ard have their dens. Nothing of the kind. Unyamwezi is a
different kind of country altogether from that. To know the
general outline and physical features of Unyamwezi, you
must take a look around from one of the noble coigns of van-
tage offered by any of those hills of syenite, in the debatable
ground of Mgunda Makali, in Uyanzi.
- From the summit of one of those natural fortresses, if you
look west, you will see Unyamwezi recede into the far, blue,
mysterious distance in a succession of blue waves of noble
forest, rising and subsiding like the blue waters of an ocean.
Such a view of Unyamwezi is inspiring; and, were it possi-
ble for you to wing yourself westward on to another vantage
coign, again and again the land undulates after the same fash-
ion, and still afar off is the same azure, mystic horizon. As you
approach Unyanyembe the scene is slightly changed. Hills of
syenite are seen dotting the vast prospect, like islands in a sea,
presenting in their external appearance, to an imaginative eye,
rude imitations of castellated fortresses and embattled towers.
A nearer view of these hills discloses the denuded rock,
disintegrated masses standing on end, boulder resting upon
boulder, or an immense towering rock, tinted with the
sombre color age paints in these lands. Around these rocky
hills stretch the cultivated fields of the Wanyamwezi fields
of tall maize, of holcus sorghum, of millet, of vetches, etc.
among which you may discern the patches devoted to the cul-
tivation of sweet potatoes and manioc, and pasture lands
where browse the hurnp-shouldered cattle of Africa, flocks of
goats and sheep. This is the scene which attracts the eye,
and is accepted as promising relief after the wearisome march-
ing through the thorny jungle plains of Ugogo, the primeval
forests of Uyanzi, the dim plains of Tura and Kubuga, and
when we have emerged from the twilight shades of Kigwa.
!No caravan or expedition views it unwelcomed by song and
tumultuous chorus, for rest is at hand.
422 A FEVER-STRICKEN COUNTRY.
It is only after a long halt that one begins to weary of
Unyanyembe, the principal district of Unyamwezi. It is only
when one has been stricken down almost to the grave, by the
fatal, chilly winds which blow from the heights of the mount-
ains of Usagara, that one begins to criticise the beauty which
at first captivated. It is found, then, that though the land is
fair to look upon ; that though we rejoiced at the sight of its
grand plains, at its fertile and glowing fields, at eight of the
roving herds, which promised us abundance of milk and
cream that it is one of the most deadly countries in Africa ;
that its fevers, remittent and intermittent, are unequaled in
Unyamwezi, or the Land of the Moon from U (country),
nya (of the), mwezi (moon) extends over three degrees of
latitude in length, and about two and a half degrees of longi-
tude in breadth. Its principal districts are Unyanyembe,
Ugunda, Ugara, Tura, Rubuga, Kigwa, Usagozi, and Uyoweh.
Each district has its own chief prince, king, or mtemi, as he
is called in Kinyamwezi. Unyanyembe, however, is the prin-
cipal district, and its king, Mkasiwa, is generally considered
to be the most important person in Unyamwezi. The other
kings often go to war against him, and Mkasiwa often gets
the worst of it ; as, for instance, in the present war between
the King of Uyoweh (Mirambo), and Mkasiwa.
All this vast country is drained by two rivers the North-
ern and Southern Gombe, which empty into the Malagarazi
River, and thence into Lake Tanganyika. On the east,
Unyamwezi is bounded by the wilderness of Mgunda Makali,
and Ukmibu, on the south by Urori and Ukonongo, on the
west by Ukawendi and Uvniza, on the north by several small
coimtries and the Ukereweh Lake. Were one to ascend by
a balloon, and scan the whole of Unyamwezi, he would have
a view of one great forest, broken here and there by the little
clearings around the villages, especially in and around
The forests of Southern Unyamwezi contain a large variety
of game and wild beasts. In these, may be found herds of
LIFE IN UNYANYEMBE. 423
elephants, buffaloes, giraffes, zebras, elands, hartbeests, spring-
boks, pallahs, black bucks, and a score of other kinds. In
the neighborhood of the Gombe (Southern), may be seen any
number of wild boars and hogs, lions and leopards. The
Gombe itself is remarkable for the number of hippopotami
and crocodiles to be found in it.
I have been in Unyanyembe close on to three months no\v.
By and by I shall tell you why ; but first I should like to
give you a glimpse of our life here. The Herald Expedition
has its quarters in a large, strong house, built of mud, with
walls three feet thick. It is of one story, with a broad mud
veranda in front, and a broad, flat roof. The great door 18
situated directly in the centre of the front, and is the only
one possible means of ingress and egress. Entering in at this
door, we find a roomy hall-way ; on our right is the strong
store-room, where the goods of the Herald Expedition and
Livingstone's caravan are kept well padlocked up, to guard
Soldiers at night occupy this hall-way with loaded guns,
and during the day, there are always two men on guard,
besides Burton's bull-headed Mabrouki, who acts as my porter
or policeman. On our left is a room open to the hallway, on
the floor of which are spread straw mats, and two or three
Persian carpets, where the Arab sheikhs squat, when they
come to visit me. Passing through the hallway, we come to
the court yard, a large quadrangle, fenced in and built around*
with houses. There are about a dozen pomegranite trees
planted in the yard, more for their shade than for their fruit.
The houses around consist, first, of the grainery, where- we
keep the rice, the matama, the Indian corn, the sweet pota-
toes, etc. ; next comes the very much besmoked kitchen, a
primitive affair, merely a few stones on which the pots are
placed. The cook and his youthful subs are protected from
the influences of the weather by a shed. Next to the kitchen
is the stable, where the few remaining animals of the expedi-
tion are housed at night. These are two donkeys, one milch
cow, and six milch goats. The cow and the goats furnish me
424r STANLEY'S QUARTERS.
with milk for my gruel, my puddings, my sauces, and my
tea. (I was obliged to attend to rny comfort, and make use
of the best Africa offers.)
Next to the stable is another large shed, which serves as
barracks for the soldiers. Here they stow themselves and
their wives, their pots and beds, and find it pretty comfortable.
Next to this is the house of the white man, my nautical help,
where he can be just as exclusive as he likes, has his own bed-
room, veranda, bathroom, etc. ; his tent serves him for a
curtain, and, in English phrase, he has often declared it to be
"jolly and no mistake."
Occupying the half of one side of the house are my quar-
ters, said quarters consisting of two well-plastered and neat
rooms. My table is an ox-hide stretched over a wooden frame.
Two portmanteaus, one on top of the other, serve for a chair.
My bedstead is only a duplicate of my table, over which I
spread my bearskin and Persian carpet.
When the very greatest and most important of the Arab
sheikhs visit me, Selim, my invaluable adjunct, is always told
to fetch the bearskin and Persian carpet from the bed.
Recesses in the solid wall answer for shelves and cupboards,
where I deposit my cream-pots, and butter, and cheese (which
I make myself), and my one bottle of Worcestershire sauce,
and my tin candlestick. Behind this room, which is the bed,
reception, sitting, drawing room, office pantry, etc., is my
bath-room, where are my saddle, my guns, and ammunition
always ready, my tools, and the one hundred little things
which an expedition into the country must have. Adjoining
my quarters is the jail of the fortlet, called " tembe " here a
small room, eight by six feet, lit up by a small air hole, just
large enough to put a rifle through where my incorrigibles
are kept for forty hours, without food, in solitary confinement.
This solitary confinement answers admirably, about as well
.as being chained when on the road, and much better than
In the early morning, generally about half-past five or six
o'clock, I begin to stir the soldiers up, sometimes with a long
STANLEY, HIS BOi' KALULU, AND INTERrRETEit SKL1M.
A BLACK MERCURY. 427
bamboo, for you know they are such hard sleepers they
require a good deal of poking. Bombay has his orders given
him, and Feragji, the cook, who, long ago warned by the
noise I make when I rouse up, is told in unmistaken tones,
to bring " chai " (tea), for I am like an old woman, I love tea
very much, and can take a quart and a half without any incon-
Kalulu, a boy of seven, all the way from Cazembe's
country, is my waiter and chief butler. He understands my
ways and mode of life exactly. Some weeks ago he ousted
Selim from the post of chief butler, by sheer diligence and
smartness. Selim, the Arab boy, cannot wait at table. Kalulu
young antelope is frisky. I have but to express a wish,
and it is gratified. He is a perfect Mercury, though a mar-
velously black one. Tea over, Kalulu clears the dishes, and
retires under the kitchen shed, where, if I have a curiosity to
know what he is doing, he may be seen with his tongue in
the tea-cup, licking up the sugar that was left in it, and look-
ing very much as if he would like to eat the cup for the sake
of the divine element it has so often contained.
If I have any calls to make, this is generally the hour ; if
there are none to make, I go on the piazza and subside,
quietly on my bearskin to dream, may be, of that far oif land
I call my own, or to gaze towards Tabora, the Kaze of Burton
and Speke, though why they should have called it Kaze, as
yet I have not been able to find out, (I have never seen the
Arab or Msawabili who had ever heard of Kaze. Said bin
Salim, who had been traveling in this country with Burton,
Speke and Grant, declares he never heard of it) ; or to look
towards lofty Zimbili and wonder why the Arabs, at such a
crisis as the present, do not remove their goods and chattels
to the summit of that natural fortress. But dreaming and
wondering, and thinking and marveling, are too hard for me ;
this constitution of mine is not able to stand it ; so I make
some ethnological notes, and polish up a little my geographi-
cal knowledge of Central Africa.
I have to greet about four hundred and ninety-nine people
428 VISITING THE ARABS.
of all sorts, with the salutation " Yambo." This " Yambo "
is a great word. It may mean " How do you do ?" " How
are you ?" " Thy health ?" The answer to it is " Yambo !"
or " Yambo Sana !" (" How are you ; quite well ?") The
Kinyamwezi the language of the "Wanyamwezi of it is
" Moholo," and the answer is " Moholo." The Arabs, when
they call, if they do not give the Arabic " Spal-kher," give
you the greeting " Yambo ;" and I have to say " Yambo."
And, in order to show my gratitude to them, I emphasize it
with " Yambo Sana ! Sana ! Sana ?" (" Are you well ? Quite
well, quite, quite well ?") And if they repeat the words I
am more than doubly grateful, and invite them to a seat on
This bear-skin of mine is the evidence of my respectability,
and if we are short of common-place topics, we invariably
refer to the bear-skin, where there is' room for much discus-
sion. If I go to visit the Arabs, as I sometimes do, I find
their best Persian carpets, their silk counterpanes and kitandas
gorgeously decorated in my honor. One of the principal
Arabs here is famous for this kind of honor-doing. Isb
sooner did I show my face than I heard the order given to a
slave to produce the kitanda, that the Muzungu white man
might lie thereon, and that the populous village of Maroro
might behold. The silk counterpane was spread over a cot-
ton-stuffed bed ; the enormously fat pillows, covered with a
van-colored stuff, invited the weary head ; the rich carpet of
Ajim spread alongside of the kitanda was a great temptation,
but I was not to be tempted ; I could not afford to be so
effeminate as to lie down while four hundred or five hundred
looked on to see how I went through the operation.
Having disposed of my usual number of " Yambos " for
the morning, I begin to feel " peckish," as the sea skipper
says, and Feragji, the cook, and youthful Kalulu, the chief
butler, are again called and told to bring " chukula " food.
This is the breakfast put down on the table at the hour of ten
punctually every morning : Tea, (ugali, a native porridge
made out of the flour of dourra, holcus sorghum or matama.
BREAKFAST, AND AFTERWARD. 429
as it is called here ; a dish of rice and curry. Unyanyembe
is famous for its rice, fried goat's meat, stewed goat's meat,
roast goat's meat, a dish of sweet potatoes, a few " slapjacks "
or specimens of the abortive efforts of Feragji to make
dampers or pancakes, to be eaten with honey. But neither
Feragji's culinary skill nor Kalulu's readiness to wait on me
can tempt me to eat. I have long ago eschewed food, and
only drink tea, milk and yaourt Turkish word for "clabber"
or clotted milk. Plenty of time to eat goat meat when we
shall be on the march ; but just now no, thank you.
After breakfast the soldiers are called, and together we
begin to pack the bales of cloth, string beads and apportion
the several loads, which the escort must carry to Ujiji some
way or another. Carriers come to test the weigjit of the loads,
and to inquire about the inducements offered by the
" Muzungu." The inducements are in the shape of so many
pieces of cloth, four yards long, and I offer double what any
Arab ever ofiered. Some are engaged at once, others say
they will call again, but they never do, and it is of no use to
expect them when there is war, for they are the cowardliest
people under the sun.
Since we are going to make forced marches, I must not
overload my armed escort, or we shall be in a pretty mess
two or three days after we start ; so I am obliged to reduce
all loads by twenty pounds, to examine my kit and personal
baggage carefully, and put aside anything that is not actually
and pressingly needed. As I examine my fine lot of cooking
utensils, and consider the fearfully long distance to Ujiji, I
begin to see that most of them are superfluous, and I vow
that one saucepan and kettle for tea shall suffice. I must
leave half my bed and half my clothes behind ; all my per-
sonal baggage is not to weigh over sixty-four pounds. Then
there are the ammunition boxes to be looked to.
Ah, me ! When I started from the coast I remember how
ardently I pursued the game ; how I dived into the tall, wet
grass ; how I lost myself in the jungles ; how I trudged over
the open plains, in search of vert and venison. And what
430 A TALK WITH MR. SHAW.
did it all amount to ? Killing a few inoffensive animals, the
meat of which was not worth the trouble. And shall I waste
my strength and energies in chasing game ? No, and the man
who would do so at such a crisis as the present is a . But
I have my private opinion of him, and I know whereof I
speak. Very well ; all the ammunition is to be left behind
except one hundred rounds to each man. No one must fire
a shot without permission, nor waste his ammunition in any
way, under penalty of a heavy fine for every charge of pow-
der wasted. These things require time and thought, for the
Herald Expedition has a long and far journey to make. It
intends to take a new road a road with which few Arabs are
acquainted despite all that Skeikh, the son of Nasib, can say
against the project.
It is now the dinner hour, seven P. M. ; Feragji has spread
himself out, as they say. He has all sorts of little fixings
ready, such as indigestible dampers, the everlasting ngali, or
porridge, the sweet potatoes, chicken and roast quarter of a
goat ; and lastly, a custard, or something just as good, made
out of plantains.
At eight P. M. the table is cleared, the candles are lit, pipes
are brought out, and Shaw, my white man, is invited to talk.
'But poor Shaw is sick and has not a grain of spirit or energy
left in him. All I can do or say does not cheer him up in
the least. He hangs down his head, and with many a sigh
declares his inability to proceed with me to Ujiji.
" Not if jon have a donkey to ride ?" I ask.
" Perhaps in that way I may be able," says Shaw in a most
" Well, my dear Shaw," I begin," you shall have a donkey
to ride and you shall have all the attendance you require. I
; believe you are sick, but what this sickness of yours is I can-
not make out. It is not fever, for I could have cured you by
'this, as I have cured myself and as I have cured Selim ;
besides, this fever is a contemptible disease, though danger-
ous sometimes. I think if you were to exert your will and
-gay you will go, say you will live there would be less chance
HIS IMPENDING FATE. 431
of your being unable to reach the coast again. To be left
behind, ignorant of how much medicine to take or when to
take it, is to die. Remember my words if you stop behind
in Unyanyembe, I fear for you. Why, how can you pass the
many months that must elapse before I can return to Unyan-
yembe ? No man knows where Livingstone is. He may be
at Ujiji, he may be in Manyema, he may be going down the
Congo River for the West Coast, and if I go down the Congo
River after him I cannot return to Unyanyembe; and in that
event where would you be ?"
" It is very true, Mr. Stanley. I shall go with you, but I
feel very bad here (and he put his hand over his liver) ; but,
as you say, it is a great deal better to go on, than stop
But the truth is, that like many others starting from the
coast with superabundant health, Shaw, soon after realizing
what travel in Africa was, lost courage and heart. The ever-
present danger from the natives and the monotony of the
country, the fatigue one endures from the constant marches
which every day take you further into the uninteresting
country, all these combined had their effect on him, and when
he arrived in Uuyanyembe, he was laid up. Then his inter-
course with the females of Unyanyembe put the last finishing
touch to his enfeebled frame, and I fear if the medicines I have
sent for do not arrive in time that he will die. It is a sad fate.
Yet I feel sure that in another expedition, fitted out
with all the care that the Herald Expedition was, regard-
less of expense, if the members composing it are actuated by
no higher motives than to get shooting, or to indulge their
lust, it would meet with the same fate which has overtaken
my white man Farquhar, and which seems likely will over-
take Shaw. If on the day I depart from here, this man is
unwilling or unable to accompany me) I shall leave him here
under charge of two of my soldiers, with everything that can
tend to promote his comfort.
PERPLEXITIES AND RESOLVES.
WHEN Mr. Stanley was at Zanzibar, he of course formed
the acquaintance of Dr. John Kirk, the English Con-
sul at that port. Dr. Kirk had traveled extensively with Dr.
Livingstone, and they had always been on the most friendly
terms. This fact, as well as his official position which ren-
dered it his dirty, should have made him zealous in seeing
that supplies for Livingstone were entrusted to reliable par-
ties, and forwarded from Zanzibar with promptness.
In several of Dr. Livingstone's letters he censures, or
Seems to censure Dr. Kirk for neglect or inefficiency in
attending to his wants. In a recent communication to Sir
Bartle Frere, Dr. Livingstone expresses regret at learning
that Dr. Kirk viewed his "formal complaint against Ban-
ians as a covert attack upon himself ;" and says further, that
if he could have foreseen this, he should have borne all his
losses in silence, and that he had no intention of giving Dr.
Kirk offence. This letter shows great magnanimity on the
part of Dr. Livingstone.
In a communication to the New York Herald, which is
given below, Mr. Stanley tells what he knows about the mat-
ter. It is probable that this letter occasioned much of the
ill-feeling toward him which was manifested when he first
reached England, as Dr. Kirk has very many warm friends
Mr. Stanley also describes some of the discouraging cir-
cumstances attending his search for Livingstone, which the
STANLEY ADVISED TO GO BACK. 433
Expedition encountered while it was detained at Unyany einbe.
KWIHARA, UNYANYEMBE, Sept. 21, 1871.
How can I describe my feeling to you, that you may com-
prehend exactly the condition that I am in, the condition
that I have been in, and the extremely wretched condition
that the Arabs and slave trading people of the Mrima the
hill land or the coast would fain keep me in ? For the last
two months I have been debating in my own mind as to my
best course. Resolves have not been wanting, but up to to-
day they have failed. I am no nearer the object of my
search apparently than I was two years ago, when you gave
me the instructions at the hotel in Paris, called the " Grand