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ever, returned with a party of natives, and the travelers
started toward Karuma Falls Baker being carried in a chair,
and his wife on a litter. The Turkish traders, who had
37



716 BAKER'S EXPLORATIONS.

started from Gondokoro just before Baker did, were in the
vicinity of the falls, and their camp was finally reached.

On the 17th of November, the caravan, consisting of
porters, guard, women and children one thousand persons in
all started for Shooa where it arrived in five days. Some
months were passed at Shooa, and then, in February, the
caravan started for Gondokoro, where the travelers arrived in
safety. The voyage down the river was made in a diahbiah,
or ivory boat, which was returning without a load. Much
difficulty was experienced in getting past the extraordinary
obstructions which had dammed the Nile since Baker ascended
it, two years before. Khartoum was reached on the 5th of
May, 1865. Here Baker heard of the death of his friend
Speke, from an accidental shot.

On the 1st of July, Baker and his devoted wife sailed
from Khartoum, and in due time arrived in Cairo.

On Baker's return from the discovery of the Albert N'yanza,
a baronetcy was conferred on him by the British Government,
and he is now known as Sir S. "W. Baker.

The expedition in which Baker is now engagea was pro-
jected and organized by him under the auspices of the visit
to Egypt of the Prince of Wales. It was equipped and
despatched under the Yiceroy's instructions, its object being
the exploration and annexation to Egypt of the whole Nile
basin to its sources. Baker was made a Pasha of the first
degree, and received the rank of Major General in the
Egyptian army.

A large fleet conveying the expedition left Khartoum Feb-
ruary 7th, 1870. On reaching a portion of the Nile near
the Bahr Giraffe, the river channels were so obstructed that
progress was impossible. A camp was subsequently formed
on the east bank of the Nile near the mouth of the Sobat
River, about seven hundred miles from Khartoum. The
men had died in great numbers from exposure to the malaria,
and swarms of mosquitoes which rendered sleep nearly im-
possible. Here the men were encamped for seven months ;
a crusade against the slave-traders was commenced ; all boats



BAKER'S EXPLORATIONS.

were stopped, the slaves released, and the traders put in
iron. A government monopoly of the ivory trade was also
established, and all traders were ordered to return North.

The attempt to proceed southerly was renewed early in
December. The fleet consisted of one steamer, and fifty-eight
vessels averaging about thirty tons burden, which would float
when heavily laden in four feet of water. One vessel, laden
with sections of a steamer intended for use o,n the lake, sunk
in deep water, but was raised and pulled ashore by the help
of many friendly natives.

After reaching the obstructions in the river, several months
were spent in cutting through miles of tangled vegetation
and shallow channels overrun with reeds. The country was
an entire marsh, without a single dry spot to the horizon, but
with no deep water.

The task appeared hopeless. The river began to fall, and
men died daily. Just then the report of deep water ahead
revived the men, and after a few days the fleet was all assem-
bled in what seemed to be a long pond ; but the water rapidly
ran out through the cuttings made to admit the fleet, and the
boats lay perfectly helpless in only two feet of water. A
dam was then built in the rear, on which fifteen hundred
men worked for two days. It proved a success ; a strong wind
sprang up, and the fleet soon emerged into the unobstructed
White Nile, and reached Gondokoro on the 22d of May, 1 871,
having been nearly six months in accomplishing a voyage
which formerly, when the river was open, would have occu-
pied only twenty-five days.

Baker's force now consisted of one thousand troops in good
condition part Egyptians, and part blacks with ten mount-
ed guns. He took formal possession of Gondokoro in the name
of Egypt, hoisted the flag, and renamed the place, Ismailia.
It is the capital of the Bari tribes, who have grown wealthy
by bringing thither to sell, slaves and cattle plundered
from the interior tribes. Baker summoned the chiefs to a
meeting ; but they declared against annexation to Egypt, and
refused the Viceroy's authority. They also refused to sell



718 BAKER'S EXPLORATION'S.

supplies for the troops, and subsequently some of Baker's men
were wounded with arrows. War was instantly declared ;
Baker took the field with six-hundred men and completely
subdued the Bari. He returned to Gondokoro early in
October, with a loss of ten men killed and several wounded.

A spirit of dissatisfaction was now manifested by the army,
and on the 12th of October the officers, including the Colonel
commanding, declared, in writing, their intention to abandon
the expedition and return with the troops to Khartoum. As
a scarcity of provisions was given as a reason for the move-
ment, Baker immediately marched his men a short distance
south where corn was plenty. The true cause of the discon-
tent, Baker believed to be his determination to suppress the
slave trade, in opposition to the public opinion of Egypt.

When last heard from Baker was confident of success,
although he found the work of establishing a government
and securing a base for operations, far more difficult to accom-
plish than a simple exploration. His chief obstacle, aside
from the sickness and dissatisfaction of the men, promised to
be the difficulty of procuring porters to carry his equipments,
including the boat in sections intended for navigating the
Albert ISPyanza.

The Egyptian Government are much dissatisfied at the
results of the expedition thus far ; the Viceroy expresses his
views as follows :

" Baker went to the White Nile to create and not to destroy
commerce ; but instead of increasing our trade he has nearly
destroyed it ; traveling is not safe along the river ; the tribes
are hostile to the government, and we find our dominion
under his war of conquest unsafe, and unsounder than if he
had not gone there at all. Formerly our empire extended to
Gondokoro and beyond ; it is not increased by any annexation
by Baker. Peace, and not war, is our true policy with those
wild tribes, and I regret what Baker has done, because it
implants in their untaught minds the idea that Egypt is their
enemy."

It is estimated that the expenses of the expedition thus



BAKER'S EXPLORATIONS. 719

far, have been over $2,000,000. Baker was to have a sal-
ary of 5,000 per year, besides all expenses, and a large pen-
sion was to be paid to Lady Baker who accompanied the
expedition in case of his death within two years. Baker,
on his part, is said to have agreed to accomplish all that was
to be done within that time ; but at its expiration, and, as far
as heard from since, nothing had been accomplished.

At latest dates from the White Nile, Baker was -reported
to have reached the lake with a small force ; but the intelli-
gence was not very reliable, and the Yiceroy did not credit
the news. Baker's only safety seemed to be in pushing for-
ward into a more healthy locality, and it is believed he has
done this perhaps at the sacrifice of the military character
of the expedition. Many confidently believe that he has
met Livingstone in the vicinity of Lake Tanganyika, or will
goon do so.

A new military expedition consisting of five thousand men,
has just been organized in Egypt, which is to be sent by
transport vessels to Zanzibar. Ostensibly the expedition is
to .co-operate with Livingstone, if agreeable to him ; other-
wise, to act independently in searching for the sources of the
Nile. It is quite likely the primary object is the relief of
Pasha Baker and his followers.



CHAPTER XLY.
NATAL.

~VTO work on Africa would be complete without a descrip-
-L 1 tion of the little gem of a British colony lying on the
South Eastern coast, about eight hundred miles from the Cape
of Good Hope, called Natal. It is in the same latitude as
New Orleans, (30 south of the line, and 30 east of Green-
wich.) Its northern boundary is Zulu Land proper, its south-
ern, Ponda Land, its eastern, the Indian Ocean, and western,
a range of high mountains, called the Kahlamba or Drakens-
burg. The latter have been designated the Appenines of
South Africa, some of them being six thousand feet above
the sea, and during July, the coldest winter month, capped
with snow.

Natal has a seaboard of one hundred and seventy miles, and
is about twice the size of Massachusetts. Its original discov-
erer was Yasco De Gama, a Portuguese navigator, who sighted
it in 1497, on Christmas day, and named it in honor of its
discovery, Tierra Natal (the land of the nativity). It rises
in beautiful terraces from the Indian Ocean, the first being
about eight hundred feet high, the second two thousand, the
third three thousand five hundred.

Along the coast, is a strip of land extending back fifteen
and sometimes twenty miles, adapted to the cultivation of
sugar, coffee, arrow-root, ginger, indigo, and various tropical
productions. Wheat and other cereals thrive in the upper
districts, and near the foot of the Drakensburg mountains lies
a fine grazing country. The products of the soil are various.

720



ENTRANCE TO THE HARBOR. 72 1

Most European and American vegetables can be raised with-
out difficulty. Among the most common are Irish and sweet
potatoes, Indian corn, beans, peas, carrots, lettuce, cabbages,
turnips, pumpkins, cucumbers, and melons. Of fruits,
oranges, lemons, pomegranites, pine-apples, bananas, peaches,
the itungulu, a red plum, and the golden gooseberry. Ts ot
many indigenous fruits are found. The apple does not flour-
ish near the coast, but is raised to some extent inland. The
staple product is Indian corn, of which two crops can bs
raised in a year, near the coast by pains-taking. Cotton, tea,
and ginger are cultivated, but not largely. Sugar-cane
and coffee grow luxuriantly in the low lands.

For natural beauty, healthy climate, and fertile soil, Xatal
surpasses all other African colonies. It has been justly des-
ignated an " Elysium in South Africa." The first object
saluting us, as we approach the shore, is the friendly light-
house, a tall, massive, costly structure, situated on a high
bluff, visible for many miles.

Then appears the singular looking coast, lined with dense
twisted trees, interspersed with the tall Euphorbia, the Prickly
Pear, and Wild Palm. Mountains of silvery spray indicate
the mouths of numerous rivers. The harbor \ve pronounce
excellent, after passing the sand bar which almost blocks up
its entrance and is the dread of all shippers to and from this
port. It is certainly no joke to cross it in a small schooner
obliged to climb into the rigging, or be shut up in the cabin,
to feel the slow-moving craft thumping the bar, first on one
side and then the other, while a mountain breaker sweeps the
deck amid the almost deafening shouts of " Look out," from
the pilot and helmsman. An extensive breakwater is now
being constructed, not only as a defense from the violence of
the waves, but to check the drifting of sand into the harbor.
Should this not prove successful, measures will doubtless be
taken to blow up the ledge of sandstone lying at the entrance,
and thus deepen the channel.

Stepping on shore, we are gratified to find two miles of
railway leading to the only seaport town, named Durban.



722 DURBAN AND ITS SURROUNDINGS.

Sanctuaries belonging to different denominations meet the
eye. Substantial buildings of brick and stone, such as the
post-office, bank, mercantile and other establishments, orna-
ment the town.

The Botanical Gardens are conspicuous on an elevation in
the suburbs, and contain fine specimens of foreign as well as
African productions.

Two well-conducted newspapers, a public library, young
men's improvement clubs, Bible, tract, and temperance socie-
ties, give evidence of literary and religious progress.

The market is stocked with beef, venison, fowls, and garden
vegetables. The ordinary price of beef per pound is eight
cents, of mutton twelve cents. A good-sized chicken can be
had for twelve or fifteen cents. Oysters are abundant on the
rocks which skirt the coast, and can be obtained at low tide
by using the hammer and chisel. They are equal in flavor,
but not in size, to the American. Fruit is astonishingly cheap
and abundant. Often, a large cluster of ripe bananas can be
had for twenty-five cents. The market is frequently glutted
with luscious oranges.

The streets of Durban are laid out at right angles, are wide,
and convenient for trade with the Dutch farmers, whose
wagons require a large space for moving about. These cum-
bersome vehicles are drawn by a span of six or seven yoke of
oxen, and are peculiarly adapted to the rough roads and bridge-
less rivers.

The population of this town is about three thousand, mostly
English, who are merchants or mechanics. It suffers for
want of good water, that of the wells being brackish, and
inducing cutaneous diseases. All that is suitable for drink-
ing, is caught from galvanized iron roofs in time of rain.
The Umgeni, a river of pure water, empties itself into the sea
only three miles distant, and will doubtless' be made availa-
able, should the town rise in wealth and importance.

The trade between this colony and the Dutch farmers of
the Orange Free State and Trans Vaal Republic is increasing,
and Durban is the depot from which all the wool, ivory, hides,



COMMERCE AND TRADE. 725

horns, etc., from the interior, together with Natal productions,
are exported. It is also a receptacle for imports from other
countries. Though fine wheat is raised on the high lands,
and by the Dutch beyond the mountains, most of the flour
used by the colonists is imported from Australia.

The revenue of the colony is raised principally from the
sale of crown lands, transfer dues, stamps, post-office, auction,
and harbor dues, licenses, customs, and an annual native hut
tax. Private individuals are not allowed to import gunpow-
der, but are permitted to purchase it of government. All
guns are registered and stamped in magistrate's offices, and a
duty of half a sovereign levied on each barrel. A military
force is maintained consisting of a regiment of from three
hundred to five hundred soldiers.

Commerce, at present, is almost entirely in the hands of
the English. Why no wide-awake American merchant has
established himself in this rising country, is difficult to see.
A fine opportunity is opening for Yankee ingenuity and
enterprise. In developing the resources of their beautiful
colony, it is believed that Natalians would gladly extend the
hand of fellowship to their American brethren. It seems
desirable that there should be a direct connection between
the mercantile houses of Durban and America. Do we not
need wool, ivory, hides, sugar, coffee, arrow-root, ginger, etc. ?
And does not Natal need furniture, which can be made in
America cheaper than any where else, together with lumber,
kerosene, agricultural tools, sewing-machines, and Yankee
notions innumerable ?

Though Natal has suffered greatly within a few years from
rash speculations, its commercial affairs are now in a healthy
state. Its credit with the mother country is good, and the
Diamond Fields, only four hundred and fifty miles distant,
have opened a brisk trade. The road to these fields from
Natal being an excellent one, and the grass for oxen abundaitt,
it is not strange that so many seekers for precious stones have
made this part of South Africa their starting point and place
of supplies.



726 PIETER MARITZBURG.

The only city in Natal (and a more beautiful one can hardly
be found in any country), is Pieter Maritzburg the capital,
fifty miles from Durban, and connected with that place by a
good Government road. It is situated in a large valley, laid
out at right angles, surrounded by high hills, and shaded by
tall and graceful Australian gum trees. Good water, never
failing in the driest season, is conducted through the streets,
from which every house is supplied and every garden irrigated.
Here resides His Excellency, the Lieutenant Governor, Mr.
Anthony Musgrave, whose estimable lady is an American,
the daughter of David Dudley Field, Esq., of New York.
Here, also, the Colonial Secretary, Treasurer, Attorney Gen-
eral, and other prominent officials have their head quarters.
Commodious barracks for Her Majesty's troops on an elevation
in the suburbs, command a fine view of the surrounding
country.

The European population of the city is estimated at five
thousand. Its trade is mostly with Dutch farmers, who come
from beyond the Drakensberg Mountains, a journey of twenty
or thirty days, in their large wagons, bringing butter, wool,
hides, ivory, etc., to exchange for furniture, plows, groceries,
and clothing.

Leaving this lovely city, and riding into the country, we
are enchanted with the scenery, and exclaim, "What magnifi-
cent landscapes ! how beautiful those table lands and bush -clad
valleys !" We quite agree with the old Portuguese navigator,
who said of it centuries ago, " It is a land most goodly and
pleasant to behold." Whether we journey in the summer,
from September to April, and are delighted with the luxuriant
verdure, or in winter, from May to August, the thermometer
ranging from 40 to 75, the atmosphere pure and invigora-
ting, the skies cloudless, the nights cool and bracing, we
are compelled to acknowledge that it is a pre-eminently charm-
ing country.

That penetrating cold experienced in a New England win-
ter is never known here, and the heat in summer is seldom
more oppressive than in America during July and August.



MISSIONARY SOCIETIES 80.
* Stations ffftfic vL B. C
I _ , _ ffftht~Bcrlm Society.
of Pastor Jfanns



_nglis}tJEjji<c0paliant
- . _ \V~esby tut Society
e JSngUfh lowru



Longitude EasCX




728 ZULU LABOR

Frequent thunder-storms, followed by cool days and a sea
breeze every p. M., greatly mitigate tlie heat in December and
January, the hottest months in Natal. To those noxious
vapors common in Delagoa Bay, and on the Eastern and West-
ern coasts of the continent, this colony is a stranger. It is
also exempt from many diseases fatal in other countries. The
vital statistics compared with those of other parts of the world
show that the rate of mortality is low. For the relief of pul-
monary complaints, the Natal climate is probably unsurpassed.
Let those manifesting a tendency to consumption try it before
the disease has become seated, and there is a prospect of a
lengthened life, if not of a permanent cure.

We would not ignore the fact that there are serious draw-
backs to colonial enterprise, and adventurers who go there
expecting to fill their pockets with gold without a struggle
may find themselves disappointed. One thing now trying the
colonists, exceedingly, is scarcity of native labor. It would
seem that among three hundred thousand, or nearly that num-
ber of Zulus, the sixteen thousand, or seventeen thousand
European .residents might obtain abundance of cheap labor ;
but this is not the case. Zulu men will not work, unless they
see it is for their interest to do so, and the English Government
wisely refuses to force them to labor. Coolies have been
introduced from India at great expense, but not in sufficient
number to carry on all the agricultural operations.

Besides, the Diamond Fields have drawn away a large num-
ber of native servants, and the rate of wages is high. Then
again, the pleuro pneumonia, and other cattle diseases, have
swept away so many valuable oxen, that it is becoming a
serious question among sugar and coffee planters, how to get
their produce to market. The cry on all hands is, " Give us
railways." The new governor, sympathetic and helpful, will
doubtless use his influence with the home authorities in this
matter, and we hope ere long the iron horse will be snorting
over the plains of South Africa. The first grand trunk will
probably be laid from the port to the capital, then one hun-
dred and fifty miles further to " Newcastle," where lie exten-



GEOLOGICAL FEATURES GAME. 729

sive districts of coal, bitumious, and said to equal the best
English.

It may be that Natal will one day become a prominent
coaling station, and when this valuable article is consumed
in England, the mother country may have to depend on her
Natal daughter for a supply. As it respects the geological
features of the colony, granite, sandstone, trap and slate are
the prevailing rocks. A striking characteristic of the scen-
ery is the tabular shape of the hills. Immense blocks of
granite lie at the base of a chain of table lands, crowned with
sandstone, and covered with pastures, beautiful fountains and
streams.

This colony may be designated a land of grass. It is esti-
mated that every acre of good land in it may be made to pro-
duce an average of two tons of hay. Some think that the
red grass abounding in the upper districts is of the same value
as the Spanish Esparto grass, found so useful in making cer-
tain kinds of paper. Its applicability to this purpose has not
yet been tested.

For game, Natal presents a fine field. Antelopes of vari-
ous kinds abound, such as the red ourebi, grey duiker, blue
buck, and the bush buck. Hartebeests and elands, the largest
specimens of the antelope family, have pretty much left the
colony, but are found on the borders. Buffaloes, also, have
become scarce as Europeans and Zulus have multiplied. I
may say the same of lions, which occupied the table lands till
within a few years. There still abound leopards, hyenas,
jackals, wild dogs and bears, porcupines, wild pigs, monkeyp,
and baboons. Partridges, quails, wild ducks, and a fine bird
as large as the turkeys, called the phow, are shot in some
localities.

In religious matters, Natal presents the strange spectacle of
two bishops, Colenso and Macrorie, both in the English
Church, but at variance theologically. Dr. Colenso is a very
interesting man in many respects, kind, genial, warm-hearted,
and evidently in sympathy with missionary operations. A
more diligent student we rarely find. In addition to his volu-



730 MISSIONARIES.

rainous commentaries on the Bible, he has translated portions
of Scripture, the Pilgrim's Progress, and other books into Zulu,
and made an excellent dictionary and grammar of the native
language. lie is an eloquent speaker, and never fails to draw
large audiences.

Though the English Church and clergy have made stren-
uous efforts to depose him, he still retains his ecclesiastical
status and salary. His theological views are well known to
the world ; we need not refer to them. A good likeness of
the Bishop is given on next page.

Clergymen under each of these bishops have their preach-
ing stations scattered throughout the colony, as have also
other denominations Wesleyan Methodist, Presbyterians,
and Independents, so that the European population is not
entirely destitute of the means of grace.

It is interesting to contemplate this part of the world from
a philanthropic stand-point. Yarious events now transpiring
show that Providence is designating it as the chief gate-way
for the introduction of Christianity into the partially explored
interior. The necessity of protecting by civilized authority
those who attempt to christianize tribes of blood-thirsty sav-
ages has been demonstrated. The United Brethren and
other missionary societies have attempted in vain to evan-
gelize Africa when isolated among her barbarous races.
" The elevation of Africa can be effected only from within
herself. Her nations must be raised to that moral and politi-
cal power which shall combine them in firm resistance to
oppression. To do this, the chief points of commercial influ-
ence must be occupied by strong and well regulated colonies,
from which civilization and religion shall radiate to the sur-
rounding regions."

Natal seems to be such a point. By making it a depot of
commerce, science and religion, Providence is hastening the
iime, when the day-spring from on high shall visit regions
which have been long shrouded in darkness. In this we dis-
cover a prestige that the time to favor this long abused con-
tinent is at hand.' The dark clouds of superstition are rising,



THE ZULU POPULATION. 731

that the light of Christianity may enter. The way is prepar-
ing whereby evangelical laborers can be protected, and fur-
nished with facilities for doing their work.



Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 48 of 51)