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tures of lakes and pools studded with islets. Sometimes
when his companions and horses were in advance, they
appeared as if lifted from the earth, or moving like dark
living pictures in the air. So intense was the heat that he
often thrust his head into an old ant-hill excavated by the
ant-eater, to have something solid between the fevered brain
and the piercing rays of the sun. "When water was reached
he was unable to speak, but soon revived on drinking some.

Several years later, Mr. Moffat went aboutf four hundred
miles north-east from Kuruman into the country of the
Matsebele, whose king's name was Mosilikatse. On reaching
his capital, Moffat was met by a thousand warriors whose
kilts were of ape skins, their legs and arms adorned with the
hair and tails of oxen. After uttering some hideous yells, all
was silent as at midnight, and the men as motionless as stat-
ues. Then came a war song, some parts of its music befitting
the neither regions, then a pause, and then out marched the
monarch. But he was very friendly, and gave Mr. Moffat a
clumsy but hearty shake of the hand. "Whenever he arose or
sat down all within sight hailed him with a shout, followed
by a number of his high sounding titles, such as Great King,
King of Heaven, the Elephant, the Lion's Paw and the like.
His government was the very essence of despotism.

In 1854, Mr. Moffat visited again the same region, to help
forward some supplies for Livingstone then on a journey to
the Zambesi, and met this same chief, now old and infirm.

Jn 1821, Mr. Moffat established himself as a missionary, at


Ivuruman, which was for a long time the most inland station
from Cape Town. Here Dr. Livingstone came, on his first
arrival in Africa, and from this point he started northward
on his first explorations. Subsequently he married Mr. Moffat's

In Southern Africa rain is the very life of the country,
and should it be delayed beyond the usual time the dread of
famine agitates the people. Consequently, good rain-makers
are in great demand. Mr. Moffat relates, that on one occa-
sion when a drought threatened, the Bechnanas, among whom
he lived, sent two hundred miles for a renowned rain-maker.
He came, but found the clouds rather hard to manage, and
the drought continued.

One day, as he was taking a sound sleep, a shower fell, on
which one of the principal men entered his house to congrat-
ulate him, but to his utter amazement, found him totally
insensible to what was transpiring.

" Ilelaka rare !" (Hallo, by my father !) " I thought you
were making rain," said the intruder ; when, arising from his
slumbers, and seeing his wife sitting on the floor, shaking a
milk-sack in order to obtain a little butter to annoint her hair,
he replied, pointing to the operation of churning,

"Do you not see my wife churning rain as fast as she

This reply gave entire satisfaction, and it presently spread
through the entire length and breadth of the town, that the
rain-maker had charmed the shower out of a milk-sack.

This shower, however, furnished no relief, and for many a
long week afterward not a clbud appeared. The women had
planted extensive fields, but the seed would not sprout ; the
cattle were dying for want of pasture, and" hundreds of ema-
ciated men were seen going to the fields in quest of roots and
reptiles, while others were perishing with hunger.

All these circumstances irrated the rain-maker, and he
said that secret rogues were disobeying his proclama-
tions. He complained that the people had only given him
goats to kill, and asked for fat oxen, promising then to let
them see ox-rain.



Finding that his charms and ceremonies produced no effect,
and that the people were getting impatient, the impostor had
resource to another strategem. He well knew that baboons
were not very easily caught among rocky glens and shelving
precipices, and, therefore/ in order to gain time, he informed
the men that, to make rain, he must have a baboon ; more-
over, that not a hair on his body was to be wanting ; in short,
the animal should be free from blemish. After a long and
severe pursuit, and with bodies much lacerated, a band of
chosen runners succeeded in capturing a young baboon, which
they brought back triumphantly and exultingly. On seeing
the animal, the rogue put on a countenance exhibiting the
most intense sorrow, exclaiming,

"My heart is rent in pieces! I am dumb with grief!"
Pointing at the same time, to the ear of the baboon, that was
slightly scratched, and the tail, which had lost some hair, he
added, " Did I not tell you I could not bring rain if there
was one hair wanting ?"

In consequence of Livingstone's discovery of Lake Ngami
in 1849, a Swedish Naturalist, C. J. Anderssen, with Francis
Galton, an Englishman, started an expedition which left Cape
Town in August, 1850. They sailed up the Western Coast
to "Walfisch Bay, and from this point started for the interior
on the 19th of September. They passed through the Coast
country inhabited by the Namaqua Hottentots, into the land
of the Damaras.

Being told by the natives that there was a lake, " as large
as the sky," far to the northward, they determined to explore
it, and after a long journey, were greatly disappointed at
finding that a dried-up water course, about a mile long, and a
patch of weeds " was the only reward for months of toil and

At this point the travelers determined to continue north-
wards, where lived a nation called Ovambo, which means in
their language " The merry people," and started from the
great lake on the 12th of April. On reaching the Damara
border, the native chief refused to give them a guide, or any



information. They finally joined an Ovambo trading cara-
van, and journeyed with it to the residence of the Ovambo
king, Nangoro, with whom they had an interview. He was
a very fat man, and had one hundred and six wives.

This tribe are remarkable for their many good qualities.
They are so honest that if a man is detected in stealing, he is
brought before the house of the king, and there speared to
death. They surround their dwellings with palisades, made
of poles fixed firmly in the ground. The interior arrange-
ments of these inclosures were most intricate. They com-
posed the dwellings of masters and servants, open places
devoted to amusements and consultations, graineries, pig-pens,
roosting places for fowls, the cattle kraal, etc.

The travelers set out on their return June 15th, and
reached Okamabuti the place were they joined the Ovambo
caravan on the first of July. On the 4th of August they
arrived at the Mission station of Barmen, and Mr. Galton
soon afterwards returned to England. Mr. Anderssen drove
a herd of cattle down the coast to Cape Town, where he sold
them. He then returned to Walfisch Bay by boat, and started
towards Lake !Ngami, which he reached after a variety of

One day as he was cantering along, he found himself all at
once on the verge of a pitfall, which had been made by the
natives to entrap the giraffe. It was too late to retreat, and
he and his horse went with a crash through the light net-
work of sticks and grass that covered it, to the bottom of
the pit, which was about ten feet deep, but escaped without
much injury.

While at Lake Xgami, Anderssen started to ascend the river
Teoge, to a place called Libebe ; but after a voyage of twelve
days, the natives would go no further. So he returned to
the lake, and subsequently to Cape Town.

In 1858, Anderssen fitted out a new expedition, and again
started on his travels into the Damara and Ovambo countries,
and discovered a large river which the natives called the Oka-
vango. Here he was taken sick, and after waiting a month


without getting any better, he started back upon his old
trail. This was his last journey in Africa.

Mr. Anderssen traveled afoot, on horse-back, or ox-back,
and rode one ox over two thousand miles. He closes his book
of experiences in Africa as follows :

" Tongue is too feeble to express what I suffered at times.
To say nothing of narrow escapes from lions, and other dan-
gerous beasts, I was constantly enduring the cravings of hun-
ger, and the agonies of thirst. Occasionally I was as much
as two days without tasting food ; and it not unfrequently
happened that in the course of the twenty-four hours I could
only once or twice moisten my parched lips. Sometimes I
was so overcome by these causes, coupled with bodily fatigue,
that I fainted. Once, both my steed and myself dropped
down in the midst of a sand-plain, where we remained a long
time, in a state bordering on unconsciousness, and exposed to
all the injurious effects of a tropical sun. I would at times
pursue my course with a pained and listless step, scarcely
knowing what I was about, and staggering like a drunken
man. ' This,' says Captain Messum, when speaking of the
hardships he had undergone in a short tour into the interior
of the "West Coast, " was the pleasure of traveling in Africa.
It requires the endurance of a camel, and the courage of a
lion.' "

In 1848, Ladislaus Magyar, a Hungarian, visited Benguela,
the most southern Portuguese port on the western coast of
Africa. It contains about three thousand inhabitants, and
has a very unhealthy climate for white men.

Magyar found that a caravan of native or half-caste traders
was about starting for the native kingdom of Bihe, which is
situated on the high table-lands of the interior.

Having obtained leave to join the caravan, Magyar hired
an interpreter, three slaves, six hammock bearers, and also a
man to act as guard and overseer. The road is a very hard
one, leading as it does up and over high mountain ranges.
All kinds of goods are slung on poles and carried on the
shoulders of porters, and travelers lie in hammocks and aro

carried in the same manner.


The caravan, consisting of about two thousand persons, left
Benguela on the 15th of January, 1849, crossed a barren
level, to the foot-hills of the mountains, and soon began the
ascent of the first mountain range. It then passed through
Kissangi land. The people here are bandit robbers, and Mag-
yar took command of the caravan at the request of their

After passing Kissangi land, they came to Kubale River
and valley a beautiful and luxuriant country, abounding ia
picturesque mountain streams and cataracts. Then 0113
mountain range after another was passed, each one higher
than the last, with vast plains at the base of each range,
where herds of buffaloes, zebras, and antelopes were seen.

After passing the Djamba Range, and the high table-land
of Sambos, they arrived at the borders of Bihe. Here Mag-
yar visited the king, and was permitted to settle in the coun-
try. He selected lands, built him a large establishment,
employed many servants, and became an honored citizen of

Some time after this the king, unsolicited by Magyar, sent
him as a wife, his daughter, the Princess Osoro. She was
fourteen years old, very pretty, and came attended by her
brothers, and a large number of slaves. Magyar accepted
the situation, and the wedding was immediately celebrated.
The marriage was a happy one, and the princess proved to
be a good wife and mother.

In 1850, Magyar led a caravan of four hundred persons
into the Moluwa country, which lies north-east of Bihe, and,
probably, on the western borders of Cazembe. After remain-
ing with the Moluwa people for over a year, he returned to

Afterward, Magyar made several other journeys from
Bihe, but nothing very definite is known of them. It is sup-
posed that he died about 1856, leaving children who may
perhaps inherit the throne of their grandfather, the king of

The inland exploration of Eastern Africa may be dated


from 1844, when Dr. Krapf, of the Church Missionary Society,
established himself at Rabbai Mpia, near Mombaz, about two
degrees north of Zanzibar. This place subsequently became
the starting-point for several journeys into the interior, under-
taken by Krapf and his fellow-laborers.

The maps of these missionaries attracted the attention of
the Royal Geographical Society, who, aided by the Govern-
ment, resolved to send out an expedition to Eastern Africa.
Major Richard F. Burton was intrusted with its direction,
and having been joined by Captain Speke, a former traveling
companion, he set out for Zanzibar, where he arrived on the
19th of December, 1856.

The expedition started from Kaole, opposite Zanzibar, for
the interior, on the 27th of June, 1857. Traversing a moun-
tainous track, which begins about a hundred miles from the
coast, and nowhere exceeds six thousand feet in height, they
reached the great inner plateau of Uriyamwezi which, at Kazeh,
an Arab trading-post, has an elevation of three thousand, four
hundred feet, and arrived at Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, on
the 14th of February, 1858. The lake extends three hundred
miles to the north of Ujiji. The travelers crossed it in boats,
and visited Uvira, near its north end.

On their journey back from Tanganyika, Burton remained
at Kazeh, while Speke proceeded northward, and discovered
the lake Victoria N'yanza, on the 30th of July, 1858. Speke
then returned to Kazeh, and the expedition returned to Zan-
zibar. Burton and Speke then went to England, where they
arrived in May, 1859.

Another expedition under Captain Speke was immediately
projected, its object being, as was avowed, to establish the
truth of Speke's assertion that the Victoria Nyanza was the
source of the Xile. In this journey Speke was accompanied
by his old friend, Captain Grant.

The expedition started from Bagamoyo, opposite Zanzibar,
on the 2nd of October, 1860, and proceeded to Kazeh, in
Unyamwezi. It then started northward, explored the region
west of Lake Victoria X'yanza, and passed along the western


and northern borders of the lake to its outlet, at what they
supposed was the White Nile. The travelers then went
northward to Gondokoro, the head of Kile navigation, where
they arrived February 15th, 1863.

At Gondokoro, Speke and Grant met Samuel "W. Baker,
an Englishman, who was about starting into the interior in
search of the sources of the Nile.

Mr. Baker, accompanied by his wife, started from Cairo
April 15th, 1861, to sail up the Nile. They reached the
junction of the Atbara and Nile on the 13th of June. They
then traveled, along the banks of the Atbara, and explored
the Nile tributaries of Abyssinia, reached the Blue Nile, and
descended that river to its junction with the Nile at Khar-
toum, where they arrived on the llth of June, 1862.

From Khartoum, they started, December 18th, 1862, and
went up the Nile to Gondokoro. Mr. Baker was the first
Englishman who visited that place.

The travelers left Gondokoro on the night of March 26th,
1863, traveled eastward to Latooka, then southward to Obbo,
where they were detained for months by the severe illness of
both. They finally continued their journey, and on the 14th
of March, 1864, discovered a great lake, which they named
the Albert N'yanza.

Setting out to return home, they traveled up the lake in
canoes for thirteen days, and then journeyed by land eastward
and northward to Gondokoro. Here they took a boat for
Khartoum, at which place they arrived May 5th, 1865.

As Burton, Speke, and Grant traveled over much of the
same road which Stanley took in searching for Livingstone,
and as Baker is now in Central Africa, and so near Living-
stone that a meeting between the explorers is quite possible,
their explorations will be spoken of again in another portion
of this book.




DAYID LIVINGSTONE, the greatest of modern travelers,
was born at Blaiityre, on the banks of the river Clyde,
near Glasgow, in 181T. In his autobiography, which forms the
introduction to his first book of travels, he speaks of his
ancestry as being of the genuine Puritan Scotch stock. His
great-grandfather fell at the battle of Culloden, fighting for the
independence of Scotland. His grandfather, if not "the
chief of Ulva's isle," was a landlord on that island one of the
Hebrides a farmer on a small scale.

The autobiographer makes no claim to a noble ancestry,
as the world generally counts nobility, but speaks of one of
them as remarkable for his wisdom and integrity, who, on
his death-bed, called his children around him and said :

" Now, in my life-time, I have searched most carefully
through all the traditions I could find of our family, and I
never could discover that there was a dishonest man among
our forefathers. If, therefore, any of you or any of your
children should take to dishonest ways, it will not be because
it runs in our blood. It does not belong to you. I leave
this precept with you : ' Be honest.' "

What makes this declaration the more remarkable is, that
the Highlanders of this period, according to Macaulay. were
as much freebooters as the Caffres of South Africa, and any
one could escape punishment for cattle stealing, by sharing
his plunder with his chieftain.



The Hebrides furnished meagre advantages for education,
but such as they were the Livingstone's prized them ; and
when the grandfather of Dr. Livingstone, compelled by the
wants of his large family, removed from Ulva to the vicinity
of Glasgow, so that his children might find employment in
the factories, his sons soon found situations as clerks ; and
such was his reputation for honesty that the proprietors,
Monteith & Co., entrusted him with the conveyance of large
sums of money from the city to the factory, and in compen-
sation for his faithful services, made his old age comfortable by
granting him a pension.

The father of David Livingstone became a tea-merchant
in Hamilton; near Glasgow, and was highly respected as a man,
though he never succeeded in acquiring wealth. The Doctor
says of him : " lie was too conscientious ever to become
rich, but by his kindliness of manner and winning ways,
he made the heart-strings of his children twine around
him, as firmly as if he had possessed and could have bestowed
upon them every worldly advantage."

For the last twenty years of his life he was deacon in an
Independent church, but in his younger days he was connect-
ed with the regular Kirk of Scotland. The son acknowledges
his lasting gratitude for the consistent pious example set
before him by his father, such as is beautifully portrayed in
Burns' " Cottar's Saturday Night." He also speaks of his
mother, as the anxious housewife striving to make both ends

At the age of ten years David was put to work in the fac-
tory, as a "piecer," that he might eke out the scanty supplies of
the family. His account of this period of his life is EO inter-
esting and so full of encouragement to poor boys, that we
give it entire in his own words.

"With a part of my first week's wages I purchased Ruddi-
man's " Rudiments of Latin," and pursued the study of that
language for many years afterward^, with unabated ardor, at
an evening school which met between the hours of eight and
ten. The dictionary part of my labors was followed up till


twelve o'clock, or later, if my mother did not interfere by
jumping up and snatching the books out of my hands. I
had to be back in the factory by six in the morning, and con-
tinue my work, with intervals for breakfast and dinner, till
eight o'clock at night. I read in this way many of the class-
ical authors, and knew Yirgil and Horace better at sixteen
than I do now. Our school-master was supported in part by
the company ; he was attentive and kind, and so moderate in
his charges that all who wished for an education might have
obtained it. Some of my school-fellows now rank in posi-
tions far above what they appeared ever likely to come to
when in the village school.

"In reading, every thing that I could lay my hands on was
devoured except novels. Scientific works and books of
travel were my especial delight, though my father believing,
with many of his time who ought to have known better, that
the former were inimical to religion, would have preferred
to have seen me poring over the " Cloud of Witnesses," or
Burton's " Fourfold State." Our difference of opinion
reached the point of open rebellion on my part, and his last
application of the rod was on my refusal to peruse "VVilber-
force's " Practical Christianity." This dislike to dry doctrinal
reading, and to religious reading of every sort, continued for
years afterward ; but having lighted on those admirable
works of Dr. Thomas Dick, " The Philosophy of a Future
State," and " The Philosophy of Eeligion," it was gratifying
to find my own ideas, that religion and science are not hos-
tile, but friendly to each other, fully proved and enforced."

The seeds of Christian truth so faithfully sown by the
parents took early root in the heart of the child. He com-
prehended from childhood the theory of free salvation by
the atonement of Christ, but it was not till he was almost
sixteen years of age that he began to feel the necessity and
value of a personal application of the provisions of this atone-
ment. He describes the change which came over his feelings
and purposes as similar to what may be supposed would take
place were it possible to cure a case of " color blindness."


In the glow of love which Christianity inspired, he resolved
to devote his life to the alleviation of human misery. His
first desire and purpose were to be a pioneer of Christianity
in China, and in order to be qualified for the enterprise, he set
himself to the study of medicine. The medical books, among
other sciences, led him to the study of botany, and he scoured
the whole country in search of medicinal plants, " collecting
simples," as he expresses it.

In these excursions, which gratified his intense love of
nature, he was often accompanied by his brothers, and they
wandered far and wide till fatigue and hunger compelled
them to desist. He was thus unconsciously fitting himself
for long marches in the jungles and sands of Africa.

An incident in one of these excursions around Glasgow, in
search of geological and botanical specimens, so aptly illus-
trates his own investigating disposition, and the blunt char-
acter of the Scotchman, that we must give it in his own
words :

" It is impossible to describe the delight and wonder with
which I began to collect the shells in the carboniferous lime-
stone, which crops out in High Blantyre and Cambuslang.
A quarry-man, seeing a little boy so engaged, looked with
that pitying eye, which the benevolent assume when viewing
the insane. Addressing him with :

" ' However did those shells come into these rocks ?'

" ' When God made the rocks, He made the shells in them,'
was the damping reply of the quarry-man.

" "What a deal of trouble geologists might have saved them-
selves by adopting the Turk-like philosophy of this Scotch-
man !"

"While at work in the factory, his custom was to place a
book on the spinning-jenny, so that he could read a sentence
each time he passed back and forth. Keeping his attention
thus fixed in the midst of a cotton factory, was a source of
mental discipline which few enjoy ; but some of our mothers
practiced on a similar plan in the early history of our country,
as they frequently placed a book over the distaff as they spun


their flax, or over the spindle as they spun wool, and thus
read Milton, Young, and all the old English authors, with
which they became more familiar than are some of their
daughters, who know nothing of spinning or weaving, and
have three-fold advantages for acquiring an education.

By such economy of his time, and by such habits of abstrac-
tion, young Livingstone fitted himself for his career among
the barbarians of Africa, where he says he could read and
write with perfect comfort amid the play of children, or near
the dancing and songs of the savages.

In his nineteenth year he was promoted to the duties of
cotton-spinning, for which he was well paid, though the labor
was severe on a slim, loose-jointed lad as he was. He thus
laid up something to support himself, while attending medi-
cal and Greek lessons in Glasgow, and the Divinity lectures

Online LibraryJosiah TylerLivingstone lost and found → online text (page 7 of 51)