Josiah Tyler.

Livingstone lost and found online

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It was on such a day, with just such a scene, that Tagomoyo,
a half-caste Arab, with his armed slave escort, commenced an
indiscriminate massacre by firing volley after volley into the
dense mass of human beings. It is supposed that there were
about two thousand present," and at the first sound of the
firing these poor people all made a rush for their canoes. In
the fearful hurry to avoid being shot, the canoes were pad-
dled away by the first fortunate few who got possession of
them. Those that were not so fortunate sprang into the deep


waters of the Lualaba, and, though many of them became an
easy prey to the voracious crocodiles that swarmed to the
scene, the majority received their deaths from the bullets of
the merciless Tagomoyo and his villianous band.

The Doctor believes, as do the Arabs themselves, that about
four hundred people, mostly women and children, lost their
lives, while many more were made slaves. The scene is only
one of many such which he has unwillingly witnessed, and
he is utterly unable to describe the loathing he feels for the
inhuman perpetrators.

Slaves from Manyema command a higher price than those
of any other country, because of their fine forms and general
docility. The women, the Doctor says repeatedly, are
remarkably pretty creatures, and have nothing except
their hair in common with the negroids of the West Coast.
They are of very light color, have fine noses, well-cut and
not over-full lips, and a prognathous jaw is uncommon.
These women are eagerly sought after for wives by the half-
castes of the East Coast, and even the pure Amani Arabs do
not disdain connection with them.

To the north of Manyema, Livingstone came to a light-
complexioned race of the color of the Portuguese, or our
own Louisiana quadroons, w r ho are very fine people, and
singularly remarkable for commercial " cuteness " and sagac-
ity. The women are expert divers for oysters, which are
found in great abundance in the Lualaba.

Rua, at a place called Katanga, is rich in copper. The
copper mines of this place have been worked for ages. In
the bed of a stream gold has been found, washed down in
pencil-shaped lumps, or particles as large as split peas. Two
Arabs have gone thither to prospect for this metal, but as
they are ignorant of the art of gulch mining, it is scarcely
possible that they will succeed.

From these highly important and interesting discoveries
Doctor Livingstone was turned back when almost on the
threshold of success, by the positive refusal of his men to
accompany him further. They were afraid to go unless


accompanied by a large force of men, and as these were not
procurable in Manyema the Doctor reluctantly turned his
face toward Ujiji.

It was a long and weary road back. The journey had now
no interest for him. He had traveled it before when going
westward, full of high hopes and aspirations, impatient to
reach the goal which promised him rest from his labors ;
now, returning unsuccessful, baffled and thwarted, when
almost in sight of the end, and having to travel the
same road back on foot, with disappointed expectations and
defeated hopes preying on his mind, no wonder that the
brave old spirit almost succumbed, and the strong constitution
almost wrecked. He arrived at Ujiji, October 26, almost at
death's door.

On the way he had been trying to cheer himself up, since
he had found it impossible to contend against the obstinacy
of his men, with "It won't take long, five or six months
more ; it matters not, since it can't be helped. I have got
my goods in Ujiji and I can hire other people and make a
new start."

These are the words and hopes with which he tried to
delude himself into the idea that all would be right yet ; but
imagine, if you can the shock he must have suffered when he
found that the man to whom was entrusted his goods for
safe keeping, had sold every bale for ivory.

The evening of the day Livingstone returned to Ujiji, Susi
and Chuma, two of his most faithful men, were seen crying
bitterly. The Doctor asked them what ailed them, and was
then informed for the first time of the evil tidings that
awaited him. Said they :

" All our things are sold, sir. Shereef has sold everything
for ivory."

Later in the evening Shereef came to see him, and shame-
lessly offered his hand, with a salutatory, " Yambo."

Livingstone refused his hand, saying he could not shake
hands with a thief. As an excuse Shereef said he had
divined on the Koran, and that had told him the Hakim
(Arabic for Doctor) was dead.


Livingstone was now destitute. He had just enough to
keep him and his men alive for about a month, after which
he would be forced to beg from the Arabs. He had arrived
in Ujiji, October 26th. The Herald Expedition arrived Novem -
ber 10th, from the coast only sixteen days difference. Had I
not deen delayed at Unyanyembe by the war with Mirambo
I should have gone on to Manyema, and very likely have
been traveling by one road, while he would have been com-
ing by another to Ujiji. Had I gone on two years ago, when
I first received the instructions, I should have lost him with-
out doubt. But I was detained by a series of circumstances,
which chafed and fretted me considerably at the time, only
to permit him to reach Ujiji sixteen days before I appeared.
It was as if we were marching to meet together at an
appointed rendezvous the one from the west, the other
from the east.

The Doctor had heard of a white man being at Unyan-
yembe, who was said to have boats with him, and he had
thought he was another traveler sent by the French govern-
ment to replace Lieutenant Le Sainte, who died from fever a
few miles above Gondokoro. I had not written to him because
I believed him to be dead, and of course my sudden entrance
into Ujiji was as great a surprise to him as it was to the
Arabs. But the sight of the American flag, which he saw
waving in the van of the expedition, indicated that one was
coming who could speak his own language, and you know
already how the leader was received.


AFTER arriving at Ujiji from the exploration of Lake
Tanganyika, preparations were made for the return jour-
ney. It was proposed to Livingstone that he should embrace so
favorable an opportunity for returning to the Coast and Eng-
land, but he was not ready to relinquish the work he had
marked out for himself. He decided, however, to accompany
Stanley as far as Unyanyembe, to secure the supplies which
had been sent to him from Zanzibar. In the meantime he was
very busy writing letters to be forwarded by Mr. Stanley.

Christmas was at hand, and of course had to be celebrated in
the good old English way. Nor can we doubt that an invit-
ing feast was spread out for the occasion. " The best which
the Ujijian markets offered," added to the stores brought by
Stanley, furnished ample material for a Christmas dinner
such as was never before seen at Ujiji, and Livingstone and
his guest did full justice to the good things provided.

"What a contrast between this Christmas dinner and that
to which Dr. Kane and his homesick crew sat down seven-
teen years before amid the darkness of an Arctic winter, where
they had been imprisoned for over fifteen months with no
possibility of escaping for many more ! " We passed around
merrily our turkeys roast and boiled, roast-beef, onions, pota-
toes and cucumbers, water-melons, and God knows what other
cravings of the scurvy-sickened palate, with entire exclusion
of the fact that each one of these was variously represented



by pork and beans. Lord Peter himself was not more cor-
dial in his dispensation of plum-pudding, mutton, and custard
to his unbelieving brothers.

" M cGary, of course, told us his story : we hear it every
day, and laugh at it almost as heartily as he does himself.
Caesar Johnson is the guest of ' Ole Ben,' colored gentlemen
both, who do occasional white-washing. The worthies have
dined staunchly on the dish of beans, browned and relished by
its surmounting cube of pork.. A hospitable pause, and, with
a complacent wave of the hand, Ole Ben addresses the lady
hostess : ' Ole woman ! bring on de resarve.' ' Ha'n't got no
resarve.' 'Well, den,' with a placid smile,- 'bring de beans ! "

The Christmas festivities over, everything was ready for a
start, which was made on the 26th of December, 1871, It
had been decided to leave ITiiii bv another route than that

i *i /

by which Stanley had entered it, in order to escape the wars
and avaricious tribes as far as possible.

It will be remembered that when the expedition was going
to Ujiji, a question arose, on its arrival in the Rusawa dis-
trict, as to which of two routes it was then best to take the
one leading northward to the Malagarazi River, and thence
westward to Ujiji ; or the one leading directly west to the
Tanganyika, which would strike the lake at Urimba. In
going to Ujiji the former route was taken ; in returning the
latter one was decided on.

The road as sketched out and accomplished by the travel-
e,rs was as follows :

Seven days by water south to Urimba.

Ten days across the uninhabited forests of Ukawendi.

Twenty days through Ukonongo, directly east.

Twelve days north through Ukonongo.

Thence five days into Unyanyembe.

Urimba is the name of a village situated on the eastern
coast of Lake Tanganyika sixty miles south of Ujiji. To this
place the travelers were rowed in canoes, and here Stanley
bade farewell to the lake, and started eastward through the
jungles of Ukawendi.


On reaching the Rusawa district, the party found them-
selves in their old tracks, and from this time their route to
Unyanyembe was the same as that by which they had come.
The travelers arrived safely at Unyanyembe on the 18th of
February, " without," as Mr. Stanley says, " adventures of
any kind excepting killing zebras, buffaloes, and giraffes, after
fifty-four days' travel." The expedition suffered considerably
from scarcity of food, and fever, but Dr. Livingstone walked
the whole distance.

Mr. Stanley, in one of his speeches in England, thus graph-
ically pictures the feelings and life of men tramping onward
through the wilds of Inner Africa, as he and Livingstone did
all the way from Ujiji to Unyanyembe :

" You are constantly thinking of your own country. Half
of the day, even on the march, you put your head down, and,
with your stick in your hand, you march on. The sun beats
on you and the great forest rubs you up. The men are all
silent, too, and their nature is to think of their wives and the
little ones they left behind. In the same way, when you think
also of that country you love to call your own, you show
yourself part and parcel of the human nature with which you
are surrounded.

" When we start from our camp in the morning, and give
the word to march, it is tramp, tramp, tramp in dead silence,
in Indian tile, through the forest. Every now and then some
fellow has a happy thought, and immediately breaks into a
song. Then the whole caravan breaks out into song, and the
great forest rings with the chorus. "When the song is ended
we go on in that silent Indian file again till perhaps we sight
a village. "We do not know what the village is. Is it hostile,
or is it friendly ? Those are the first questions we ask each
other. And the way to find that out is to break into song.
The natives hear the strains. If they are friendly they come
out and join us ; if they are hostile they shut the doors, and
as we file past the wicket and the fences we see the scowling
faces behind the palisades.

" Then we get into camp. 'Now, boys,' I say, 'pitch the


tent and let us have a cup of tea.' That tea is all our re-
freshment. It is our beer, our champagne and our wine ; and
after the tea we lie down on the katanda, take out our pipes
and smoke. After a smoke we take out our note books and
make a record of everything we have found out on the road.
That would probably take an hour or half an hour, and it is
hard work."

The travelers were cordially welcomed at Unyanyembe, and
were soon comfortably ensconced in Stanley's former quar-
ters at Kwihara, where they enjoyed a season of rest after
their long march from Ujiji. Here, too, they were rejoiced
to find letters and newspapers awaiting them, all of which
were perused with much relish.

They were saddened, however, at learning that Mr. Shaw
had died in about one month after returning to Unyanyembe,
as well as two others of the expedition, who had been left be-
hind art that place sick. The Mirambo panic had abated.

As Dr. Livingstone could not be induced to accompany
Stanley to the coast, the travelers were now obliged to part
one to rush to the nearest telegraph station, the other to
plunge again into the howling wilderness.

On the fourteenth day of March, 1872, Mr. Stanley started
from Unyanyembe on his return to the coast. He was the
bearer of many letters written by Livingstone, and also of
his diary, which was carefully sealed up, put in a box, and
carried by one of the most reliable men. It was directed to
Livingstone's daughter in Scotland, w r ith instructions that it
should not be opened until after his return or death.

This diary came near being lost. In fording the Mukon-
dokwa River, the man who was carrying it on his head got
into deep water, and came near being overwhelmed by the
flood. Mr. Stanley, fearing that he was about to let go, pre-
sented a cocked pistol at his head, and threatened to blow
out his brains if he yielded his hold. The pistol had a greater
terror' than the water; and the man, making a desperate
struggle, got the box safely ashore.

As the men were homeward bound their progress was


rapid. Messengers, however, were sent ahead to announce
the approach of the expedition. When four days from the
coast Stanley heard that there were many white men at Bag-
amoyo, and on asking who they were, was assured that " they
were about starting to hunt up Stanley." This was a great
surprise to the traveler, for till then he had not been aware
that he was lost. The strangers proved to be members of
the English Search Expedition , then quartered at Bagamoyo.

At sunset on the sixth of May, shots, accompanied by the
blowing of horns, were heard outside of the village, and soon
Mr. Stanley and his party were seen approaching, the Amer-
ican flag carried at the front.

As Stanley approached the quarters of the English Expe-
dition, he saw a white man, in white flannels, with a sort of
ornamental air about him, standing on the door step, who
came forward, grasped his hand, and said :

" I congratulate you upon your success. You have done a
great work. Will you have a glass of beer 2"

" Thank you," said Stanley. Upon inquiry, he was inform-
ed that he was conversing with Lieut. Henn of the Royal
Xavy, then commanding the Expedition. Lieutenant Henn
continued :

" Has Dr. Livingstone got all he wants 2"


" Does he want anything else 2"


" You are sure he has got everything?"

" Well, I have got a list in my pocket of a few things that
he desires to have ; if you have these he will take them."

" Oh," said Lieut. Henn, " I don't see the use of my going."

" To tell the truth," replied Stanley, " I don't either; but
perhaps you have got your own orders, and I don't know
what they are."

" This is a Livingstone Search Expedition, "and if he is
searched for and relieved why, the object of the expedition
is ended. I know what I will do ;" I will go back to Zanzi-
bar and resign ; but I should like to shoot an elephant."




Mr. Stanley then showed to Lieut. Henn a letter which
Dr. Livingstone had given him on parting with him at Un-
yanyembe, of which the following is a fac-sinaile.

On the 7th of May, Mr. Stanley, accompanied by all the


survivers of the expedition, went over to Zanzibar. "When
the dhow neared the island a gun was fired, and the American
colors were soon visible, proudly flying from the gaff. The
beach was lined with people, native and white, who testified
their delight by an unceasing discharge of small arms. The
guns in the Sultan's batteries fired repeated salutes, and, in
fact, the enthusiasm was something unparalleled. There was
never anything seen like it in Zanzibar, and the Americans
in particular were joyful in the extreme.

Mr. Stanley was again the guest of the American Consul,
and all the American residents visited him. Though suffering
from fever on his arrival he soon recovered, and there was a
season of general rejoicing. The Sultan of Zanzibar gave a
fete in honor of Mr. Stanley, which was a grand affair. The
American Consul gave a dinner, to which all the Americans
were invited, as well as the members of the English Expedi-
tion, including Dr. Livingstone's son, Mr. W. Oswald Living-

Mr. Stanley immediately set to work organizing the new
expedition, and selected fifty men, including six ISTasik boys
and many of his own guard. These men were armed, paid
and equipped by the English Expedition, and left Zanzibar
May 28th, for Unyanyembe, where Dr. Livingstone was to
await their arrival.

On the 28th of May 1872, Mr. Stanley, with Dr. Living-
stone's son and other members of the English Expedition,
sailed from Zanzibar for Seychelles in the screw steamer Star.
His faithful ebony boy Kalulu, accompanied him.



"Livingstone Search and Relief Expedition," left
-L England under the direction of the Geographical Society,
though a large portion of the necessary funds were raised by
private subscriptions. It comprised, when it left England,
Lieutenants Dawson and Ilenn, of the Royal Navy, and Mr.
W. Oswald Livingstone.

These gentlemen reached Zanzibar, by steamer Abydos, on
the 17th of March, 1872, and made their head-quarters, as all
previous English East African Explorers had done, at the
British Consulate, which is built of coral on the northern
edge of the sand-flat upon which the town is located, and
overlooks the harbor.

Lieutenant Dawson brought a letter from the Society,
inviting Rev. Charles New, an African Missionary and trav-
eler of ten years experience, to accompany the expedition.
He had arrived at Zanzibar two days previous on his way to
England, but decided to join the expedition as interpreter
and third in command. His services were to be gratuitous,
but he was to be free from personal expenses, and a passage
to England was to be furnished him.

Before leaving England Lieutenant Dawson had been put
on half-pay, and both he and Lieutenant Ilenn received an
intimation that their period of absence would not be allowed
to be counted as " sea time."

Sayid Bergash, Sultan of Zanzibar, returned to his domin-



ions on the 29th of March, from a visit to Mecca. On hear-
ing of the arrival of the expedition, he at once invited its
members to a private reception and durbar at his palace. On
this occasion a handsome gift from the Geographical Society
was presented to his Highness. It consisted of a silver salver
and coffee-pot in a polished oak case, lined with red velvet,
and bearing a suitable inscription.

The Sultan seemed much pleased, expressed a strong inter-
est in Dr. Livingstone, and said he would do all he could to
assist his visitors. He also put his steam yacht, Darra Salam,
at their disposal. The Sultan is thirty -two years of age, and
succeeded his brother in 1870. He is much respected both
by foreigners and natives. The Grand Yizier, Sayid Suli-
man, takes the management of affairs in the Sultan's absence,
and is his counselor on all state questions, (cut, page 391.)

Preparations for the journey were at once made. Goods
were purchased and packed, and a head-man and guard
engaged. Six of the guard were Nasik boys, originally
slaves, who had been released by H. M. cruisers, and educated
by the Mombas Mission at their school near Bombay. Hav-
ing volunteered their services they had been sent to Zanzibar
in February. They were handy and willing, averaging about
twenty years of age, apt pupils, and a credit to the Mission
which had rescued them from their ignorant state, educated
them, and converted them to Christianity, They had been
taught trades, and could speak and write in English. They
were at once drilled in the use of fire arms and made good
soldiers,and subsequently composed a part of the force which
was sent to Dr. Livingstone at Unyanyembe. (cut, page 561 )

The following is an interesting account of the collapse of
the Expedition as given by Mr. New :

"All ready, Lieutenant Dawson, Lieutenant Henn and
myself embarked on board a native dhow, with the material
of the expedition, for Bagamoyo. This was on Saturday,
the 27th of April. It was late in the afternoon, and the wind
had died away, in consequence of which we made but little
progress, and were obliged to drop anchor at dusk near the


coast of Zanzibar, in full sight of the town. The boat
was an open one, and rain began to fall. Our condition that
night beggars description, and I will not attempt it.

" We reached Bagamoyo on the following day at evening.
"We were received by Hindoos, Banians and Baloch with
' open arms,' and were conducted to our quarters with the
most exuberant protestations of respect, good will and assur-
ance of ready help of every sort. Could anything be more
satisfactory ? Why, we had already half discovered Living-
stone. What could it be to travel in Africa, where the peo-
ple were almost ready to carry us about on their very shoul-
ders? But our fate was approaching. The Livingstone
Search and Relief Expedition was to receive its death blow
in its most propitious moments.

"Before we had been many minutes in Bagamoyo, we
were told that two men had arrived there two days before with
news of Stanley and Livingstone. The travelers had met ;
Livingstone was in Unyanyembe, alive and well, while Stan-
ley had reached Ugogo on his way to the coast, and might be
expected in Bagamoyo in two or three days. ' Who are the
men who have brought this news, and where are they ? ' we
inquired. ' They are the American's servants, and we will
soon bring them to you,' was the reply. Accordingly the
men were brought to us. They were questioned with as
much care as eagerness. It was all true. Stanley had met
Livingstone at Ujiji. * *

" Of course, we were all more or less excited, but Lieuten-
ant Dawson looked unutterable things. He instantly told us
that the work he had undertaken to do had already been
done ; that nothing remained to him but to return to England ;
the expedition so far as he was concerned was at an end.
He said he had not come to East Africa to explore, but to
search for Dr. Livingstone. Dr. Livingstone had been found,
and his work was done ; he should certainly give up the
expedition. Lieutenant Henn expressed the same intention.
My own first thoughts were that the expedition was at an
end J but upon reconsideration it occurred to me that, though


Dr. Livingstone had been found, he had not been relieved,
and that it was the duty of some one to carry on relief. I
resolved, if no one else would do this, to do it myself.

* * * * * * *

" On the following morning, Monday, April 29th, Lieutenant
Ilenn and I saw Lieutenant Dawson off to Zanzibar. On
Wednesday evening, May 1st, I received letters from Dr. Kirk
and Lieutenant Dawson, offering me the charge of the Relief
Expedition. Dr. Kirk wrote as follows :

" ZANZIBAR, April 30, 1872.

DEAR MR. NEW Mr. Dawson astonished us with his
news yesterday, which upsets all previous arrangements, the
notice of Dr. Livingstone being confirmed by Arab letters.
Mr. Dawson now determines to go home, and I thinks acts
well, as an observer could only be looked upon as a rival in
the field Dr. Livingstone has chosen and still desires to fol-
low. Mr. Livingstone goes on under all circumstances, and
will take to his father the stores. Mr. Henn, I dare say, has
no desire to take Dawson's place, but I feel less sure whether
you may not feel that your own object that of making a
missionary survey of a new field may not still commend
itself to you, and, if so, you might go on in charge of the

Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 36 of 51)