This object of my search you know is Livingstone Dr.
David Livingstone F. R. G. S., LL. D., etc. Is this Dr.
David Livingstone a myth ? Is there any such person liv-
ing ? If so where is he ? I ask everybody Omani, Arab-
half-caste, "Wamruia-pagazis but no man knows. I lift up
my head, shake off day dreams and ask the silent plains
around and the still dome of azure upheaving to infinity
above, where can he be ? No answer. The attitude of my
people, the asinine obstinacy of Bombay, the evidently deter-
mined opposition of the principal Arabs to my departure
from here, the war with Mirambo, the other unknown road
to Central Lake, the impossibility of obtaining pagazis, all
combine, or seem to, to say : " Thou shalt never find him.
Thou shalt neither hear of him. Thou shalt die here."
Sheikh, the son of Nasib, one of the ruling powers here,
declares it an impossibility to reach Ujiji. Daily he vexes
" There is no road ; all roads are closed ; the "Wakonongo,
the Wagara and "Wawendi are coming from the south to help
Mirambo ; if you go to the north, Usukuma is the country
of Mirambo's mother; if you take the Wildjankuru road,
that is Mirambo's own country. You see, then, sir, the
impossibility of reaching the Tanganyika. My advice is that
4:34 RESOLVE TO GO ON
you wait until Mirambo is killed, then, Inliallali (please God),
the road will be open, or go back."
And oftentimes i explode, and cry out :
"What! wait here until Mirambo is killed? You were
five years fighting Maima Sora ! Go back ! after spending
twenty thousand dollars! O Sheikh, the son of Nasib, no
Arab can fathom the soul of a muzungu (white man) ! I go
on, and will not wait until you kill Mirambo. I go on, and
will not go back until I shall have seen the Tanganyika'," and
this morning I added, " and day after to-morrow I start."
"Well, master," he replied, "be it as you say; but put
down the words of Sheikh, the son of Nasib, for they are
worthy to be remembered."
He has only just parted from me, and to comfort myself
after the ominous words, I write to you. I wish I could
write as fast as the thoughts crowd my mind. Then what a
wild, chaotic and incoherent letter you would have ! But
my pen is stiff, the paper is abominable, and before a sentence
is framed the troubled mind gets somewhat calmer. I am
spiteful, I candidly confess, just now ; I am cynical I do not
care who knows it. Fever has just made me so. My whin-
ing white servant contributes toward it. The stubbornness
of Bombay "incarnation of honesty" Burton calls him
is enough to make one cynical. The false tongues of these
false-hearted Arabs drive me on to spitefulness ; the coward-
ice of my soldiers is a proverb with me. The rock daily,
hourly growing larger and more formidable against which
the ship of the expedition must split so says everybody,
and what everybody says must be true makes me fierce and
savage-hearted. Yet I say, that the day after to-morrow *
every man Jack of us who can walk shall march.
But before the expedition tries the hard road again before
it commences the weary, weary march once more can I not
gain some information about Livingstone from the scraps of
newspapers I have been industriously clipping for some time
back ? May they not, with the more mature knowledge I have
obtained of the interior since I went on this venture, give me
IGNORANCE IN HIGH PLACES. 435
a hint which I might advantageously adopt ? Here they are,
a dozen of them, fifteen, twenty, over thirty bits of paper.
Here is one. Ah, dolor of heart, where art thou? This
mirth-provoking bit of newspaper is almost a physician to me.
I read :
ZANZIBAR Feb. 6, 1870,
u I am also told by Ludha Dam jee, that a large caravan,
laden with ivory, and coming from Nayamweze, has com-
pletely perished from this disease in Ujiji."
To you who stay at home in America, may be accorded
forgiveness if you do not quite understand where " Nayam-
weze" or "Ujiji" is; but to the British politico and Her
Britannic Majesty's Consul, Dr. John Kirk, a former com-
panion of Livingstone, a man of science, a member of the
Royal Geographical Society, and one who is said to be in
constant communication with Livingstone, forgiveness for
such gross ignorance is impossible. A parallel case of igno-
rance would be in a New York editor writing,
" I am also told by Mr. So and So, that a large wagon train,
bringing silver bricks from Montana, has perished in Alaska."
Ujiji, you must remember, is about a month's march west-
ward of Unyamwezi not " Nayamweze " and to me it is
inconceivable how a person in the habit of writing weekly to
his government about Livingstone, should have conceived
Ujiji to be somewhere between the coast and " Nayamweze."
as he calls it. But then I am spiteful this morning of Sep-
tember 21st, and there is nothing lovable under the sun at
this present time except the memory of my poor little dog
" Omar," who fell a victim to the Makata Swamp. Poor
Amid these many scraps or clippings all about Livingstone,
there are many more which contain as ludicrous mistakes,
mostly all of them having emanated from the same scientific
pen as the above. I find one wherein Sir R. Murchison.
President of the Royal Geographical Society, stoutly main-
tains that Livingstone's tenacity of purpose, undying resolu-
tion, and herculean frame will overcome every obstacle.
436 HOPEFUL SIR RODERICK.
Through several scraps runs a vein of doubt and unbelief in
the existence of the explorer. The writers seem to incline
that he has at last succumbed. But to the very latest date
Sir Roderick rides triumphant over all doubts and fears. At
the very nick of time he has always a letter from Livingstone
himself, or a despatch from Livingstone to Lord Clarendon,
or a private note from Dr. Livingstone to his friend Kirk at
Zanzibar. Happy Sir Eoderick! Good, Sir Roderick! a
healthy, soul-inspiring faith is thine.
Well, I am, to tell you the outspoken truth, tormented by
the same doubts and fears that people in America and Eng-
land are to-day uncommonly so. I blame the fever. Yet,
though I have heard nothing that would lead me to believe
Livingstone is alive, I derive much comfort from reading
Sir Roderick's speech to the society of which he is President.
But though he has tenacity of purpose and is the most
resolute of travelers, he is but a man, who, if alive, is old in
years. I have but to send for Said bin Habib, who
claims to be the Doctor's best friend, and who lives but a rifle
shot from the camp of the Herald and Livingstone expedi-
tions, and he will tell me how he found him so sick with
fever that it seemed as if the tired spirit was about to take
its eternal rest. I have but to ask Suliman Dowa, or Thomas,
how he found " old Daoud Fellasteen " David Livingstone
and he will tell me he saw a very old man, with very gray
beard and mustache, who ought to be home now instead of
wandering among those wild cannibals of Manyema.
What made me to-day give way to fears for Livingstone's
life, was that a letter had reached Unyanyembe, from a man
called Shereef, who is in charge of Livingstone's goods at
Ujiji, wherein he asked permission from Said bin Salim, the
Governor here, to sell Livingstone's goods for ivory ; wherein
he states further, that Shereef had sent his slaves to Manyema
to look for the white man, and that these slaves had returned
without hearing any news from him. He (Shereef), was
therefore tired of waiting, and it would be much better if he
were to receive orders to dispose of the white man's cloth
and beads for ivory.
STOREROOMS OF THE EXPEDITION. 437
It is strange that these goods, which were sent to TJjiji
over a year ago, have not yet been touched, and the fact that
Livingstone has not been in Ujiji to receive his last year's
supplies puzzles also Said bin Salim, Governor of Unyan-
yembe, or rather, of Tabora and Kwihara, as well as it puz-
zles Sheikh, son of Nasib, accredited Consul of Syed
Burghash, Sultan of Zanzibar and Pemba at the Courts of
Rumanika and Mtesa, Kings respectively of Karagwah and
In the storeroom where the cumbersome moneys of the
New York Herald Expedition lie piled up, bale upon bale,
sack after sack, coil after coil, and the two boats, are this
year's supplies sent by Dr. Kirk to Dr. Livingstone seven-
teen bales of cloth, twelve boxes of wine, provisions, and
little luxuries such as tea and coffee. When I came up with
my last caravan to .Unyanyembe, I found Livingstone's had
arrived but four weeks before, or about May 23d last, and had
put itself under charge of a half-caste called Thani Kati-Kati,
or Thani, " in the middle," or " between." Before he could
get carriers he died of dysentery. He was succeeded in
charge by a man from Johanna, who, in something like a
week died of smallpox; then Mirambo's war broke out, and
here we all are, September 21st, both expeditions halted.
But not for long, let us hope, for the third time I will make
a start the day after to-morrow.
To the statement that the man Shereef makes, that he has
sent slaves to Manyema to search for Dr. Livingstone, I pay
not the slightest attention. Shereef, I am told, is a half-caste.
Half Arab, half-negro. Happy amalgamation ! All Arabs
and all half-castes, especially when it is in their interest to
lie, lie without stint. "What and who is this man Shereef,
that he should, unasked, send his slaves twenty days off to
search for a white man ? It was not for his interest to send
out men, but it was policy to say he had done so, and that
his slaves had returned without hearing of him. He is,
therefore, in a hurry to sell off and make money at the
expense of Livingstone.
4:38 ARRAIGNMENT OF DR. KIRK.
This man has treated the old traveler shamefully like
some other men I know of, who, if I live, will be exposed
through your columns. But why should I not do so now ?
What better time is there than the present ? "Well, here it
j s coolly, calmly, and deliberately. I have studied the
whole thing since I came here, and cannot do better than
give you the result of the searching inquiries instituted.
It is the case of the British Public vs. Dr. John Kirk,
Acting Political Agent and her Britannic Majesty's Consul
at Zanzibar, as I understand it. The case is briefly this :
Some time in October, 1870, Henry Adrian Churchill, Esq.,
was Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at Zanzibar. He fitted
out during that month a small expedition to carry supplies
to Dr. Livingstone, under the escort of seven or eight men,
who were to act as armed soldiers, porters or servants. They
arrived at Bagamoyo, on the the mainland, during the latter
part of October. About the latter part of October, or the
early part of November, Mr. Churchill left Zanzibar for
England, and Dr. John Kirk, the present occupant of the
consular chair, succeeded him as " acting " in the capacity Mr.
Churchill heretofore had done. A letter bag, containing
letters to Dr. Livingstone, was sealed up by Dr. John Kirk
at Zanzibar, on which was written " November 1, 1870
Registered letters for Dr. David Livingstone, Ujiji ;" from
which it appears that the letter bag was closed on the 1st of
On the 6th of January, 1871, your correspondent arrived
at Zanzibar, and then and there heard of a caravan
being at Bagamoyo, bound for the interior with supplies for
Dr. Livingstone. On the 4th of February, 1871, your corre-
spondent in charge of the Herald Expedition, arrived at
Bagamoyo, and found this caravan of Dr. Livingstone's still
On or about the 18th of February, 1871, there appeared,
off Bagamoyo, Her Britannic Majesty's gunboat Colum-
bine, Captain Tucker, having on board Dr. John Kirk,
acting Her Britannic Majesty's Consul. Three days before
GIRAFFES IN PITFALL.
Dr. John Kirk arrived at Bagamoyo, Livingstone's caravan
started for the interior, hurried, no doubt, by the report that
the English Consul was coming. That evening about the
hour of seven P. M. your correspondent dined at the French
Mission in company with the jperes, Dr. Kirk and Captain
Tucker of the Columbine. The next morning Dr. Kirk and
Captain Tucker and another gentleman from the Columbine,
and Pere Homer, Superior of the French mission, left for
Kikoka, first camp on the Unyanyembe road beyond the
Kuigani River ; or, in other words, the second camp for. the
up caravans from Bagamoyo. Pere Homer returned to
Bagamoyo the evening of that same day ; but Messrs. Kirk
and Tucker, the French Consul, M. Diviane, and, I believe,
the surgeon of the Columbine, remained behind that they
might enjoy the sport which the left bank of the Knigani
A good deal of ammunition was wasted, I heard, by the
naval officers, because, "You know, they have only pea rifles ;"
so said Dr. Kirk to me. But Dr. Kirk, the companion of
Livingstone and something of a sportsman, I am told, bagged
one hartbeest and one giraffe only in the four or five days the
party was out. M. Diviane, or Divien, hurried back to Bag-
amoyo and Zanzibar with a piece of the aforesaid hartbeest,
that the white people on that island might enjoy the sight,
and hear how the wondrous animal fell before the unerring
rifle of that learned showman of wild beasts, Dr. John Kirk.
Showman of wild beasts did I say ? Yes. "Well, I adhere to
it and repeat it. But to proceed. At the end of a week or
thereabouts the party were said to have arrived at the French
Mission again. I rode up from the camp of the Herald Expe-
dition to see them. They were sitting down to dinner, and
we all heard the graphic yarn about the death of the hart-
beest. It was a fine animal they all agreed
" But, Doctor, did you not have something else ?" (Question
by leader of Herald Expedition.)
u No ! we saw lots of game, you know giraffe, zebra, wild
boar, &c. but they were made so wild, you know, by the
442 ABOUT THE LIVINGSTONE CARAVAN.
firing of pea rifles by the officers, that immediately one
began to stalk them, off they went. I would not have got
the hartbeest if I had not gone alone."
Well, next morning Dr. Kirk and a reverend padre came
to visit the camp of the Herald Expedition, partook of a cup
of tea in my tent, then went to see Moussoud about Dr. Liv-
ingstone's things. They were told that the caravan had gone
several days before. Satisfied that nothing more could be
done, after a dejeuner at the French Mission, Dr. Kirk about
eleven A. M. went on board the Columbine. About half-past
three P. M. the Columbine steamed for Zanzibar.
On the 15th of March your correspondent returned to Zan-
zibar, to settle up the last accounts connected with the expe-
dition. While at Zanzibar your correspondent heard that
the report had industriously been spread among those inter-
ested in Livingstone, the traveler, that Dr. Kirk had hurried
off the Livingstone caravan at once, and that he had accom-
panied the said caravan beyond the Knigani, and that your
correspondent could not possibly get any pagazis whatever,
as he (Dr. Kirk) had secured them all. I wondered, but said
nothing. Really, the whole were marvelous were it not
opposed to fact. Livingstone's caravan needed but thirty-
three men ; the Herald Expedition required one hundred and
forty men, all told. Before the Livingstone caravan had
started, the first caravan of the Herald Expedition had pre-
ceded them by four days. By the 15th of March, one hun-
dred and eleven men were secured for the Herald Expedition,
and for the remainder, donkeys were substituted.
June saw us at Unyanyembe, and there I heard the reports
of the chiefs of the several caravans of the Herald Expedition.
Livingstone's caravan was also there, and the men in charge
were interrogated by me with the following questions :
Q. " When did you see Dr. Kirk last ?"
A. " 1st of November, 1870."
A. " At Zanzibar."
Q. " Did you not see him at Bagamoyo ?"
THE SUMMING UP. 44.3
A. " No ; but we heard that he had been at Bagamoyo."
Q. " Is this true ; quite, quite true ?"
A." Quite true, Wallah " (by God).
The story is told. This is the case a case, as I understand
it to be, of the British Public vs. John Kirk. Does it not
appear to you that Dr. John Kirk never had a word to say,
never had a word to write to his old friend Dr. Livingstone
all the time from the 1st of November, 1870, to about the
15th of February, 1871 ; that during all this period of three
and a half months, Dr. John Kirk showed great unkindness,
unfriendliness towards the old traveler, his former companion,
in not pushing the caravan carrying supplies to the man
with whom all, who have read of him, sympathize so much ?
Does it not seem to you, as it does to me, that had Dr. John
Kirk bestirred himself in his grand character of English "Bal-
yuz " a noble name and great title out here in these lands
that that small caravan of thirty-three men might have been
despatched within a week or so after their arrival at Baga-
moyo, by which it would have arrived here in Unyanyembe
long before Mirambo's war broke out ? This war broke out
June 15th, 1871.
Well, I leave the case in your hands, assured that your
intelligence, your natural power of discrimination, your fine
sense of justice, will enable you to decide whether this man
Dr. John Kirk, professed friend of Dr. Livingstone, has
shown his friendship for Livingstone in leaving his caravan
three and a half months at Bagamoyo ; whether, when he
went over to Bagamoyo in the character of showman of wild
beasts, to gratify the sporting instincts of the officers of Her
Britannic Majesty's ship Columbine, did he show any very-
kindly feeling to the hero traveler, when he left the duty of
looking up that caravan of the Doctor's till the last thing- 0n
FROM KWIHARA TO UVINZA.
UJIJI is the name of a province, not of a single town. It
was first visited by the Arabs about 1840, ten years
after they had penetrated to Unyamwezi ; they found it con-
veniently situated as a mart upon the Tanganyika Lake, and
a central point where their depots might be established, and
whence their factors and slaves could navigate the waters, and
collect slaves and ivory from the tribes upon its banks. But
the climate proved unhealthy, the people dangerous, and the
coasting-voyages frequently ended in disaster; Ujiji, there-
fore, never rose to the rank of Unyanyembe or Msene.
The land of Ujiji is bounded on the north by the heights
of Urundi, and on the south by the Ukaranga country ; east-
ward it extends to TJbuha, and westward it is washed by the
waves of the Tanganyika Lake. On its northeast lies Uhha,
now reduced by the predatory "Watuta to a luxuriant desert.
The "Watuta are a tribe of robbers, originally settled upon
the southern extremity of Tanganyika Lake. Subsequently
they migrated northward. Then they crossed the Malaga-
razi River and laid waste the lands of Uhha and Ubuha.
About 1855 they attacked Msene, and were only repulsed by
the Arabs after a week of hard skirmishing.
In 1858, shortly after Burton and Speke's departure from
Ujiji, the "Watuta marched against that place, and but for
the assistance rendered to the natives by the Arabs who had
just arrived w T ith a large number of slaves, Ujiji would
doubtless have been converted into a grizzly solitude.
THE ROUTE TO UJIJI. 445
Mr. Stanley had good reasons for expecting to find Dr.
Livingstone at Ujiji, or to hear from him definitely at that
place. Dr. Livingstone had, in letters written in 1868,
requested the Geographical Society to forward supplies to
him at Ujiji ; and it was known that supplies thus sent in
1869, actually reached him there. The caravan road from
Zanzibar was a well-worn one, and had been traversed by
Burton and Speke, from whose labors Mr. Stanley, in his
speech before the Geographical Society, acknowledged to
have received assistance. Dr. Livingstone, if alive, would
therefore, probably, be in the vicinity of Ujiji; and here
Stanley found him on the 10th of November 1871, after his
journey from Unyanyembe as narrated in the following pages.
" Only two months gone, and what a change in my feelings !
But two months ago, what a peevish, fretful soul was mine !
What a hopeless prospect presented itself before your cor-
respondent ! Arabs vowing that I would never behold the
Tanganyika ; Sheikh, the son of Nasib, declaring me a mad-
man to his fellows, because I would not heed his words. My
men deserting, my servants whining day by day, and my
white man endeavoring to impress me with the belief that
we were all doomed men ! And the only answer to it all is,
Livingstone, the hero traveler, is alongside of me, writing as
hard as he can to his friends in England, India, and America,
and I am quite safe and sound in health and limb.
"Wonderful, is it not, that such a thing should be, when the
seers had foretold that it would be otherwise that all my
schemes, that all my determination would avail me nothing ?
But probably you are in as much of a hurry to know how it
all took place as I am to relate. So, to the recital.
September 23d, I left Unyanyembe, driving before me fifty
well-armed black men loaded with the goods of the expedi-
tion, and dragging after me one white man. Several Arabs
stood by my late residence to see the last of me and mine, as
they felt assured there was not the least hope of their ever
seeing me again. Shaw, the white man, was pale as death,
and would willingly have received the order to stop behind
446 STARTING FROM UNYA.NYEMBE.
in Unyanyembe, only lie had not quite the courage to ask
permission, from the fact that only the night before, he had
expressed the hope that I would not leave him behind, and I
had promised to give him a good riding donkey, and to walk
after him, until he recovered perfect health.
However, as I gave the order to march, some of the men,
in a hurry to obey the order, managed to push by him sud-
denly, and down he went like a dead man. The Arabs,
thinking, doubtless, that I would not go now, because my
white subordinate seemed so ill, hurried in a body to the fallen
man, loudly crying at what they were pleased to term my
cruelty and obstinacy ; but, pushing them back, I mounted
Shaw on his donkey, and told them that I must see the Tan-
ganyika first, as I had sworn to go off.
Putting two soldiers, one on each side of him, I ordered
Shaw to move on, and not to play the fool before the Arabs,
lest they should triumph over us.
Three or four black laggards, loth to go, (Bombay was one
of them,) received my dog-whip across their shoulders, as a
gentle intimation that I was not to be baulked after having
fed them so long and paid them so much. And it was thus
we left Unyanyembe. Not in the best humor, was it ? How-
ever, where there is a will there is a way.
Once away from the hateful valley of Kwihara, once out
of sight of the obnoxious fields, my enthusiasm for my work
rose as new-born as when I left the coast. But my enthusiasm
was short-lived, for before reaching camp, I was almost delir-
ious with fever. Long before I reached the camp, I saw
from a ridge overlooking a fair valley dotted with villages
and green with groves of plantains and fields of young rice,
my tent, and from its tall pole, the American flag, waving
gaily before the strong breeze which blew from the eastward.
When I had arrived at the camp, burning with fever, my
pulse bounding many degrees too fast, and my temper made
more acrimonious by my sufferings, I found the camp almost
The men as soon as they had arrived at Mkwenkwe, the
A HUNT FOR DESERTERS. 447
village agreed upon, had hurried back to Kwihara. Living-
stone's letter-carrier had not made his appearance it was an
abandoned camp. I instantly despatched six of the best of
those who had refused to return, to ask Sheikh, the son of
Nasib, to lend or sell me the longest slave chain he had, then
to hunt up the runaways and bring them back to camp bound,
and promised them that for every head captured, they should
have a bran new cloth. I alsg did not forget to tell my trusty
men to tell Livingstone's messenger that if he did not come
to camp before night, I would return to Unyanyembe or
Kwihara rather, for I was yet in Unyanyembe catch him,
and put him in chains, and never release him, until his master
saw him. My men went off in high glee, and I went off to
bed, passing long hours groaning and tossing about, for the
deadly sickness that had overtaken me.
Next morning, fourteen out of twenty of those who had
deserted back to their wives and huts, (as is generally the