As soon as he heard of the breaking out of the Great Rebel-
lion, he returned to America, enlisted as a volunteer in the
Union Army, and took part in the battles of Donelson, Fort
Henry, and Shiloh. The term of his enlistment having
expired, he engaged as a newspaper correspondent, was pres-
ent at several of the great battles in the Yalley of Virginia,
and at the capture of Fort Fisher.
" After the conclusion of the war, Stanley traveled through
the West. While returning from this trip he built a raft,
and, with a companion of about his own age, floated down
the Platte River to the Missouri River, a distance of about
seven hundred miles. He then returned to New York. But
the restlessness of the confirmed traveler broke out again, and
with two American comrades he started to take a trip across
the whole Asiatic Continent. Setting out from Smyrna, the
party penetrated about three hundred miles into the interior,
as far as Hissar, where they were robbed of six thousand dol-
lars by the Koords, and were forced to return for lack of
means to pursue their journey. Reaching Constantinople,
they applied for redress, and, after no little trouble, obtained
a trial, proved their case, and were partially re-imbursed.
" Mr. Stanley now returned to America ; and, as corres-
pondent of the Missouri Democrat and New York Tribune,
accompanied the Indian Peace Commissions and Hancock's
military expeditions against the Kiowas and Cheyennes.
" When the campaign of Lord Napier in Abyssinia began,
the Herald engaged Stanley to follow the British Army and
forward news. It was during this campaign that he illustrated
liis tact, zeal, and indomitable will. Using the British Army's
own telegraph lines, he conveyed news to the New York
Herald through the cable, in advance of its reception at the
British War Department. In the estimation of both the
Bennetts, father and son, no imaginable feat could have
676 SUMMONED TO PARIS.
" Mr. Stanley was next ordered to Crete during the bloody
rebellion, and again gave abundant and profitable proof of
his pluck, judgment, and extraordinary powers of observation.
He was then sent to report the Spanish Revolution, and when
that was ended, was despatched to Egypt to meet Dr. Living-
stone, who was at the time reported to be coming home.
Tired of waiting, Mr. Stanley applied for a change, and Mr.
Bennett ordered him back to Spain to report the progress of
the Republican Revolution. He saw the seige of Valencia ;
then, going to Madrid, received the telegram :
" ' Come to Paris,' to see Mr. Bennett, Jr." '
Mr. Stanley is a thick-set man, weighing one hundred and
sixty-five pounds, five feet eight and a half inches high, with
light gray eyes, a sanguine complexion, a full resolute coun-
tenance on which self-reliance is plainly imprinted, and of
dignified, manly demeanor. The accurate likeness of " Stanley
as an Explorer " found in this book speaks for itself.
It may not be out of place here to state that the first
reports of Stanley's success were received by some portions
of the public with incredulity, not to say derision. As con-
firmation came of the truth of the story, one of the doubt-
ing Solomons affirmed very wisely, " If Livingstone and
Stanley have met, it was doubtless Livingstone that met
American newspapers were as incredulous as English jour-
nals. Even after the publication of Dr. Livingstone's letters,
it was claimed that they were not genuine, that the style was
not that of Livingstone, and that the allusions in them
proved that they were spurious, as they referred to events
that happened after the explorer had left the world. Res-
urrected men were not supposed to be acquainted with
posthumous events. The retrospect of those doubting times
is amusing. The following extracts are from American
" A very general suspicion that the ' Stanley-Livingstone
correspondence' is a hum, begins to crop out in audible
INCREDULITY OF THE PUBLIC. 677
"The numbers of those who regard the Herald Living-
stone story as a hugh humbug are increasing. It is thought
that Dr. Livingstone could never have written such letters as
those piiblished in the Herald over his signature. Think of
a scientific man, say Agassiz, giving to the world such stuff
as this, as part of the fruits of years of toil."
" There is a growing suspicion that the alleged discovery
of Livingstone, the African explorer, by Stanley of the New
York Herald^ is a monstrous sell, only equaled by the great
moon hoax of several years ago."
" But it was worse than naughty to quote from ' Hawthone's
English Notes ' about being ' bulbous below the ribs.' Inas-
much as the book which he quotes so glibly was not published
until after the Doctor's disappearance, we are at loss to
account for his acquaintance with its contents. Could he
have got it from the Book and News Company of Unyan-
yembe or trifled with its pages at the circulating library of
" A war is raging fiercely in Africa between the Kings Oko-
Jurnbo, supposed to be a relation to Mumbo Jumbo, and Ja-
Ja. The general of the former, Warrabo, has been defeated
by the latter, and all the prisoners taken were roasted and
eaten. Meanwhile the war goes on fiercely, and the hills and
vales echo with the sound of clashing arms, and the smoke
of roasting captives sickens the noonday sky. All Africa
stands aghast and watches with breathless interest the move-
ments of the rival armies on the banks of Andony.
Long before this " Stanley " has probably made his appear-
ance on the field as a war correspondent, and we shall not be
surprised to hear from Dr. Livingstone, on his return, that
barbarian ignorance of the rights of neutrals has given the
venturesome reporter a prominent but most undesirable place
at one of these feasts."
Among others who were skeptical of Stanley 'sachievments
was Mr. Lewis IL Noe of Sayville, Long Island, who was a
companion of Stanley in his journeyings in Asia in 1866,
and who published in the New York Sun a baker's dozen of
678 WHAT NOE CLAIMS TO KNOW.
charges, which are given that the reader may see both sides
of the story.
" 1. That Stanley was a deserter from the United States
Navy in 1865, and induced me, a boy, to desert with him.
2. That he forged a pass while the frigate Minnesota was
lying at Portsmouth, N. II., by which we were enabled to
pass the gates of the navy yard.
3. That he tried to induce me to become a bounty
4. That a year afterward he falsely represented to my
parents and myself that he possessed the means to go on an
extended tour in Asia, and induced my parents to consent to
my accompanying him.
5. That on learning at Smyrna the desperate character of
the journey he had projected he being utterly without
means because I attempted to leave him soon after starting,
he most cruelly whipped me on my bare back.
6. That he compelled me to beg and steal the food and
supplies we used during some three hundred miles of our
7. That he attempted to murder an old Turk whom we
overtook on the route, with a view to robbing him.
8. That though he failed to kill the Turk, he robbed him
of his horses, and made me an accessory to the crime.
9. That he committed perjury at Broussa and at Constan-
10. That he gave a jvorthless draft on a suppositious
father in New York, to the American Minister at Constanti-
nople, the Hon. E. Joy Morris, in exchange for money equal
to several hundred dollars, which that gentleman kindly
loaned him from his private means in our distress.
11. That he clandestinely left Constantinople, taking me
with him, purposely avoiding to inform Mr. Morris of his
intention to leave, or where we were going.
12. That he represented himself to be an American when
he was a Welshman, and had always lired in Wales until he
was fifteen years of age.
STANLEY'S LETTER TO XOE.
13. That his real name is John Rowland, and that Henry-
Stanley is an alias that he assumed after coming to America."
That Stanley and Noe were once intimate friends Noe fur-
nished abundant proofs of, including a letter, of which a fac-
simile is here given.
680 STANLEY ON NOE.
In reply to newspaper incredulity and the charges made
by Mr. Noe, Mr. Stanley published a letter which is given
below, excepting a portion of it in which abundant proofs
were given that he had found Livingstone.
No. 8 DUCHESS STREET, PORTLAND PLACE, )
LONDON, Sspt. 13, 1872. f
JAMES GORDON BENNETT, ESQ. :
DEAR SIR Your agent in this city to-day kindly sent me
three copies of a newspaper published in the city of New
York, bearing the dates respectively of the 24th, 30th and
31st of August of the present year. It would be a difficult
matter for me to describe the conflicting emotions I felt
during the perusal of certain articles found therein. My first
feelings were those of profound astonishment at the discov-
ery of so debased a character as this wretched young man,
Noe, turns out to be. He proclaims himself the victim of a
foul and unnatural outrage, gives his name in full, with his
present address; he dwells fondly on the disgusting details
which unmanned him, offers himself up voluntarily to public
scorn and contempt, and deliberately stamps himself as the
greatest moral idiot in existence. I then felt regret at dis-
covering the fact that there was a newspaper in the city of
New York which could lend itself for the publication of
such a disgusting, immoral letter as the one purporting to
be written by Lewis H. Noe, and exhibit a morbid delight
in every circumstance and detail of this most shameless story.
To enter upon a detailed refutation of the various charges
and accusations falsely levelled at me by this eccentric youth
would be undignified and unworthy of me ; it would but
serve to bring the contemptible newspaper and its unmanly
correspondent into greater prominence than they deserve.
I content myself with simply asserting that the statements of
this man ]S r oe, in so far as they refer to me, consist of a series
of the most atrocious falsehoods that the most imaginative
villain could have devised to the detriment of any one man's
They are oft-recurring questions to me, " Wherein have I
STANLEY ON XOE. 681
incurred any man's hostility ? "Why should people attack my
private character ? How have I injured any person so much
as to induce him to vilify me in this manner ?" It is with
the utmost confidence that I can reply that, intentionally, I
have never injured any living man.
In the summer of 1866 I took this boy as a kind of com-
panion, who was to make himself generally useful. A few
miles east of Smyrna the young rascal set fire to a valuable
grove belonging to some Turks, who were so enraged at
the incendiary act that myself and companions were in dan-
ger of our lives ; upon which, after mollifying the anger of
the natives, I punished the young villain with a few strokes
of a switch, a far lighter punishment than he deserved, as
any sensible man will at once admit. Near Chihissar the
chief of a gang of brigands which infested the environs of
Ofium Karahissar insulted him, upon which, in my indigna-
tion, I struck him with my sword. He immediately raised
such an outcry that I was compelled to order my companions
to mount and hurry away; but, in our ignorance of the
country, we rode direct into the neighborhood of the robber's
den, and were consequently captured without much trouble.
The indignities and outrages which the ruffians subsequently
visited upon a member of our party need not be repeated
here, but I may mention that I was the one who was instru-
mental in relieving my party from all apprehensions of a
Now possibly this boy now a man in years at least
remembers the slight flogging I administered to him, and,
stung by the memory of it, has proposed to himself that the
author of it, having in some way distinguished himself by the
discovery of Dr. Livingstone, might now be made to feel his
resentment, and proceeds to do so by investing him with a
Satanic character; with all the attributes of a 'bold and
unscrupulous, daring, but intelligent and specious adventurer.'
Positively, if I thought the young wretch who wantonly set
fire to the Turk's grove near Smyrna and endangered his own
and our lives was insane, I think him ten times more so now
682 THE CONTROVERSY RENEWED.
by hurrying into print, to glory in his shamelessness and
make public what the most debased courtesan in any great
city would never have published.
But enough of this abominable fraud, with his series of
absurd fictions. Let me dilate a little upon the accusations
leveled at me about the Livingstone's letters.
But if, after the receipt of this letter, there may be unbe-
lievers still, my advice to them is to form another expedition
for Central Africa and find out from Livingstone himself,
whether the letters I brought are genuine or not. Then, per-
haps, if they live to come back to tell their story, they must
bear witness to my veracity at least, if to nothing else. In
the meantime sir, I would ask whether you ever found cause
to repent of your confidence in me, or had reason to suspect
in the least my truthfulness and integrity ? If you can con-
scientiously answer ' No !' I shall feel amply rewarded and
need no more. I remain, sir, your most humble servant,
HENKY M. STANLEY."
The controversy as to Mr. Stanley's birth-place seems likely
to be renewed. A late number of the Manchester (England)
Guardian says that " a London publisher has given to the
world a book called 'the Story of Henry M. Stanley's early
Life,' the author of which claims to have proved, on the
evidence of ' parish registers, sisters, brothers and a mother,'
that its hero ' was born in Denbigh,' and was assisted ' in
humble circumstances ' by relatives who ' think that at least a
trifle of his lustre may fall upon them.' This scraping
together of real or fancied particulars respecting the private
circumstances of a person who has had the misfortune to
attain some celebrity is justified on the ground that ' writing
any man's life is allowable.' Mr. Hotten conceives himself
to have proved that Mr. Stanley is not an American. "We
are tempted to hope somebody may be equally successful in
proving that Mr. Hotten is not an Englishman."
SIR SPEAKER'S ROUTES
SPEKE AND GRANT'S EXPEDITION.
ON the 27th of April, 1860, Captain Speke, accompanied
by Captain Grant an old friend and brother sportsman
of his, sailed from Portsmouth, England, for another expe-
dition into Central Africa. In former chapters we have
followed him over the route from Kaole to Ujiji, nearly the
same since passed over by Stanley in his search for Living-
stone ; we therefore omit all detail of the journey from
Zanzibar to Unyanyembe, simply observing that he and
Captain Grant left Bagamoyo on the 2nd of October, 1860,
with one hundred and one pagazis or porters, among whom
was the now well known Bombay and his brother Mabruki,
both of whom had accompanied Speke on his former
They arrived at Kaze on the 24th of January, 1861. From
here, on his last trip, Speke went on the excursion mentioned
in a previous chapter, which resulted in the discovery of the
Victoria N'yanza. His course then had been almost directly
north; but now, although going northerly, our travelers
bore to the west of Speke's former course.
Their first stop was at the village of Ukulima, a noted
chief, who is described as a very kind and good man, although
lie practised sticking the heads and hands of his victims on
the poles of his boma or dwelling as a warning to others, and
although he exacted four yards of cloth from Grant for
walking round the body of a dead lioness as thereby he des-
troyed a protective charm which could be restored only by
paying the four yards of cloth. Ukulima kept five wives,,
SPEKE AND GRANT'S EXPEDITION.
the older exacting and receiving great respect from the
younger. At a grand ball given by Ukulima upon the visit
of another chieftain to which Grant was invited, he had the
honor of dancing with the chiefs favorite wife, a pleasure but
few white men have enjoyed.
Leaving Grant with Bombay at this village, Speke pro-
ceeded northwesterly into Uzinza, where he was subjected
to such a series of extortions from chiefs and sub-chiefs, and
such opposition on the part of his men to going forward,
that he was obliged to store his goods in a " boma," and
leave them in charge of Baraka, his captain, and return to
Grant, at Ukulima's village, and from there to Kaze.
Obtaining more men he again started, and reached Uzinza
to find his goods broken into and partly sold by Baraka, his
man ; and to be again subjected to the whims and exactions
of a chief named Lumeresi, from July until October. To
submit and pay one hongo or tribute was to open the door
for anothgr. The following from Speke's own account,
illustrates the state of affairs :
" 23d to 31. Next morning I was too weak to speak mod-
erately, and roared more like a madman than a rational being,
as, breaking his faith, he persisted in bullying me. The day
after, I took pills and blistered my chest all over ; still
Lumeresi would not let me alone, nor come to any kind of
terms until the 25th, when he said he would take a certain
number of pretty common cloths for his children if I would
throw in a red blanket for himself. I jumped at this conces-
sion with the greatest eagerness, paid down my cloths on the
spot, and, thinking I was free at last, ordered a hammock to
be slung on a pole, that I might leave the next day. Next
morning, however, on seeing me actually preparing to start,
Lumeresi found he could not let me go until I increased the
tax by three more cloths, as some of his family complained
that they had got nothing. After some badgering, I paid
what he asked for, and ordered the men to carry me out of
the palace before any thing else was done, for I would not
sleep another night where I was. Lumeresi then stood in
FROM UZKZA TO USUI. 687
my way, and said lie would never allow a man of his country
to give me any assistance until I was well, for he could not
bear the idea of hearing it said that, after taking so many
cloths from me, he had allowed me to die in the jungles, and
dissuaded my men from obeying my orders."
Grant, also, in attempting to move forward and join Speke,
was robbed and plundered of nearly all the goods he carried.
Speke and Grant finally passed the borders of Uzinza, into
Usui out of the frying-pan into the fire for here such lev-
ies were made upon them, as caused them to tremble arf
they gazed upon their waning stores. Here too, war broke
out between Bombay and Baraka. The latter had picked
up a wif- on the road, as had many others among the ser-
vants ; but not so with Bombay he had no wife. Falling in
love with a damsel who favored his suit, he purloined a large
lot of wire-cloth and beads from his master, and handed the
same to the proposed father-in-law, in payment for the girl,
but he demanded more. It was given him, when the scoun-
drel still asked for more. Baraka discovered the theft and
disclosed it to Speke. Bombay, called to account, denied the
charge. Baraka insisted ; when Bombay declared he should
get the worst of it, " for Baraka's tongue was a yard long,
and his only an inch." He acknowledged he took the things,
but would not have done it to buy slaves or to make him-
self rich " but when it comes to a wife," said he, " that's a
different thing." Poor fellow ! he lost his intended bride and
contented himself with the sister of a fellow servant who
accompanied them, whom he purchased on credit, promising
to pay for her a certain price out of his pay, and return her
to her brother at the end of the journey.
But miseries have an end as well as pleasures, and our trav-
elers in passing from Usui into Karague, found a land as
compared with those they had passed through literally flow-
ing with milk and honey.
Pitching their camp under some trees, they were greeted
by an officer named Kachuchu sent by the King to meet
them ; this was his message :
688 STEKE AXD GRANT'S EXPEDITION*
" Utunanika has ordered me to bring you on to his palace
at once, and, wherever you stop a day, the village officers are
instructed to supply you with food at the king's expense, for
there are no taxes gathered from strangers in the Kingdom
of Karague. Presents may be exchanged, but the name of
tax is ignored."
This was the taste of a feast our travelers enjoyed in Kar-
ague. Honors were showered upon them in all directions.
The first greetings of the king when they met him were
warm and affecting and the travelers saw at a glance they
were in the company of men unlike the natives of the sur-
rounding districts. They had fine oval faces, large eyes and
high noses, and shook hands in the English fashion. Every-
thing was put at the disposal of the guests, and every opportu-
nity given them for observations.
Still, this prince endeavored to bribe them to kill his brother
by magic, as he feared his intrigues to obtain the throne. He
also had five wives, fattened so they could not rise. The fol-
lowing is Speke's story of a visit to a gister-in-law of the
" She was another of those wonders of obesity, unable to
stand excepting on all fours. I was desirous to obtain a
good view of her, and actually to measure her, and induced
her to give me facilities for doing so by offering in return to
show her a bit of my naked legs and arms. The bait took as
I wished it, and after getting her to sidle and wriggle
into the middle of the hut, I did as I promised, and then
took her dimensions, as noted below.* All of these are
exact except the height ; I believe I could have obtained this
more accurately if I could have had her laid on the floor.
Not knowing what difficulties I should have to contend with
in such a piece of engineering, I tried to get her height by
raising her up. This, after infinite exertions on the part of
us both, was accomplished, when she sank down again, faint-
ing, for her blood had rushed into her head. Meanwhile, the
* Round the arm, 1 foot 1 1 inches ; chest, 4 feet 4 inches ; thigh, 2 feet 7
inches ; calf, 1 foot 8 inches ; height, 5 feet 3 inches.
RUMANIKA'3 PRIYATH BAND.
MUSIC AT KARAGUE. 691
daughter, a lass of sixteen, eat stark-naked before us, sucking
at a milk-pot, on which the father kept her at work by hold-
ing a rod in his hand ; for as fattening is the first duty of fash-
ionable female life, it must be duly enforced by the rod if
necessary. I got up a bit of a flirtation with missy, and
induced her to rise and shake hands with me. Her features
were lovely, but her body was round as a ball."
Rumanika the king on learning that it was usual for our
travelers to feast on Christmas day, sent them an ox, and
regretted that his people were not instructed in the rites of
the day, and hoped white teachers would yet make it right.
In conversations on astronomy, he asked if the sun he saw
one day was the same he saw the next ; or a new one. He
was much interested in the stories told of London, and wished
Speke to take two of his boys with him and educate them.
The Karagues are fond of music, and exhibit considerable
musical talent. They have several stringed instruments,
bugles, drums &c. The king at Speke's request, sent to him
the best player he knew. The man boldly entered without
introduction, dressed in the usual Wanyambo costume, and
looked a wild, excited creature. After resting his spear
against the roof of the hut, he took a nanga, a kind of guitar
from under his arm, and commenced. As he sat upon a mat
with his head averted, he sang something of his having been
sent to the white man, and of the favorite dog Keeromba.
The wild yet gentle music and words attracted a crowd of
admirers, who sang the dog-song for days afterwards, as
Speke encored it several times.
Kumanika had a special military band comprised of sixteen
men, fourteen of whom had bugles and the other two carried
hand-drums. They formed in three ranks, the drummers
being in the rear, and played on the march, swaying their
bodies in time to the music, and the leader advancing with a
curiously active step, in which he touched the ground with
each knee alternately.
While receiving these honors from the good King of the
Karagues, Moula, an officer from Mtesa the King of Uganda,