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always, liberated in pursuance of his last wishes not be-
queathed to his heirs.

But, no matter how mild this bondage may be, there is
always in the background that terrible picture of the means
by which the slaves are originally procured the native wars,
the desolation of immense tracts of country, the deaths from
heartache, and the utter misery of forced abandonment of
those ties which are, probably, as dear yes, certainly as dear,
though, perhaps, unconsciously so to black as to white. And
again, there is another dark stain upon the system the mu-
tilation of the boys so as to fit them for the duties of the
eunuch. This hideous crime is perpetrated as soon after cap-
ture as convenient, and thougli only attempted with children
of tender age, it is said that at least four out of five operated
upon perish from the injuries they receive. Slavery, there-
fore, even at the best, is an accursed thing, and every good
man will rejoice that there is now a bright prospect of its
being finally abolished in what is now, perhaps, its greatest
stronghold."

The dispatches of Dr. Livingstone by Stanley reached Eng-
land at a singularly fortunate moment. Parliament was just
then discussing measures for the more effectual suppression
of the East African slave-trade. Lord Stratheden had moved
on the 23d of July an address to the queen, praying for a
more rigid enforcement of the restraints upon the traffic in
question. In the debate which followed, reference was had
to the evidence collected by a select committee of the House
of Commons appointed a year previously, disclosing the extent
of the traffic in slaves at Zanzibar, and the ruinous effects of
the trade in the interior of Africa.

The testimony of Dr. Livingstone, coming at this oppor-
tune moment, and corroborating the evidence already before
Parliament, awakened the British government to a sense of
duty, and France and the United States were asked to co-ope-
rate in the only plan by which the nefarious traffic could be
stopped, viz: the immediate abrogation of the commercial



772 THE EAST AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE.

treaties with Muscat, unless the sultan of that kingdom will
consent to the cancellation of the clauses in relation to the
slave-trade.

Dr. Livingstone proposed this plan for the annihilation of
the slave-trade on the Eastern Coast, that the native Christians
of one or more of the English settlements on the "West Coast,
that had fully accomplished their mission in suppressing the
trade there, should voluntarily migrate to some healthy spot on
the east side of Africa, and thus make themselves twice useful.

This proposition did not meet with much favor from the
English public. The truth is, England, with all her benevo-
lence and with all her hatred of slavery, has never manifested
much confidence in negroes. The plan of civilizing and
Christianizing East Africa by the introduction of Christian
negroes from the West Coast, appeared to the average English-
man as visionary. Dr. Livingstone preferred Christian negroes
to Europeans as a civilizing power for East Africa, but the
London Daily News thus speaks of his plan :

" Dr. Livingstone is opposed to the introduction of ' Euro-
peans, even as missionaries,' among the settlers on the East
Coast. No doubt * brandy, black women, and lazy inactivity '
have played their part in the shortening of European life in
Africa ; but were it not for the Christianity upheld by the
constant presence of the Englishman on the "West Coast, the
principles of truth and justice would have languished and
died in twelve months after they were revealed. Things
may bear another reading on the East Coast ; but our settle-
ments of Sierra Leone, the Gambia, the Gold Coast, and Lagos
indicate nobler results on the West Coast than that the
' English, in new climates, reveal themselves to be born fools.'
No plan of native emigration, though the members may be
Christian, would answer unless the resident leaders were
Europeans ; and if one mental attribute is more wanting to
the native African than another, it is that very attribute of
which the purposes of emigration stand so eminently in need
the attributes of organization. Any settlement founded on
the hints thrown out by Dr. Livingstone would be sure to



THE EAST AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE. 773

fail ; and, perhaps, when he comes back full of his experiences,
to discuss the matter calmly with us, he will think so too."

Probably Dr. Livingstone's plan never received much con-
sideration from the ministry. At all events the Queen's
speech at the prorogation of Parliament in August, contained
this short but significant sentence : " Government has taken
steps to prepare the way for dealing more effectually with the
slave-trade on the East Coast of Africa." Taking this short
sentence for a text, the Pall Mall Gazette thus ably discourses
on the East African slave-trade :

" There seems little doubt that the trade can be put down,
even without the establishment of a free negro community
on the Eastern Coast as proposed by Dr. Livingstone and Sir
Bartle Frere. The only lucrative markets for slaves are now
the over-sea markets of the Eastern Mohammedan States, and
if the access to these can be prevented, there is every reason
to believe that slave-dealing and slave-hunting in Africa will
dwindle to insignificant dimensions. Great Britain has long
been accustomed to treat the maritime slave-trade as piracy,
and the only government which once strenuously resisted
this principle the United States of America now publicly
patronizes it.

If all the waters on the East African coast were
open to the British cruisers of the squadron ordinarily
stationed at Trincomalee, they would probably make short
work of the maritime trade ; but unfortunately this does not
seem to be the case, and there appear to be certain waters
under the sovereignty of the sultan of Zanzibar, into which
British ships are prevented from entering under the provis-
ions of a treaty to which the English government is a party.
It thus happens that Zanzibar has become the chief, if not the
exclusive, head quarters of a tolerable secure traffic in negroes
from the East Coast of Africa. At first sight there would
seem to be no difficulty in putting an end to this treaty ; but
we believe that a further hitch arises through engagements
with the sultan, which belong to the intricacies of Anglo-In-
dian diplomacy.



774 THE EAST AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE.

The sultan, as lias been explained at some length in Cap-
taiff Burton's recent publication, represents a younger branch
of the Sultan or Imauin of Muscat in Eastern Arabia, who
have long been under the special protection of the British
government, and whose authority is the keystone of British
ascendancy in the Persian Gulf. Muscat and Zanzibar,
though divided by so many miles of stormy sea, were once
under the same dynasty ; but there was a quarrel about the
succession, as is usual in such States, and this dispute Lord
Canning, when Governor General of India, is understood to
have appeased by assigning Muscat to one pretender and Zan-
zibar to the other. Unfortunately, as it now turns out, the
Governor General decided that Zanzibar should every year
pay to Muscat a tribute or subsidy as a mark of semi-feudal
dependence, and this payment appears to be the real source
of the present difficulty.

The sultan of Zanzibar practically maintains his right to
license the maritime traffic in slaves, on the plea that the
export duty merely reimburses him for the tribute which he
has to make good under the diplomatic arrangement of the
British government, and he alleges that he simply cannot
afford for this reason to open the waters of Zanzibar to Brit-
ish ships of war. In order therefore, to put down the trade,
England must apparently not only employ her own vessels,
but must buy up the vested interests of the ruler from whose
harbors the exportation takes place."

The significance of the Queen's speech was fully appre-
ciated when it was announced that Sir Bartle Frere was com-
missioned by government to visit Zanzibar and Muscat with
full powers over the African question. A commissioner more
able and more acceptable to the English nation could hardly
have been selected. Who Sir Bartle Frere is, and what is the
nature of the commission which he is expected to execute,
cannot be told better than by giving the substance of the
speech made by Sir Henry Eawlinson, the President of
the British Koyal Geographical Society at a farewell dinner




SIR BARTLE FRERE, K. C. B,, G. C. S. I.



THE EAST AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE. 777

given by the Society on the first of November, 1872, in honor
of the distinguished commissioner. When the toast of the
evening, " The health of Sir Bartle Frere," was proposed,
President Rawlinson said :

" The present is an occasion in which the geographers of
the Society and men of science take a common course with all
the citizens of this great Empire and the members of the
Christian world. We are met to do honor to Sir Bartle Frere,
on his departure from England to fulfil the mission with which
he has been entrusted by the government. He is one of the
Vice Presidents of our Society. He has often presided over
our meetings, and by his suavity and tact he has often recalled
the memory of our late President, Sir R. Murchison. He has
also taken an active part in the working labors of the Soci-
ety. His counsel has often been of the utmost value in guid-
ing the fortunes of the Society ; he has also contributed papers
to our journals, and he has taken an active part in the discus-
sion of those questions of geographical interest which luive
come before us But he is not only a geographer, or a patron
of geographers. He is a statesman an earnest, thoughtful
and honest statesman one of those clear-headed, large-hearted
men who will go down to future ages' as among the benefac-
tors of mankind. I will not pretend to recapitulate the pub-
lie life of Sir Bartle Frere, but I must refer to one or two of
its incidents. He was trained up in that nursery of great men,
the civil service of India ; in it he passed thirty years of his
life, till he arrived at the highest post within his reach, the
government of the presidency to which he belonged. His
administration of Scinde during the Sepoy rebellion of 1857
evinced the highest qualities of statesmanship, and brought
him prominently forward as one of the ablest men of his day.
It has been said of him, that he found the province a desert
and left it a garden. He began the administration under all
possible disadvantages, but he succeeded in converting the law-
less marauders of the province into industrious and peaceful
peasants.

" For his services he received the special thanks of



778 THE EAST AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE.

both houses of Parliament and was made a Knight Com-
mander of the Bath. His subsequent government of Bombay
was equally creditable to him, and is still remembered in India
with feelings of the deepest gratitude. The chief character-
istic of Sir Bartle Frere, if he will allow me to say so, is an
entire abnegation of self, and an absolute devotion to the in-
terests of those committed to his care. To a vigorous under-
standing and a strong tenacity of purpose, he adds a gentle
disposition, a genial manner and an active sympathy with suf-
fering, which have made him most deservedly popular in
whatever sphere his lot has been cast. I venture to say that
no Indian statesman, not even the late lamented Viceroy, was
ever more beloved than Sir Bartle Frere by the native popu-
lations with whom he has been brought into contact. We
shall miss him during his absence from us, but we shall not
regret the cause when we consider the important duties that
he has been called upon to perform. It is highly honorable
to him and to the glorious civil service of the old East India
Company, that he should have been selected for the mission
in preference to the many able members of the regular diplo-
matic service who might have been chosen. "We congratulate
him on the eminence he has achieved, and we wish him ' God-
speed ' on his mission ; and we can assure him, as all the
friends of civilization and humanity must do, that if he suc-
ceeds in putting a stop to the detestable slave-trade on the
East Coast of Africa, a brighter and more enduring crown of
glory will surround his brow than if he had been the hero of
a hundred battles.

" I will now say a few words on another subject the ex-
tension of our geographical knowledge that we may look for-
ward to from this mission. The name of Livingstone is dear
to the Geographical Society, and we know that whatever may
be said to the contrary, Livingstone often turns to us with
pride and affection, as to his foster parent and best friend.
Sir Bartle Frere is one of his oldest friends. He started him
on his present expedition, and furnished him with credentials
to persons in Zanzibar, which proved to be of the utmost



THE EAST AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE. 779

value. Livingstone has never lost an opportunity of expres-
sing the deep sense of obligation which he felt himself to be
under to Sir Bartle Frere ; and, altogether, we think it is far
from improbable that when the news of this mission to Zan-
zibar reaches Dr. Livingstone, and that its object is that an
end may be put to that hateful traffic which it has been the
object of his life to denounce and destroy, we think there is
reason to hope that the Doctor may come down to Zanzibar
to hold personal communication with his old and tried friend
Sir Bartle Frere, before proceeding on his expedition to the
south of Lake Tanganyika. At any rate, Sir Bartle Frere, on
arriving at Zanzibar, will be able to judge what measures had
best be adopted to strengthen Livingstone's hands, and to
enable him to pursue his expedition with satisfaction to him-
self and with benefit to his country. For these reasons we
have decided to give Sir Bartle Frere discretionary power
over the balance of the Livingstone fund still remaining in
our hands, in order that he may apply it as he judges to be
best for the interest of Livingstone, and thus we shall also in-
sure that the fund will be spent in accordance with the wishes
of those who subscribed to it."

From the well known energy and tact of Sir Bartle Frere,
the English public and all friends of freedom entertain the
highest hopes that he will accomplish the delicate and diffi-
cult mission of giving the death-blow to the slave-trade of
Eastern Africa, its last strong-hold. God speed him on his
mission.



INDEX



AFRICA, 17.

African Explorations, 91.

Among the Cannibals, 583.

Ashangoes, 97.

Ashiras, 98.

Auderssen's Travels, 115.

Abyssinia, 33, 763.

Ashanti, 54.

Amazons, 60.

Angola, 236.

Atada, 711.

Albert N'yanzi. 712.

B

BURTON, Trip to Ujiji, 344.

At Unyanyembe, 369.

At Ujiji, 375.

On Tanganyika Lake, 379.

At Uvira, 379.

Return to Zanzibar, 384.
Earth's Travels, 109.
Barbary States, 23.
Bedouins, 28.
Bornu, 46.
Benin, 74
Bonny, 74.
Benguela, 75.
Bechuanas, 87.
Bushman, 88.
Batokas, 258.

Bennett's Instructions, 326.
Bagamoyo, 343.
Baines among the Makota, 87.
Banians, 593.
BAKER'S EXPEDITION, 700.

At Cairo, 700.

Across the Desert, 700.

The Blue Nile, 700.

At Berber, 700.

In Abygsinia, 703.

Hunting Rhinoceros, 703.

Hunting Lions, 707.

At Khartoum, 708.

At Gondokoro, 708.

Meets Speke and Grant, 708.

At Latooka, 711.

At Obbo, 711.

At Atada, 711.

At Unyoro, 712.

c

CLAPPERTON'S TRAVELS, 95.

Cammas, 109.

Cape Town Founded, 110.

Campbell's Travels, 110.

Congo, 709.

Chiboque, 221;

Chapman among the Makota, 87.

Cape Town, 759.



Cazembe, 551.
Chambezi River, 522.
Cazembe's Queen, 521.
Cannibals, 563.



DENHAM'S TRAVELS, 95.
Durban, 724.
Diamond Fields, 755.
Du Chaillu's Travels, 96
Desert of Sahara, 11.
Dahomey, 58.
Damara, 82.

E

EGBAS, 70.
EXPEDITIONS.

Anderssen's, 115.

Earth's, 109.

Clapperton's, 95.

Chapman's, 87.

Denham's, 95.

Du Challu's, 96.

Lander's, 95.

Mungo Park's, 92.

Moffat's 110.

Magyar's, 119.

Murray's, 156.

Overweg's, 109.

Oswell's, 156.

Reade's, 102.

Richardson's, 69.

Livingstone's, 123, 289, 312.

Burton's, 344.

Speke's, 344.

Grant's, 374.

Baker's, 700.

Speke's 373.

N. Y. Herald's, 326.

Livingstone-Search, 553.



FANS, 103.

Fanti, 54.

Frere Bartle Sir, 777.

G

GORILLAS, 102.

Gani, 699.

Gondoroko, 699, 70a

Gold mines, 763.

Gaboon Coast, 75.

Guinea, 75.

GRANT AT KAZK, 683.
At UKulima's Valley,
At Uzinza, 686.
At Usui, 687.
At Karatfue, 68&
At Ugunda 696.
At Unyoro, 696.



INDEX.



781



GRANT'S EXPEDITION, 683.
Among the Gani, 699.
At Madi, 699.
At Gondokoro, 699.
Meets Baker, 699.
Down the Nile, 699.



HAMRAN ARABS, 31.

Hottentots, 88.

Hopo, 147.

Herald Expedition, 326.

His Story to Lord Clarendon, 586.



ISHAGOS, 7097.



KRUMEN, 54.

Khartoum, 708.

Karuma Falls, 708.

KIRK, DR., Arraignment of, 438.

" Shooting at Bagamoyo, 442.
Kaze, Speke at, 683,
Karague, 688.
Kamrasi, King, 696, 712.
Korannas,85.
Kalahari Desert, 157,
Kilimane, 285.
Kolobeng, 138.
Kuruman, 131.



LAKE TCHAD DISCOVERED, 95.

Lander's Travels, 95.

Lake N garni Discovered.

Liberia, 53.

Loango, 75.

Linyanti, 236.

Lake Nyassa Discovered, 297.

Latooka, 711.

Limpopo River,

Land of the Moon, 366.

Lake Victoria, 383.

Lake Bangweolo, 523.

Lake Lincoln, 526, 578, 588.

Lualaba River, 526, 578.

LakeMoero 527,578.

Lake Kamolondo, 527.

Lumeresi King, 684.

Lake Albert, 712.

LIVINGSTONE'S TRAVELS, 123.

Early life, 123.

At Kmruman, 131.

In t li Bakwain Country, 133.

At Kolobeng, 138.

Mabotea, 139.

In the Kalahari Desert, 157.

Among the Bakobas,

At Lake Ngami, 161.

Among the Makololo, 177.

The Balonda, 195.

With Shinte, the great chief, 202.

Among the Chibociue, 221.

In Angola, 226.

At St. Paul de Loanda, 239.



LIVINGSTONE'S TRAVELS.
At Linyanti, 252.
At the Victoria Falls, 254.
Among the Batokas, 258.
At-Tete, 278.
At Senna, 281.
Down the Zambesi, 282.
At Kilimane, 285.
In England, 288.
ZAMBESI EXPEDITION, 289.
The Ma Robert, 251.
Up the Shire, 252.
Lake Nyassa Discovered, 297.
Among the Makololo, 298.
Mrs. Livingstone's death, 304.
The Rovuma, 306.
Expedition recalled, 309.
In England, 310.
THIRD EXPEDITION, 312.
At Zanzibar, 312.
On the Rotuma, 312.
Reports from the Interior of his

Death, 214.

Found by Stanley, 486.
On Lake Tanganyika, 505.
On River Rusizi, 512.
Late Adventures, 515.
With Cazembe, 521.
At Ujiji, 536.

Return to Unyanyembe, 540.
Letter to Stanley, 549.

" " Bennett, 563.

" " Bennett, 563.

" " His Brother, 664.

" " Mr. Stearns, 660.

M

MCNOO PARK, 92.
Moflat's Travels, 110.
Magyar's Travels, 119.
Mirage, 24.
Mountains, 18.
Mandingoes, 52.
Mpongue, 76.
Makololo, 87, 177, 298.
Murray'i Travels, 156.
Mrima, 836.

Manyema. 525, 532, 566, 577.
Missionaries, 730.
Mtesa King, 692.
Madi, 699.

N

NIGER DISCOVERED. 92.

Natal, 720.

Niger Discovered, mouth of, 95. "

Nubia, 33.

Nameless Lake, 527.



OVERWBG'S TRAVELS, 109.

Ovambo, 81.

Oswell's Travels, 156.

Obbo, 711.

Orange Free State, 756,



782



INDEX.



PIETEK MARITZBURQH, 726.
Port Elizabeth. 759.
Pniel, 763.



RIVERS, 20.
Reade's Travels, 102.
Richardson's Travels, 109.
Rain Making, 112, 123.
Rovuma, 306. _j

River Limpopo, 763.
River Lualaba, 528.
Rumanika King, 688. 1
River Nile, 696, 699.

The Blue Nile, 700.

The Atbara, 700.

S

STANLEY AT PARIS, 329.

Zanzibar, 330.

Bagamoyo, 343, 385, 396.

Trip to Unyanyembe. 386.

Leaves Bagamoyo westward, 398.

In Ugogo, 406.

At Kwihara, 386.

In Unyanyerabe, 408.

Fighting Mirambo, 412.

Arraignment of Dr. Kirk, 438.

At Ugunda, 452.

At Ukonongo, 461.

At Uvinza,470.

At Ujiji, 486.

With Livingstone, 490.

On Lake Tanganyika, 505.

On River Rusizi, 512.

Return to Unyanyembe, 540.

Parts with Livingstone, 545.

Returns to Bagamoyo, 546

Interview with Lt. Henn, 546.

Sails for Seychelles, 550.

In France, 507.

At London, 618.

At Brighton, 621.

At Glasgow, 641.

At Edinburgh, 653.

At New York, 654.

Speech at Lotus Club, 658.

With John Livingstone, 663.

Early Life, 669.

Supposed Birth-Place, 674.

Antecedents, 675.

Lewis H. Noe's Story, 677.

Letter to Noe, 679.

" to Mr. Bennett, 680.
SPEKE AT KAOLE, 344.

Among the Wazaromo, 345.

Among the Wakhuta, 352.

At Zungomero, 353.

On the Usagara Mountains, 354.

In Ugogo, 359.

At Unyanyembe, 365, 383.

At Ujiji, 375.

On Tanganyika Lake, 379.



SPEKE AMONG THB

At Uvira, 379.

At Victoria Nyanza, 383. 1

Zanzibar return to, 384.

New Expedition in 1860, 683. '

At Ukulima's Village, 684.

Uzinza, 684.

Usui, 087.

Karague, 688.

Ugunda, 692.

Unyoro, 696.

Among the Gani. 699.

Among the Madi, 699. ]

At Gondoroko, 699.

Meets Baker, 699.

Down the Nile, 699.
Slave Trade, 582, 585, 764.
Shooas, 51.
Soudan, 52.
Schele, 132.
Shinte, 202.

St. Paul de Loanda, 336.
Senna, 281.



TETE, 278.
TANGANYIKA LAKE, 371.

Cruise of Speke and Burton, 379.

Cruise of Stanley and Livingstone,

505

Tibboos, 27.
Tuaricks, 27.
Transvaal Republic, 756.



UZARAMO, 345.
Usagara Mountains, 354.
Ugogo, 359.
Unyanyembe, 365.

' Life at, 420.

Ujiji, 375-486.
Uvira, 370.
Ugunda, 452, 682.
Uzinza, 684,
Ukulima's Village, 684,
Usui, 687.
Unyoro, 686-712.



VICTORIA FALLS, 254.
Victoria Nyanza, 383

w

WAZARAMO, 345.
Wakhuta, 352.
Wanyamwezi, 358, 369.
WakonoBgo, 457.
Webb's River, 522.



ZANZIBAR, 332.
Zungomero, 353.
Zulus, 727.
Zambesi River, 332-762. \



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Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 51 of 51)