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Cazembe, which the natives called Liemba, from the country
of that name, which bordered it on the east and south. In 1
tracing the lake north he found it to be none other than the
Tanganyika, or the southeastern extremity of it, which looks
on the Doctor's map very much like an outline of Italy. The
latitude of the southern end of this great body of water is
about nine degrees south, which gives it thus a length, from
north to south, of three hundred and sixty geographical
miles.

From the southern extremity of the Tanganyika, he crossed
Marungu and came in sight of Lake Moero. Tracing this
lake", which is about sixty miles in length, to its southern
head, he found a river called the Luapula entering it from
that direction. Following the Luapula south, he found it
issue from the large lake of Bangweolo, which is as large in
superficial area as Tanganyika. In exploring for the waters-
which emptied into the lake, he found by far the most impor-
tant of these feeders was the Chambezi. So that he had thus
traced the Chambezi from its source to Lake Bangweolo, and
its issue from its northern head under the name of Luapula, ;
and found it enter Lake Moero.

Again he returned to Cazembe, well satisfied that the river
running north through three degrees of latitude could not be
the river running south under the name of the Zambesi,
though there might be a remarkable resemblance in their
names.

At Cazembe, he found an old, white-bearded half-caste,
named Mohammed ben Salih, who was kept as a kind of
prisoner at large by the King, because of certain suspicious
circumstances attending his advent and stay in his coun-
try. Through Livingstone's influence Mohammed ben Salih
obtained his release. On the road to Ujiji he had bitter
cause to regret having exerted himself in the half-caste's



524: THE UNGRATEFUL HALF-CASTE.

behalf. He turned out to be a most ungrateful wretch, who
poisoned the minds of the Doctor's few followers, and
ingratiated himself in their favor by selling the favors of his
concubines to them, thus reducing them to a kind of bondage
tinder him. From the day he had the vile old man in his
company, manifold and bitter misfortunes followed the
Doctor up to his arrival in Ujiji, in March, 1869.

From the date of his arrival until the end of June (1869)
he remained in Ujiji, whence he dated those letters which,
though the outside world still doubted his being alive, satis-
fied the minds of the Royal Geographical people and his
intimate friends that he was alive, and Musa's tale an ingen-
ious but false fabrication of a cowardly deserter. It was dur-
ing this time that the thought occurred to him of sailing around
the Lake Tankanyika, but the Arabs and natives were so bent
upon fleecing him that, had he undertaken it, the remainder
of his goods would not have enabled him to explore the
central line of drainage, the initial point of which he found
far south of Cazembe, in about latitude eleven degrees, in
the river Chambezi.

In the days when tired Captain Burton was resting in
Ujiji, after his march from the coast near Zanzibar, the land
to which Livingstone, on his departure from Ujiji, bent his
steps was unknown to the Arabs save by vague report.
Messrs. Burton and Speke never heard of it, it seems.
Speke, who was the geographer of Burton's expedition,
heard of a place called Uvira, which he placed on his map
according to the general direction indicated by the Arabs ;
but the most enterprising of the Arabs, in their search after
ivory, only touched the frontiers of Rua, as the natives and
Livingstone call it ; for Rua is an immense country, with a
length of six degrees of latitude, and, as yet, an undefined
breadth from east to west.

At the end of June, 1869, Livingstone took dhow at Ujiji
and crossed over to Uguhha, on the western shore, for his
last and greatest series of explorations, the results of which
were the discovery of a series of lakes of great magnitude,



MOERO SCENERY. 52$

connected together by a large river called by different names
as it left one lake to flow to another. From the port of
Uguhha, he set off in company with a body of traders, in an
almost direct westerly course, through the lake country of
Uguhha. Fifteen days inarch brought them to Bambarre,
the first important ivory depot in Manyema, or, as the natives
pronounce it, Manuyema.

For nearly six months he was detained at Bambarre, from
ulcers in the feet, with copious discharges of bloody ichor
oozing from the sores as soon as he set his feet on the
ground. When well, he set off in a northerly direction, and,
after several days, came to a broad, lacustrine river, called
the Lualaba, flowing northward and westward, and, in some
places southward, in a most confusing way. The river
was from one to three miles broad. By exceeding pertinacity
he contrived to follow its erratic course until he saw the
Lualaba enter the narrow but lengthy Lake of Kamolondo,
in about latitude six degrees thirty minutes south. Retrac-
ing it south, he came to the point where he had seen the
Luapula enter Lake Moero.

One feels quite enthusiastic when listening to Livingstone's
description of the beauties of Moero scenery. Pent in on
all sides by high mountains clothed to their tips with the richest
vegetation of the tropics, Moero discharges its superfluous
waters through a deep rent in the bosom of the mountains.
The impetuous and grand river roars through the chasm
with the thunder of a cataract ; but soon after leaving its
confined and deep bed it expands into the calm and broad
Lualaba expanding over miles of ground, making great
bends west and southwest, then, curving northward, enters
Kamolondo. By the natives it is called the Lualaba, but the
Doctor, in order to distinguish it from other rivers of the
game name, has given it the name of "Webb's River, after
Mr. "Webb, the wealthy proprietor of Newstead Abbey, whom
the Doctor distinguishes as one of his oldest and most con-
sistent friends.

Away to the southwest from Kamolondo is another large



526 A TRIBUTE TO LINCOLN.

lake, which discharges its waters by the important river
Locki, or Lomami, into the great Lnalaba. To this lake,
known as Chebungo by the natives, Dr. Livingstone has
given the name of Lincoln, to be hereafter distinguished on
maps and in books as Lake Lincoln, in memory of Abraham
Lincoln, our murdered President. This was done from the
vivid impression produced on his mind by hearing a portion
of his inauguration speech read from an English pulpit, which
related to the causes that induced him to issue his emancipa-
tion proclamation, by which memorable deed four million of
slaves were forever freed. To the memory of the man whose
labors in behalf of the negro race deserved the commenda-
tion of all good men, Livingstone has contributed a monu-
ment more durable than brass or stone.

Entering Webb's River from the southwest, a little north
of Kamolondo, is a large river called the Lufira ; but the
streams that discharge themselves from the watershed into
the Lualaba are so numerous that the Doctor's map would not
contain them ; so he has left all out except the most important.
Continuing his way north, tracing the Lualaba through its
manifold and crooked curves as far as latitude four degrees
south, he came to another large lake called the Unknown
Lake; but here you may come to a dead halt and read it
thus: * *****

Here was the furthermost point. From here he was com-
pelled to return on the weary road to Ujiji, a distance of six
hundred miles.

In this brief sketch of Doctor Livingstone's wonderful
travels, it is to be hoped that the most superficial reader, as
well as the student of geography, comprehends this grand
system of lakes connected together by "Webb's Eiver. To
assist him, let him procure a map of Africa, by Keith Johnston,
embracing the latest discoveries. Two degrees south of the
Tanganyika, and two degrees west, let him draw the outlines
of a lake, its greatest length from east to west, and let him
call it Bangweolo.

One degree or thereabout to the northwest let him sketch



THE TRUE NILE. 527

the outlines of another but smaller lake and call it Moero ; a
degree again north of Moero another lake of similar size,
and call it Kamolondo, and still a degree north of Kamolondo
another lake, large and of undefined limits, which, in the
absence of any specific term, we will call the Nameless Lake.
Then let him connect these several lakes by a river called
after different names ; thus, the main feeder of Bangweolo,
the Chambezi ; the river which issues out of Bangweolo and
runs into the Moero, the Luapula ; the river connecting
Moero with Kamolondo, Webb's River ; that which runs from
Kamolondo, into the Nameless Lake northward, the Lualaba ;
and let him write in bold letters over the rivers Chambezi,
Luapula, Webb's Eiver, and the Lualaba " THE NILE," for
these are all one and the same river.

Again, west of Moero Lake, about one degree or therea-
bouts, another large lake may be placed on his map, with a
river running diagonally across to meet the Lualaba north of
Lake Kamolondo. This new lake is Lake Lincoln, and the
river is the Lomami River, the confluence of which with the
Lualaba is between Kamolondo and the Nameless Lake.
Taken altogether, the reader may be said to have a very
fair idea of what Doctor Livingstone has been doing these
long years, and what additions he has made to the study of
African geography.

That this river, distinguished under several titles, flowing
from one lake into another in a northerly direction, with all
its great crooked bends and sinuosities, is the Nile, the true
Nile, the Doctor has not the least doubt. For a long time
he did doubt, because of its deep bends and curves west,
and southwest even but having traced it from its headwaters,
the Chambezi through seven degrees of latitude that is,
from latitude eleven degrees south to a little north of latitude
four degrees south he has been compelled to come to the
conclusion that it can be no other river than the Nile.

He had thought it was the Congo, but he has discovered the
sources of the Congo to be the Kasai and the Quango, two
rivers which rise on the western side of the Nile watershed



528 THE SOURCES OF THE COXGO.

in about the latitude of Bangweolo; and be was told of
another river called the Lubilash, which rose from the north
and ran west. But the Lualaba, the Doctor thinks, cannot
be the Congo, from its great size and body, and from its
steady and continual flow northward, through a broad and
extensive valley bounded by enormous mountains, westerly
and easterly.

The altitude of the most northerly point to which the
Doctor traced the wonderful river was a little over two
thousand feet, so that though Baker makes out his lake to be
two thousand and seven hundred feet above the sea, yet the
Bahr Ghazal, through which Petherick's branch of the White
Nile issues into the Nile, is only a little over two thousand
feet, in which case there is a possibility that the Lualaba may
be none other than Petherick's branch.

It is well known that trading stations for ivory have been
established for about five hundred miles up Petherick's
branch. We must remember this fact when told that
Gondokoro, in latitude four degrees north, is two thousand
feet above the sea, and latitude four degrees south, where
the Doctor was halted, is only a little over two thousand feet
above the sea. That two rivers, said to be two thousand feet
above the sea, separated from each other by eight degrees of
latitude, are the same stream, may, among some men, be
regarded as a startling statement. But we must restrain mere
expressions of surprise, and take into consideration that this
mighty and broad Lualaba is a lacustrine river broader than
the Mississippi and think of our own rivers, which, though
shallow, are exceedingly broad instance our Platte River
flowing across the prairies of Colorado and Nebraska into
the Missouri. We must wait also until the altitude of the
two rivers the Lualaba, where the Doctor halted, and the
southern point on the Bahr Ghazal, where Petherick has
been are known with perfect accuracy.

Webb's River, or the Lualaba, from Bangweolo is a
lacustrine river, expanding from one to three miles in
breadth. At intervals it forms extensive lakes, then con-



DISCREPANCIES ACCOUNTED FOR. 529

tracting into a broad river it again forms a lake, and so on to
latitude f our degrees north ; and beyond this point the Doctor
heard of a large lake again north. Now, for the sake of argu-
ment, suppose we give this nameless lake a length of four
degrees of latitude, as it may be the one discovered by
Piaggia, the Italian traveler, from which Petherick's branch
of the White Nile issues out through reeds, marshes and
the Bahr Ghazal into the White Nile south of Gondokoro.
By this method we can suppose the rivers one for the lakes
extending over so many degrees of latitude would obviate
the necessity of explaining the differences of altitude that
must naturally exist between the points of a river eight
degrees of latitude apart. Also, that Livingstone's instru-
ments for observation and taking altitude may have been in
error, and this is very likely to have been the case, subjected
as they have been to rough handling during nearly six years
of travel.

Despite the apparent difficulty about the altitude, there is
another strong reason for believing Webb's River, or the
Lualaba, to be the Nile. The watershed of this river, six
hundred miles of which Livingstone has traveled, is drained
by a valley which lies north and south between the eastern
and western ranges of the watershed. This valley or line of
drainage, while it does not receive the Kasai and the Quango,
receives rivers flowing from a great distance west for
instance, the important tributaries Lufira and Lomami, and
large rivers from the east, such as the Lindi and Luamo ; and
while the most intelligent Portuguese travelers and traders
state that the Kasai, the Quango and Lubilash are the head
waters of the Congo river, no one as yet has started the
supposition that the grand river flowing north, and known to
the natives as the Lualaba, was the Congo. If this river is
not the Nile where, then, are the headwaters of the Nile ?

The small river running out of the Victoria Nyanza and the
river flowing out of the little Lake Albert have not sufficient
water to form the great river of Egypt. As you glide down
the Nile, and note the Asna, the Geraffe, the Sobat, the Blue



530 THE XILE PROBLEM STILL OPEN.

Kile and Atbara, and follow the river down to Egypt, it can-
not fail to impress you that it requires many more streams,
or one large river larger than all yet discovered, to influence
its inundations and replace the waste of its flow through a
thousand miles of desert.

Perhaps a more critical survey of the Bahr Ghazal would
prove that the Nile is influenced by the waters that pour
through " the small piece of water resembling a duck pond
buried in a sea of rushes," as Speke describes the Bahr
Ghazal.

Livingstone's discovery answers the question and satisfies
the intelligent hundreds, who, though Bruce and Speke and
Baker, each in his turn had declared he had found the Nile,
the only and true Nile sources, yet doubted and hesitated to
accept the enthusiastic assertions as a final solution of the
Nile problem. Even yet, according to Livingstone, the Nile
sources have not been found ; though he has traced the
Lualaba through seven degrees of latitude flowing north, and
though neither he nor I have a particle of doubt of its being
the Nile, not yet can the Nile question be said to be resolved
and ended, for three reasons

first He has heard of the existence of four fountains,
two of which give birth to a river flowing north Webb's
River, or the Lualaba ; two to a river flowing south, which is
the Zambesi. He has heard of these fountains repeatedly
from the natives. Several times he has been within one
hundred and two hundred miles from them, but something
always interposed to prevent him going to see them. Accord-
ing to those who have seen them, they rise on either side of
a mound or hill which contains no stones. Some have even
called it an ant hill. One of these fountains is said to be so
large that a man standing on one side cannot be seen from
the other. These fountains must be discovered, and their
position taken. The Doctor does not suppose them to lie
south of the feeders of Lake Bangweolo.

Second Webb's River must be traced to its connection
with some portion of the old Nile.



THE GREAT LACUSTRINE RIVER. 531

Third The connection between the Tanganyika and the
Albert Nyanza must be ascertained.

When these three things have been accomplished, then,
and not till then, can the mystery of the Nile be explained.

The two countries through which this marvelous lacustrine
river the Lualaba flows, with its manifold lakes and broad
expanses of water, are Rua the Uruwa of Speke and
Manyema. For the first time Europe is made aware that
between the Tanganyika and the known sources of the Congo,
there exist teeming millions of the negro race who never saw
or heard of the white people who make such noisy and busy
stir outside of Africa. Upon the minds of those who had
the good fortune to see the first specimen of these remark-
able white races, Livingstone seems to have made a favorable
impression, though, through misunderstanding his object and
coupling him with the Arabs who make horrible work there,
his life has been sought after more than once.

These two extensive countries, Rua and Manyema, are popu-
lated by true heathen governed not as the sovereignties of
Karagwah "Wumdi and Uganda, by despotic kings, but each
village by its own sultan or lord. Thirty miles outside of
their own immediate settlements the most intelligent of these
small chiefs seem to know nothing. Thirty miles from the
Lualaba there were but few people who had ever heard of the
great river. Such ignorance among the natives of their own
countries, of course, increased the labors of Livingstone.
Compared with these, all tribes and nations in Africa with
whom Livingstone came in contact may be deemed civilized.

Tet in the arts of home manufacture these wild people of
Manyema are far superior to any he had seen. "When other
tribes and nations contented themselves with hides and skins
of animals thrown negligently over their shoulders, the peo-
ple of Manyema manufactured a cloth from fine grass which
may favorably compare with the finest grass cloth of India.
They also know the art of dying them in various colors
black, yellow, and purple. The Wanguana or freed men of
Zanzibar, struck with the beauty of this fine grass fabric,



532 THE IVORY FEVER.

eagerly exchanged tlieir cotton cloths for fine grass cloth, and
on almost every black man returned from Manyema I have
seen this native cloth converted into elegantly-made short
jackets.

These countries are also very rich in ivory. The fever for
going to Manyema, to exchange their tawdry beads for the
precious tusks of Manyema, is of the same kind as that which
impelled men to the gulches and placers of California, Colo-
rado, Montana and Idaho ; after nuggets to Australia, and
diamonds to Cape Colony. Manyema is at present the El
Dorado of the Arabs and the Wamrima tribes. It is only
about four years since the first Arab returned from Manyema,
with such wealth of ivory and reports about the fabulous
quantities found there, that ever since the old beaten tracks
of Karagwah, Uganda, Ufipa and Marungu have been com-
paratively deserted.

The people of Manyema, ignorant of the value of the
precious article, reared their huts upon ivory stanchions.
Ivory pillars and doors were common sights in Manyema, and,
hearing of these, one can no longer wonder at the ivory
palace of Solomon. For generations, they have used ivory
tusks as doorposts and eave stanchions, until they had become
perfectly rotten and worthless. But the advent of the Arabs
soon taught them the value of the article. It has now risen
considerably in price, though yet fabulously cheap. At Zan-
zibar the value of ivory per frarsilah of thirty-five pounds
weight is from fifty dollars to sixty dollars, according to its
quality. In Unyanyembe it is aBout one dollar and ten cents
per pound ; but in Manyema it may be purchased for from
half a cent to one and a quarter cent's worth of copper per
pound of ivory.

The Arabs, however, have the knack of spoiling markets
by their rapacity and wanton cruelty. With muskets, a
small party of Arabs are invincible against such people as
those of Manyema, who, until lately, never heard the sound
of a gun. The report of a musket inspires mortal terror in
them, and it is almost impossible to induce them to face the



SUPERSTITIONS OF THE NATIVES. 533

muzzle of a gun, They believe that the Arabs have stolen
the lightning, and that against such people the bow and arrow
can have but little effect. They are by no means devoid of
courage, and they have often declared that were it not for
the guns, not one Arab would leave the country alive ; which
tends to prove that they would willingly engage in fight with
strangers, who have made themselves so detestable, were it
not that the startling explosion of gunpowder inspires them
with such terror.

Into whichever country the Arabs enter, they contrive to
render their name and race abominated. But the mainspring
of it all is not the Arab's nature, color or name, but simply
the slave trade. So long as the slave trade is permitted to be
kept up at Zanzibar, so long will these otherwise enterpris-
ing people, the Arabs, kindle against them throughout Africa
the hatred of the natives. On the main lines of travel from
Zanzibar into the interior of Africa none of these acts of
cruelty are seen, for the very good reason that they have
armed the natives with guns and taught them how to use
weapons, which they are by no means loath to do whenever
an opportunity presents itself. "When too late, when they
have perceived their folly in selling guns to the natives, the
Arabs repent, and begin to vow signal vengeance on the per-
son who will in future sell a gun to a native. But they are
all guilty of the same folly, and it is strange they did not
perceive that it was folly when they were doing so.

In former days the Arab, protected by his slave escort
armed with guns, could travel through Usegubha, Urori-
Ukonongo, Ufiipa, Karagwah, Unyoro and Uganda, with only
a stick in his hand ; now, however, it is impossible for him or
any one else to do so. Every step he takes, armed or
unarmed, is fraught with danger. The "Waseguhha near
the coast halt him, and demand the tribute or give him the
option of war: entering Ugogo he is subjected every day to
the same oppressive demand, or to the other fearful alterna-
tive. The "Wanyamuezi also show their readiness to take the
game advantage, the road to Karagwah is besieged with



534: PERILS OF THE ROAD.

difficulties ; the terrible Mirambo stands in the way, defeats
their combined forces with ease, and makes raids even to the
doors of their houses in Unyanyembe ; and, should they succeed
in passing Mirambo, a chief stands before them who demands
tribute by the bale, against whom it is useless to contend.

These remarks have reference to the slave trade inaugu-
rated in Manyema by the Arabs. Harassed on the road
between Zanzibar and Unyanyembe, minatory natives with
bloody hands on all sides ready to avenge the slightest affront,
the Arabs have refrained from kidnapping between the Tan-
ganyika and the sea ; but in Manyema, where the natives are
timid, irresolute, and divided into small, weak- tribes, the
Arabs recover their audacity, and exercise their kidnapping
propensities unchecked.

The accounts which the Doctor brings from that new
region are most deplorable. He was an unwilling spectator
of a horrible deed a massacre committed on the inhabitants
of a populous district who had assembled in the market
place, on the banks of the Lualaba, as they had been accus-
tomed to for ages. It seems the "Wa-Manyema are very fond
of marketing, believing it to be the summum bonum of
human enjoyment. They find unceasing pleasure in chaffer-
ing with might and main for the least mite of their currency
the last bead and when they gain the point to which their
peculiar talents are devoted, they feel intensely happy. The
portion are excessively fond of their marketing, and as they
are very beautiful, the market place must possess considerable
attractions for the male sex.



Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 35 of 51)