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Relief Expedition, the Search Expedition having ceased.
The relief, would in my opinion, be to deliver our stores to
the Doctor, who, being then joined by his son, would act as
he pleased, and you too be free to return, taking stores for this
purpose. This is a matter for you seriously to think over.
That young Livingstone goes on is settled. If you go he
will be happy to have you as his leader in charge.
The expedition will cease on reaching Unyanyembe. and you
might then come back with some or all of the Mombas men.
Think over all this and let me know. Ever yours, in haste.


On receiving these letters from Kirk and Dawson, both
suggesting that he should lead the expedition, Mr. New deter-
mined to accept the charge ; but Lt. Henn had changed his
mind, and he now expressed his resolution to assume the


command of the expedition, insisting on his right to do so as
second in command. So Mr. New wrote to Dr. Kirk that
Lt. Henn did not wish to give up command, and that he
(New) did not wish to struggle with him for the position ;
but, all things considered, he did not feel like taking a second
place in such an expedition as the Search Expedition had
become. Mr. New and Lt. Henn then went over to Zanzibar,
and a meeting of the members of the expedition was held.
Of this meeting Mr. New says :

" Lt. Dawson said his mind was thoroughly made up, and
that he intended to retire from the expedition. He then
said, ' I now feel it to be my duty to offer the expedition to
each member of it, according to his position in connection
therewith, and I therefore first appeal to Mr. Henn.' Mr.
Ilenn instantly replied, ' I will take it.' I must say that
these tactics greatly amused me, because they were so totally
unnecessary. Mr. Henn having accepted the command, I
was appealed to as to what course I would take. I repeated
what I had said in my note. Still, my great anxiety to be
of service to the expedition inclined me to accept the humili-
ating position now offered me ; and, after some hesitation, I
gave a verbal consent to take it. But the decision was pre-
mature. My knowledge of Mr. Henn compelled me to the
conclusion that I could not'act in concert with him. On the
following morning I sent in my resignation to Mr. Henn.

* * * * * * #

" On Monday, May 6, Lt. Henn and Mr. Livingstone left
Zanzibar once more for Bagamoyo, with the view of engag-
ing porters, and leaving for the interior immediately. At
Bagamoyo, on the very day of their arrival, they met Mr.
Stanley. On Tuesday, May 7th, Mr. Stanley reached Zanzibar,
accompanied by Lt. Henn and Mr. Livingstone. I met these
gentlemen at the landing stage. Another change had come
over the spirit of Mr. Henn's dream. He said he had now
decided to give up the* expedition, and inquired as to what
prospect there was of getting away from Zanzibar in a home-
ward direction. Mr. Livingstone, however, announced it to


be his intention to go on alone. Had he done this, however
much I might have admired his courage, I could not have
commended his prudence.

" In my opinion, it would have been wrong for him. to
have gone alone ; his youth, his unacclimatized constitution,
and his ignorance of the languages and customs of the people
were against him, and to have attempted such a task under
such circumstances, single-handed, would probably have led
to disaster the most serious. I felt this so strongly that I
ventured to express this view to Dr. Kirk. At the same time
I felt that the expedition ought not to be given up, and I
volunteered even then to take charge of it. Alone, or in
connection with Mr. Livingstone, I would have done my best
to push it to a successful issue. Dr. Kirk, however, said that
such was the state of things then that he could do nothing ;
that Mr. Livingstone was quite determined to go on alone,
and that things must take their own course.

" Two or three days after, Mr. Livingstone went to Baga-
moyo once more, with the intention, as every one thought, of
proceeding to Unyanyembe. But in a few days more he was
back again in Zanzibar, and then it was reported that he, too,
would give up the expedition. Thus the collapse of what
might have been a grand expedition was complete. In the
meantime Mr. Stanley was perfecting his own great achieve-
ments by organizing a native caravan, with the view of send-
ing it immediately to the relief of Dr. Livingstone. By the
exercise of uncommon energy Mr. Stanley effected this ; and
before we left Zanzibar, a caravan numbering fifty-seven men
was packed, signed, sealed, addressed, and despatched, like so
many packets of useful commodities, to the service and succor
of Dr. Livingstone, Unyanyembe, Unyamwezi, or the Land
of the Moon ; and I sincerely hope they may not fail to reach
their destination."




WHEN the news of Mr. Stanley's success in discovering
Dr. Livingstone first reached this country, there were
people both here and in England who more than insinuated
a doubt as to whether the newspaper correspondent had
really been to the interior of Africa. The ample evidence
which afterwards came to hand removed any genuine doubts
of the fact, although some " Doubting' Thomas's " still
thought, or pretended to think, that the Livingstone's
letters were a humbug.

There are mean, suspicious and jealous natures in all classes
of society, and if reports be true these qualities especially
abound in the scientific and artistic world. Some, however,
doubted honestly, and frankly apologized for the manner in
which they received the first news from the lost explorer.

Mr. Stanley was the bearer of numerous letters from Dr.
Livingstone, among which was the following addressed to
Mr. Bennett :

EAST AFRICA, November, 1871, f
MY DEAR SIR It is in general somewhat difficult to
write to one we have never seen it feels so much like ad-
dressing an abstract idea but the presence of your repre-
sentative, Mr. H. M. Stanley, in this distant region takes
away the strangeness I should otherwise have felt, and in
writing to thank you for the extreme kindness that prompted
you to send him, I feel quite at home.



If I explain the forlorn condition in which he found me,
you will easily perceive that I have good reason to use very
strong expressions of gratitude. I came to Ujiji off a tramp
of between four hundred and five hundred miles, beneath a
blazing vertical sun, having been baffled, worried, defeated
and forced to return, when almost in sight of the end of
the geographical part of my mission, by a number of half-
caste Moslem slaves sent to me from Zanzibar, instead of
men. The sore heart, made still sorer by the woful sights I
had seen of man's inhumanity to man, reached and told on
the bodily frame and depressed it beyond measure. I
thought that I was dying on my feet. It is not too much to
say that almost every step of the weary, sultry way was in
pain, and I reached Ujiji a mere " ruckle " of bones.

There I found that some five hundred pounds sterling
worth of goods which I had ordered from Zanzibar, had
unaccountably been entrusted to a drunken half-caste Moslem
tailor, who, after squandering them for sixteen months on
the way to Ujiji, finished up by selling off all that remained
for slaves and ivory for himself. He had " divined " on the
Koran and found that I was dead. He had also written to
the Governor of Unyaiiyembe that he had sent slaves after
me to Manyema who returned and reported my decease,
and begged permission to sell off the few goods that his
drunken appetite had spared.

He, however, knew perfectly well, from men who had seen
me, that I was alive, and waiting for the goods and men ;
but as for morality, he is evidently an idiot, and there being
no law here except that of the dagger or musket, I had to sit
down in great weakness, destitute of everything save a few
barter cloths and beads, which I had taken the precaution to
leave here in case of extreme need.

The near prospect of beggary among Ujijians made me

I could not despair, because I laughed so much at a friend
who, on reaching the mouth of the Zambesi, said that he was
tempted to despair on breaking the photograph of his wife.


"We could have no success after that. Afterward, the idea of
despair had to me such a strong smack of the ludicrous that
it was out of the question.

Well, when I had got to about the lowest verge, vague
rumors of an English visitor reached me. I thought of
myself as the man who went down from Jerusalem to Jeri-
cho; but neither priest, Levite nor Samaritan could possibly
pass my way. Yet the good Samaritan was close at hand,
and one of my people rushed up at the top of his speed, and,
in great excitement gasped out, " An Englishman coming !
I see him !" and off he darted to meet him.

An American flag, the first ever seen in these parts, at the
head of a caravan, told me the nationality of the stranger.

I am as cold and non-demonstrative as we islanders are
usually reputed to be ; but your kindness made my frame
thrill. It was, indeed, overwhelming, and I said in my soul,
" Let the richest blessings descend from the Highest on you
and yours !"

The news Mr. Stanley had to tell was thrilling. The mighty
political changes on the Continent ; the success of the
Atlantic cables ; the election of General Grant, and many oth-
er topics riveted my attention for days together, and had an
immediate and beneficial effect on my health. I had been
without news from home for. years save what I could glean
from a fdw Saturday Reviews and Punch of 1868. The
appetite revived, and in a week I began to feel strong again.

Mr. Stanley brought a most kind and encouraging despatch
from Lord Clarendon, whose loss I sincerely deplore, the first
I have received from the Foreign Office since 1866, and infor^
mation that the British government had kindly sent a thou-
sand pounds sterling to my aid. Up to his arrival I was not
aware of any pecuniary aid. I came unsalaried, but this want
is now happily repaired, and I am anxious that you and all
my friends should know that, though uncheered by letter, I
have stuck to the task which my friend Sir Roderick Murch-
ison set me, with " John Bullish " tenacity, believing that all:
would come right at last.


The watershed of South Central Africa is over seven hun-
dred miles in length. The fountains thereon are almost
innumerable that is, it would take a man's lifetime to count
them. From the watershed they converge into four large
rivers, and these again into two mighty streams in the great
Nile valley, which begins in ten degrees to twelve degrees
south latitude. It was long ere light dawned on the ancient
problem and gave me a clear idea of the drainage. I had to
feel my way, and every step of the way, and was generally
groping in the dark, for who cared where the rivers ran?
We drank our fill and let the rest run by.

The Portuguese who visited Cazembe asked for slaves
and ivory, and heard of nothing else. I asked about the
waters, questioned and cross-questioned, until I was almost
afraid of being set down as afflicted with hydrocephalus.

My last work, in which I have been greatly hindered from
want of suitable attendants, was following the central line
of drainage down through the country of the cannibals, called
Manyuema, or, shortly, Manyema. This line of drainage
has four large lakes in it. The fourth I was near when
obliged to turn. It is from one to three miles broad, and
never can be reached at any point or at any time of the
year. Two western drains, the Lupera, or Bartle Frere's
River flow into it at Lake Kamolondo. Then the great River
Lomaine flows through Lake Lincoln into it, too, and seems
to form the western arm of the Nile, on which Petherick

Now, I knew about six hundred miles of the watershed,
and unfortunately the seventh hundred is the most interest-
ing of the whole ; for in it, if I am not mistaken, four fount-
ains arise from an earthen mound, and the last of the four
becomes, at no great distance off', a large river.

Two of these run north to Egypt, Lupera and Louraine,
and two run south into inner Ethiopia, as the Liambai, or
upper Zambesi, and the Kafneare.

Are not these the sources of the Nile mentioned by the
Secretary of Minerva, in the city of Sais, to Herodotus ?


I have heard of them so often, and at great distances off,
that I cannot doubt their existence, and in spite of the sore
longing for home that seizes me every time I think of my
family, I wish to finish up by their re-discovery.

Five hundred pounds sterling worth of goods have again
unaccountably been entrusted to slaves, and have been over a
year on the way, instead of four months. I must go where
they lie at your expense, ere I can put the natural comple-
tion to my work.

And if my disclosures regarding the terrible Ujijian slavery
should lead to the suppression of the East Coast slave trade,
I shall regard that as a greater matter by far than the discov-
ery of all the Nile sources together. Now that you have
done with domestic slavery forever, lend us your powerful
aid toward this great object. This fine country is blighted,
as with a curse from above, in order that the slavery privi-
leges of the petty Sultan of Zanzibar may not be infringed,
and the rights of the Crown of Portugal, which are mythical,
should be kept in abeyance till some future time when Africa
will become another India to Portuguese slave traders.

I conclude by again thanking you most cordially for your

great generosity, and am,

Gratefully yours,


This letter when first published in the New York Herald,
drew many comments like the following from the press :

" Dr. Livingstone evidently intends to finish up the work
he has undertaken, and accordingly he waves a farewell to
Stanley, and the civilized world generally, bows his thanks
to all, and singular, turns his back, and plunges again into
the dense African jungles, to hunt for a seventh-hundred of
the long line of watershed, that he is convinced holds the
secret of the Nile. His letter is a curiosity in more ways
than one and it has the further advantage of restoring men's
faith in human nature, for shall we say that very many per-
sons have been inclined to jeer at the HERALD, and to poke
fun at Stanley ? Let all the carpers hide their diminished
heads. There is but one HERALD, and Stanley is its profit.


DR. LIVINGSTONE also wrote and, sent Mr. Stanley,
a second letter to Mr. Bennett. The first one was
intended, doubtless, as an acknowledgment of Mr. Bennett's
kindness and enterprise. In the second one, dated at Ujiji,
November, 1871, which is given below, he relates some of
his experiences and adventures, and speaks forcibly of the
evils of the slave trade.

MY DEAK SIR I wish to say a little about the slave trade in
Eastern Africa. It is not a very inviting subject, and to some
I may appear very much akin to the old lady who relished
her paper for neither births, deaths, nor marriages, but for
good, racy, bloody murder. I am, however, far from fond of
the horrible. I often wish I could forget scenes I have seen,
and will certainly never try to inflict on others the sorrow
which being witness of man's inhumanity to man has often
entailed on myself.

Some of your readers know that about five years ago I
undertook, at the instigation of my very dear old friend, Sir
Roderick Murchison, the task of examining the watershed of
South Central Africa. The work had a charm for my mind
because the dividing line between the North and South was
unknown, and a fit object for exploration. Having other
work on hand I at first recommended another for the task,
but on his declining to go without a handsome salary and
something to fall back upon afterwards, I agreed to go myself,



and was encouraged by Sir Roderick Murchison, saying in a
warm, jovial manner, u You will be the real discoverer of the
sources of the Nile." I thought that two years would be
sufficient to go from the coast inland across the head of Lake
ISTyassa to the watershed, wherever that might be, and after
examination try to begin a benevolent mission with some
tribe on the slope back to the coast. Had I known all the
time, toil, hunger, hardship and weary hours involved in that
precious water parting, I might have preferred having my
head shaved and a blister put on it, to grappling with my good
old friend's task ; but having taken up the burden I could not
bear to be beaten by it.

I shall tell you a little about the progress made by and by.

At present let me give a glimpse of the slave trade, to
which the search and discovery of most of the Nile fountains
have brought me face to face. The whole traffic, whether by
land or ocean, is a gross outrage on the common law of man-
kind. It is carried on from age to age, and, in addition to
the untold evils it inflicts, presents almost insurmountable
obstacles to intercourse between different portions of the
human family. This open sore in the world is partly owing
to human cupidity, partly to the ignorance of the more civil-
ized of mankind of the blight which lights chiefly on more
degraded piracy on the high seas. It was once as common
as slave trading is now, but as it became thoroughly known
the whole civilized world rose against it.

In now trying to make Eastern African slave trade better
known to Americans, I indulge the hope I am aiding on,
though in a small degree, the good time coming yet, when
slavery as well as piracy will be chased from the world.
Many have but a faint idea of the evils that trading in slaves
inflicts on the victims and authors of its atrocities. Most peo-
ple imagine that negroes, after being brutalized by a long
course of servitude, with but few of the ameliorating influences
that elevate the more favored races, are fair average specimens
of the African man. Our ideas are derived from slaves of
the west coast, who have for ages been subject to domestic


bondage, and all the depressing agencies of a most unhealthy
climate. These have told most injuriously on their physical
frames, while fraud and the rum trade have ruined their moral
natures so as not to discriminate the difference of the mon-
strous injustice.

The main body of the population is living free in the inte-
rior, under their own chiefs and laws, cultivating their own
farms, catching fish in their own rivers, or fighting bravely
with the grand old denizens of the forests, which, in more
recent continents, can only be reached in rocky strata or under
perennial ice. Winwood Reade hit the truth when he said
the ancient Egyptian, with his large, round, black eyes, full
luscious lips, and somewhat depressed nose, is far nearer the
typical negro than the west coast African, who has been
debased by the unhealthy land he lives in. The slaves gen-
erally, and especially those on the east coast at Zanzibar and
elsewhere, are extremely ugly. I have no prejudice against
their color ; indeed, any one who lives long among them for-
gets they are black and feels they are just fellow men ; but
the low, retreating forehead, prognathous jaws, lark heels and
other physical peculiarities common among slaves and West
African negroes, always awaken some feelings of aversion akin
to those with which we view specimens of the Bill Sykes and
" Bruiser " class in England. I would not utter a syllable
calculated to press down either class more deeply in the mire
in which it is already sunk, but I wish to point out that these
are not typical Africans any more than typical Englishmen,
and that the natives on nearly all the high lands of the inte-
rior Continent are, as a rule, fair average specimens of

I happened to be present when all the head men of the
great Chief Msama who lives west of the south end of Tan-
ganyika had come together to make peace with certain Arabs
who had burned their chief town, and I am certain one could
not see more finely formed, intellectual heads in any assembly
in London or Paris, and the faces and forms corresponded
with the finely shaped heads. Msama himself had been a



sort of Napoleon for fighting and conquering in his younger

He was exactly like the ancient Assyrians sculptured on
the Nineveh marbles, as Nimrod and others, and he showed
himself to be one of ourselves by habitually indulging in
copious potations of beer, called pombe, and had become what
Nathaniel Hawthorne called " bulbous below the ribs." I do
not know where the phrase " bloated aristocracy " arose. It
must be American, for I have had glimpses of a good many
English noblemen, and Msama was the only specimen of a
" bloated aristocrat " on whom I ever set eyes.

Many of the women are very pretty, and, like alt ladies,
would have been much prettier if they had only let them-
selves alone. Fortunately the dears could not change charm-
ing black eyes, beautiful foreheads, nicely rounded limbs, well
shaped forms and small hands and feet, but must adorn them-
selves, and this they do " oh, the hussies !" by filing splen-
did teeth to points like cats' teeth. It was distressing, for it
made their smile which had so much power over us he
donkeys like that of crocodile ornaments, scarce. What
would our ladies do if they had none, but pout and lecture us
on woman's rights. But these specimens of the fair sex make
shift by adorning fine warm brown skins, tattooing various
pretty devices without colors, that, besides purposes of beauty,
serve the heralding uses of our Highland tartans. They are
not black, but of light, warm brown color, and so very sister-
ish, if I may use the word, like a new coinage, it feels an
injury done one's self to see a bit of grass stuck through the
cartilage of the nose so as to bulge out the alee nasi, or wing
of the nose of the anatomists.

Cazembe's Queen, Moaria Nyombe by name, would be
esteemed a real beauty either in London, Paris, or New York,
and yet she had a small hole through the cartilage, near the
tip of her fine, slightly aquiline nose. But she had only filed
one side of two of the front of her superb snow-white teeth,
and then, what a laugh she had ! Let those who wish to know
go see her. She was carried to her farm in a pony phaeton,


which is a sort of throne, fastened in two very long poles,
and carried by twelve stalwart citizens.

If they take the Punch motto of Cazembe " Niggers don't
require to be shot here " as their own, they may show them-
selves to be men ; but whether they do or not, Cazembe will
show himself a man of sterling good sense.

Now, these people, so like ourselves internally, have brave,
genuine human souls. Rua, large sections of country north-
west of Cazembe, but still in the same inland region, is peo-
pled with men very like those of Msama and Cazembe. An
Arab, Seyd Ben Habib, was sent to trade in Rua two years
ago, and, as Arabs usually do where natives have no guns,
Seyd Ben Habib's elder brother carried matters with a high
hand. The Rua men observed the elder brother slept in a
white tent, and, pitching spears into it by night, killed him.
As Moslems never forgive blood, the younger brother forth-
with " ran a muck " on all indiscriminately in a large dis-

Let it not be supposed any of these people are, like Amer-
ican Indians, insatiable, blood-thirsty savages, who will not
be reclaimed or entertain terms of lasting friendship with
fair-dealing strangers. Had the actual murderers been
demanded, and a little time granted, I feel morally certain,
from many other instances among tribes who, like the Ba
Rua, have not been spoiled by Arab traders, they would all
have been given up.

The chiefs of the country would, first of all, have specified
the crime of which the elder brother was guilty, and who had
been led to avenge it. It is very likely they would have
stipulated no other should be punished but the actual perpe-
trator, the domestic slave acting under his orders being con-
sidered free of blame. /

I know nothing distinguishes the uncontaminated African

Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 37 of 51)