Josiah Tyler.

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how I have been baffled by the Banian slaves sent by Ludah,
instead of men. They agreed to go to Ujiji, and, having
there ascertained where I was to be found, were to follow
me as boatmen, carriers, woodmen, or in every capacity
required, without reference to the customs of other expedi-
tions. Each on being engaged received an advance of thirty
dollars, and a promise of five dollars a month afterwards.
This was double to Zanzibar freeman's pay. They had
much sickness near the coast, and five died with cholera.
While under Shereef and Awathe, they cannot be blamed
for following their worthless leaders ; these leaders remained
at Ujiji, and Shereef s three slaves and his women did the
same. After two months' delay these seven Banian slaves
came along with the men returning past Bambarre, as men-
tioned above. They came on the 4th of February, 1871,
having left Zanzibar in October, 1869.

I had been laid up at Bambarre by irritable eating ulcers
on both feet, which prevented me from setting a foot on the
ground from August, 1870, to the end of the year ; a piece
of malachite, rubbed down with water on a stone, was the


only remedy that had any effect ; I had no medicine ; some in.
a box had been unaccountably detained by the Governor of
Unyanyembe since 1868, though I sent for it twice, and
delivered calico to prepay the carriers. I have been unchar-
itable enough to suspect that the worthy man wishes to fall
heir to my two guns in the same box. Shereef sent by the
slaves a few coarse beads, evidently exchanged for my beauti-
ful and dear beads, a little calico, and, in great mercy, some
of my coffee and sugar. The slaves came without loads,
except my tent, which Shereef and they had used until it
was quite rotten, and so full of holes it looked as if riddled
with small shot. I never used it once. They had been
sixteen months on the way from Zanzibar instead of three,
and now, like their head men, refused to go any further.
They swore so positively that the Consul had told them to
force me back, and on no account to go forward, that I actu-
ally looked again at their engagement to be sure my eyes
had not deceived me.

Fear alone made them consent to go, but had I not been
aided by Muhamad Bogharib, they would have gained their
point by sheer brazen-faced falsehood. I might then have
gone back and deposed Shereef and Awathe, but this would
have required five or six months, and in that time, or perhaps
less time, at least, I had good reason to hope the exploration
would be finished, and my return would be up Albert Lake
and Tanganyika, instead of the dreary part of Manyema and
Guba I already knew perfectly. The desire to finish the
geographical part of my work was, and is, most intense every
time my family comes into my mind. I also hoped that, as
usual, ere long I should gain influence over my attendants ;;
but I never had experience with Banian Moslem slaves
before, who had imbibed little of the Mohammedan religion
but its fulsome pride, arid whose previous employment had
been browbeating Arab debtors, somewhat like the lowest
class of our sheriff officers.

As we went across the second great bend of the Lualaba,
they showed themselves to be all accomplished cowards in-,


constant dread of being killed and eaten by Manyema. Fail-
ing to induce me to spend all the goods and return, they
refused to go beyond a point far down the Lnalaba, where I
was almost in sight of the end towards which I strained.
They now tried to stop further progress by falsehood, and
they found at a camp of Ujijian and mainland Arabs, a num-
ber of willing helpers to propagate the slander " that I wanted
neither ivory nor slaves, but a canoe to kill Manyema." Can
it be wondered at that people who had never seen strangers
before, or even heard of white men, believed them ?

By this slander, and the ceremony of mixing blood with
the head men, the mainland and Ujijian Arabs secured nine
canoes, while I could not purchase one. But four days below
this part, narrows occur, in which the mighty river is com-
pressed by rocks, which jut in, not opposite to each other, but
alternately ; and the water, rushing round the promontories,
forms terrible whirlpools, which overturned one of the canoes,
and so terrified the whole party that by deceit preceded me,
that they returned without ever thinking of dragging the
canoes past the difficulty. This I should have done to gain
the confluence of the Lomame, some fifty miles below, and
thence ascend through Lake Lincoln to the ancient fountains
beyond the copper mines of Katanga, and this would nearly
finish my geographical work. But it was so probable that
the dyke which forms the narrows would be prolonged across
the country into Lomame, that I resolved to turn towards this
great river considerably above the narrows, and where the
distance between Lualaba and Lomame is about eighty miles.

A friend, named Dugumbe, was reported to be coming
from Ujiji, with a caravan of two hundred guns, and nine
r.ndertraders with their people. The Banian slaves refused
duty three times, and the sole reason they alleged for their
mutiny was fear of going where " there were no Moslems."
The loss of all their wages was a matter of no importance to
any one except their masters at Zanzibar. As an Englishman,
they knew I would not beat or chain them, and two of them
frankly avowed that all they needed for obedience was a free


man to thrash them. The slave traders all sympathized with
them, for they hated my being present to witness their atro-
cities. The sources of the Nile they knew to be a sham ; to
reveal their slaving was my true object, and all dread being
"written against." I therefore waited three months for
Dugumbe, who appeared to be a gentleman, and offered four
thousand rupees, or 400, for ten men and a canoe on Lomame,
and, afterwards, all the goods I believed I had at Ujiji, to
enable me to finish what I had to do without the Banian
slaves. His first words to me were,

" Why, your own slaves are your greatest enemies. I hear
everywhere how they have baffled you."

He agreed to my proposition, but required a few days to
consult his associates.

Two days afterwards, or on the 13th of June, a massacre
was penetrated, which filled me with such intolerable loathing
that 1 resolved to yield to the Banian slaves, return to Ujiji,
get men from the coast, and try to finish the rest of my work
by going outside the area of Ujijian bloodshed, instead of
vainly trying from its interior outwards.

Dugumbe's people built their huts on the right bank of
Lualaba, at a market place called Nyanwe. On hearing that
the head slave of a trader at Ujiji had, in order to get canoes
cheap, mixed blood with the headmen of the Bagenya on
the left bank, they were disgusted with his assurance, and
resolved to punish him, and make an impression in the
country in favor of their own greatness, by an assault on the
market people, and on all the Bagenya who had dared to
make friendship with any but themselves. Tagamoio, the
principal undertrader of Dugumbe's party, was the perpe-

The market was attended every fourth day by between two
thousand and three thousand people. It was held on a long
slope of land which, down at the river, ended in a creek
capable of containing between fifty and sixty large canoes.
The majority of the market people were women, many of
them very pretty. The people west of the river brought


fish, salt, pepper, oil, grass-cloth, iron, fowls, goats, sheep,
pigs, in great numbers, to exchange with those east of the
river, for cassava grain, potatoes, and other farinaceous pro-
ducts. They have a strong sense of natural justice, and all
unite in forcing each other to fair dealing.

At first my presence made them all afraid, but wishing to
gain their confidence, which my enemies .tried to undermine
or prevent, I went among them frequently, and when they
saw no harm in me became very gracious ; the bargaining was
the finest acting I ever saw. I understood but few of the
words that flew off the glib tongues of the women, but their
gestures spoke plainly. I took sketches of the fifteen varie-
ties of fish brought in, to compare them with those of the
Nile farther down, and all were eager to tell their names.

But on the date referred to, I had left the market only a
minute or two, when three men, whom I had seen with guns,
and felt inclined to reprove them for bringing them into the
market place, but had refrained by attributing it to ignorance
in new comers, began to fire into the dense crowd around

Another party, down at the canoes, rained their balls on
the panic-struck multitude that rushed into these vessels. All
threw away their goods, the men forgot their paddles, the
canoes were jambed in the creek, and could not be got out
quick enough, so many men and women sprung into the
water. The women of the left bank are expert divers for
oysters, and a long line of heads showed a crowd striking out
for an island a mile off; to gain it, they had to turn the left
shoulder against a current of between a mile and a half to
two miles an hour. Had they gone diagonally with the cur-
rent, though that would have been three miles, many would
have gained the shore. It was horrible to see one head after
another disappear, some calmly, others throwing their arms
high up towards the Great Father of all, and going down.
Some of the men who got canoes out of the crowd, paddled
quick, with hands and arms, to help their friends ; three took
people in till they all sank together. One man had clearly


lost his head, for he paddled a canoe which would have held
fifty people, straight up the stream nowhere. The Arabs
estimated the loss at between four and five hundred souls.

Dugumbe sent out some of his men in one of thirty canoes
which the owners in their fright could not extricate, to save
the sinking. One lady refused to be taken on board, because
she thought that she was to be made a slave ; but he rescued
twenty-one, and of his own accord sent them next day home.
Many escaped and came to me, and were restored to their

When the firing began on the terror-stricken crowd at the
canoes, Tagamoio's band began their assault on the people
on the west of the river, and continued the fire all day. I
counted seventeen villages in flames, and next day six.
Dugumbe's power over the underlings is limited, but he
ordered them to cease shooting. Those in the market were
so reckless they shot two of their own number. Tagamoio's
crew came back next day, in canoes, shouting and firing off
their guns, as if believing they were worthy of renown.

Next day about twenty headmen fled from the west bank,
and came to my house. There was no occasion now to tell
them that the English had no desire for human blood. They
begged hard that I should go over with them, and settle with
them, and arrange where the new dwellings of each should
be. I was so ashamed of the bloody Moslem company in
which I found myself, that I was unable to look at the Man-
yema. I confessed my grief and shame, and was entreated,
if I must go, not to leave them now. Dugumbe spoke kindly
to them, and would protect them as well as he could against
his own people ; but when I went to Tagamoio to ask back
the wives an(J daughters of some of the head men, he always
ran off and hid himself.

This massacre was the most terrible scene I ever saw. I
cannot describe my feelings, and am thankful that I did not
give way to them, but by Dugumbe's advice, avoided a bloody
feud with men who, for the time, seemed turned into demons.
The whole transaction was the more deplorable, inasmuch as


we have always heard from the Manyema, that though the
men of the districts may be engaged in actual hostilities, the
women pass from one market place to another with their
wares, and were never known to be molested. The change
has come only with these alien bloodhounds, and all the blood-
shed has taken place in order that captives might be seized
where it could be done without danger, and in order that the
slaving privileges of a petty sultan should produce abundant

Heartsore and greatly depressed in spirits, by the many
instances of " man's inhumanity to man " I had unwillingly
seen, I commenced the long, weary tramp to Ujiji, M'ith the
blazing sun right overhead. The mind acted on the body,
and it is no over-statement to say that almost every step of
between four hundred and five hundred miles was in pain. I
felt as if dying on my feet, and I came very near to death in
a more summary way. It is within the area of bloodshed
that danger alone occurs. I could not induce my Moslem
slaves to venture outside that area or sphere. They knew
better than I did. " Was Muhamad not the greatest of all,
and their prophet ?"

About midway back to Bambarre, we came to villages
where I had formerly seen the young men compelled to carry
a trader's ivory. When I came on the scene, the young men
had laid down the tusks and said,

" Now we have helped you so far without pay, let the men
of other villages do as much."

" No, no, take up the ivory ;" and take it up they did, only
to go a little way, and cast it into the dense vegetation on
each side the path we afterwards knew so well. When the
trader reached his next stage he sent back his men to demand
the " stolen " ivory, and when the elders denied the theft they
were fired upon, and five were killed, eleven women and chil-
dren captured, and also twenty-five goats. The remaining
elders then talked the matter over, and the young men pointed
out the ivory, and carried it twenty-two miles after the trader.
He chose to say that three of the tusks were missing, and


carried away all the souls and goats lie had captured. They
now turned to the only resource they knew, and when
Dugumbe passed, waylaid and killed one of his people.

In our return we passed another camp of Ujijian traders,
and they begged me to allow their men to join my party.
These included seventeen men of Manyema, who had volun-
teered to carry ivory to Ujiji, and goods back again. These
were the very first of the Manyema who had in modern times
gone fifty miles from their birth-places. As all the Arabs
had been enjoined by Sayed Majid, the late Sultan, to show
me all the kindness in their power, I could not decline their
request. My party was increased to eighty, and a long line
of men bearing elephants' tusks gave us all the appearance of
traders. The only cloth I had left some months before con-
sisted of two red blankets, which were converted into a glar-
ing dress, unbecoming enough, but there were no Europeans
to see it.

The maltreated men, now burning for revenge, remembered
the dress, and very naturally tried to kill the man who had
murdered their relations. They would hold no parley. We
had to pass through five hours of forest, with vegetation so
dense that by stooping down, and peering towards the sun,
we could at times only see a shadow moving, and a slight
rustle in the rank vegetation was a spear thrown from the
shadow of an infuriated man. Our people in front peered
into every little opening in the dense thicket, before they
would venture past it ; this detained the rear, and two persons
near to me were slain. A large spear lunged past close
behind ; another missed me by about a foot in front. Coming
to a part of the forest of about a hundred yards cleared for
cultivation, I observed that fire had been applied to one of
the gigantic trees, made still higher by growing on an ant-hill
twenty or more feet high. Hearing the crack that told the
fire had eaten through, I felt that there was no danger, it
looked so far away, till it appeared coming right down toward
me. I ran a few paces back, and it came to the ground only
one yard off, broke in several lengths, and covered me with
a cloud of dust. My attendants ran back, exclaiming,


" Peace, peace ! you will finish your work in spite of all
these people, and in spite of everything."

I, too, took it as an omen of good, that I had three narrow
escapes from death in one day.

The Manyema are expert in throwing the spear, and as I
had a glance of him whose spear missed by less than an inch
behind, and he was not ten yards off, I was saved clearly
by the good hand of the Almighty Preserver of men.
I can say this devoutly now, but in running the terrible
gauntlet for five weaiy hours, among furies all eager to sig-
nalize themselves by slaying one they sincerely believed to
have been guilty of a horrid outrage, no elevated sentiments
entered the mind. The excitement gave way to overpower-
ing weariness, and I felt as I suppose soldiers do on the field
of battle not courageous, but perfectly indifferent whether
I were killed or not.

On coming to the cleared plantations belonging to the nest
group of villages, all lay down to rest, and I soon saw their
headman walking unarmed in a stately manner toward us.
He had heard the vain firing of my men into the dense vege-
tation, and came to inquire the cause. When he had consulted
his elders, he sent an offer to me in the evening to collect all
his people, and if I lent him my people who had guns, he
would bring me ten goats instead of three milch ones I had
lost. I again explained the mistake under which his next
neighbors labored, and as he understood the whole case, he
was ready to admit that my joining in his ancient feud would
only make matters worse. Indeed, my old Highland blood
had been roused by the wrongs which his foes had suffered,
and all through I could not help sympathizing with them,
though I was the especial object of their revenge.
I have, etc.,

Her Majesty's Consul, Inner Africa.


MR. STANLEY, en route home, reached Marseilles, France,
on the 2-ith of July 1872, having sailed from Aden the
llth of July, in the French steamer Meikong, via the Suez
Canal ; he was accompanied by his boy Kalulu, and Mr. W.
Oswald Livingstone, a son of Dr. Livingstone, who had gone
to Zanzibar with the last English Search Expedition.

As soon as the Meikong reached the dock the time
being two o'clock in the morning Mr. Stanley sprang ashore,
and made a circuit of nearly all the hotels of the city in search
of his colleague, Dr. Hosmer, European manager of the New
York Herald, whom, he knew to be somewhere in Mar-

Searching was no new business for Mr. Stanley, and he
persevered till he found Dr. Hosmer's room, into which he
walked without ceremony, saying, by way of introduction,
"Mr. Stanley."

Warm congratulations followed from Dr. Hosmer and rep-
resentatives of the English Press who were present, and all
thoughts of sleep for that night were banished. Over a bottle
of the best French wine, which was exhausted in less time
than it took to pump the traveler, lie was briskly interviewed
by his admiring journalistic friends.

Arrived in France, Mr. Stanley found himself the lion of
the day, absorbing the attention of the public and over-
whelmed with compliments. Scarcely less attention was
paid to his boy Kalulu, a robust native African of eleven



years, with bright eyes and ebony but intelligent, counte-
nance. The dusky youth had never before worn a suit of
clothes and, consequently, was not entirely at his ease, but
he displayed a modest assurance and gentlemanly manner
under the trying circumstances. Some one gave him a red
velvet port-monnaie, with gilt embroidery, which he was anx-
ious to show ; but as he was not accustomed to his pockets,
it had to be taken out with the help of a friend.

At the hotel table at Lyons, Kalulu, for the first time in
his life, used a fork, and he did it in a manner creditable to a reg-
ular " diner-out." He used his bright eyes to some puqjose
and quickly learned among the Frenchman to do as French-
men do.

Mr. Stanley's journey to Paris, was a constant ovation. He
remained at the gay metropolis about one week. His reception
and entertainment there are graphically described by a Paris
correspondent of the Herald, in part as follows :

" Henry M. Stanley is to-day the lion of the great city of
Paris. Fresh from the jungles and swamps of Central Africa,
that strange and mysterious country, as full of danger and
wild and fanciful romance as any fabled land of antiquity ;
fresh from combats with its savage inhabitants, its lions and
tigers, and its equally savage human beasts ; but, above all,
fresh from the society of the far-famed Dr. Livingstone, so
oft reported dead, so oft resuscitated and killed over again ;
bringing news from him, messages from him, letters written
by his own hand he is sought for, honored, feted, talked
about in a way that will turn his head if he has a head capa-
ble of being turned.

"He is interrupted by newspaper reporters, importuned by
correspondents of the pictorials for sketches and scenes from
his travels, and generally lionized to an extent that has aston-
ished him beyond measure. For the poor man did not know
he had done anything extraordinary until he got out of the
wilds of Africa and found that the whole civilized world was
ringing with his exploits.

." The French papers are full of gossip concerning him ;


and, as usual, when talking about anything or anybody not of
their own country, make all sorts of funny and amusing mis-

" The Soir, for instance, announced the arrival in Paris of
Lord Stanley, son of the great Lord Derby, who, at the insti-
gation of the New York Herald, nobly undertook to find
Dr. Livingstone, the great traveler.

"Stanley suddenly finds himself a great man ; nor the carp-
ing criticism of the London Spectator, that hopes no great
good from the expedition; nor the absurd doubts of the
Standard, will prevent all honor being accorded him or detract
one iota from his meed of glory.

" And then to have found Livingstone. To have under-
taken a project in which the Royal Geographical Society of
London, backed by the ready purses of the whole English
nation, had failed ; that the mighty English government had
pronounced impossible ; for a simple newspaper reporter to
carry it out to a successful conclusion, while the government
and the Royal Geographical Society and the whole English
nation were talking about it, is it not worthy of all praise ?
And will it not rank with Kane's expedition to the North
Arctic regions, Bonaparte's passage of the Alps, Hannibal's
march upon Rome, Sherman's march to the sea ?

" The day after his arrival he was invited to breakfast by
Mr. "Washburne, and found a small but select company assem-
bled to meet and welcome him, among whom was General
Sherman. The General, without ever suspecting that they
had met before, was delighted at the opportunity thus offered
of talking to a man who had been the leader of one of the
most' remarkable search expeditions ever undertaken, and
they were soon engaged in an animated conversation relating
to the interior of Africa.

" It was interesting and curious to watch the old hero and
the young in conversation the one with his sharp, keen eye
and quick, appreciative mind, grasping details, foreseeing
events, and often eagerly anticipating the story and hurrying
on to the point where the whole interest is concentrated ; the


other, with his dark, resolute eye, somehow reminding one of
General Sheridan, and his tawny complexion and quiet voice,
calmly telling his story, both leaning over the map on which
Stanley had traced all his sinuous wanderings.

u ' It is a great thing,' said Mr. Washburne. ' I only know
of one other great expedition brought to so successful a ter-

" i What is that ?' asked Sherman.

" ' That is Sherman's March to the Sea,' replied Mr. "Wash-

" ' That is nothing to this,' said Sherman ' it was easy in
comparison to this march to the centre of Africa and back.'

" ' It is your modesty makes you say so, General,' remarked
Stanley. ' By the way, do you remember ever meeting me
before ?'

" ' No,' replied Sherman.

" Whereupon Stanley commenced and repeated a speech of
some minutes in length, a speech evidently meant for the red
men, for it was full of high-flown metaphors and contained
references to ' fire-water,' ' the Great Spirit,' ' our brother,'

Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 40 of 51)