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Julia Ellen Rogers



















The Tree Book
The Shell Book

Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know
Trees Every Child Should Know
A Key to the Nature Library

The Book of Useful Plants
Wild Animals Every Child Should Know




Illustrated in color and black
and white from photographs




Copyright, 1914, by


All rights reserved, including that of

translation into foreign languages,

including the Scandinavian


EVERY one of us loves the sight of green things growing. It Is natural
that trees, which are greatest in all the plant kingdom, should inspire in us
the highest admiration. Their terms of life so far outrun the puny human
span! They stand so high, and spread so far their sheltering arms! We
bless them for the gifts they bring to supply our bodily needs, and for their
beauty, which feeds our souls!

To love trees intelligently we must learn to know them. We must be
able to call them by name, whenever and wherever we meet them. This
is fundamental to any friendship. It is a fund of knowledge that starts
with little, but grows more rapidly, year by year.

Turned loose in a forest, we are first confused and discouraged by the
number of different kinds of trees, all unknown to us. Next, we notice
similarities of leaf or flower or fruit that show a number of individual trees
to be of the same kind, or species. Perhaps these differ but slighth'


from others, which we decide must be near relatives of the first kind. Be-
fore long we have discovered for ourselves the following interesting facts:

1. Each distinct species of trees in the w^oods has as many individuals
as possible. Seedlings of all sorts compete for standing-room. Each yeai
a new crop of seed is sown by parent trees.

2. The individual species are closely related to other species, forming
what the botanists call genera. Fifty different species of trees are distin-
guished by bearing acorns. They form a single genus, the oaks.

3. Several related genera compose a family. The nut trees form such a
family. The group includes the oaks, hickories, etc.

The one characteristic by which an oak can be recognized is its acorn.
This introduces the beginner, without further study, to all the members
of one of the largest and most valuable of the tree families. The cone dis-
tinguishes the family of the narrow-leaved evergreens. One peculiarity
of its leaf arrangement sets the pines in a genus by themselves. Spruces
are a genus distinguished by a few traits.

To tell one oak from another is to compare differences in bark, leaf.

acorn, and in general form and expression of the trees. Here a pocket
manual of trees will prove a great help, for the specific differences are
stated in detail, and supplemented by a picture. Directly the student
comes to a decision. The tree before him is, or is not, the one described
and pictured on the page. The book is a friend that knows all the trees, and
answers questions; that introduces the newcomer to all his tree neighbors.

This little TREE GUIDE groups together in families the trees one
commonly meets in the eastern half of the country. This includes Canada,
and the United States that lie east of the Rocky Mountains. With the
native species will be found the most important cultivated species brought
from other countries, and now quite as familiar to us as our own forest trees.

To aid the beginner, and to show how few are the traits to learn, when he
sets out to make the acquaintance of the tree families, a group of simple
keys are presented here. By them, he can quickly distinguish members
of the principal groups. Not only to recognize a tree, but to be able to
say how we know it, is the help offered first in the keys, then in the succeed-
ing pages.



is duly made to the following for their kind assistance rendered in the matter of securing
photographs for use in this volume:

Forestry Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Romeyn B. Hough Company
Mr. Nathan R. Gra^ ^s J. Horace McFarland Company

Prof. R. M. Harper Prof. Charles S. Sargent


B. Fruit, a cone.

C. Foliage needle-like, conspicuous, spirally


D. Leaves, few in sheathed bundle. The Pines
DD. Leaves, many in unsheathed tufts, de-
ciduous. The Larches
DDD. Leaves, solitary and scattered.

E. Leaves flat, blunt, pale beneath,

2-ranked on twig.
F. Cones erect, large; branches
stiff; bark smooth, with resin
blisters. The Firs

FF. Cones pendent, small; branches
supple; bark rough; leaves
on minute stalks. The Hemlocks
EE. Leaf -blades 4-sided, sharp at tip, not
pale beneath; standing out in all
directions. The Spruces

CC. Foliage scale-like, minute, 4-ranked, close

pressed to twig; cones small. The White Cedars
BB. Fruit, a blue berry; foliage spiny or scale-like,
or both. The Junipers, or Red Cedars




LONGLEAF PINE; SOUTHERN PINE (Pinus palustris, Mill.).
90 to 120 feet. Tall, slender tree forming loose, oblong head
of stout, twisted limbs. Bark reddish brown, with orange
tinge, deeply furrowed into scaly plates. Wood heavy, strong,
yellowish brown, durable, very hard, tough, best of all pine
lumber, used for heavy construction work of all kinds, for
interior finish and flooring, fuel and charcoal. Resin supplies
turpentine and other "naval stores." Leaves 8 to 18 inches
long, dark green, in crowded tufts on ends of branches, 3 in
each sheath of silvery, long scales, flexible, pendent, persis-
tent 2 years. Flowers profuse, purplish: staminate clusters
crowded near end of twig; pistillate 2 to 4 cones in short-
stalked clusters below growing tip, scales thin, broad. Fruits
tapering cones, slightly curved, 8 to 10 inches long, brown, the
scales set with small, reflexed prickles; seeds triangular, inch
long, with long wing and a prominent ridge. Dist.: Virginia
to Florida and Mississippi River in a belt 125 miles wide
skirting the coast. Isolated forests in Alabama, Louisiana,
and Texas.

PITCH PINE (Pinus rigida, Mill.). 50 to 75 feet. Irreg-
ular, loose-headed tree, with short trunk and gnarled limbs.
Bark thick, dark purplish red, with wide, scaly plates between
deep, irregular fissures; limbs rough, twigs green, becoming
orange. Wood brittle, soft, pale red, coarse-grained, used for
charcoal and fuel, rarely for lumber. Leaves in 3's, stiff, dark
green, 3 to 5 inches long, standing out from stem, in black,
persistent sheaths. Deciduous during second year. Flowers
clustered, short-stemmed, staminate yellow spikes; pistillate
pale green with rose tinge. Fruit ripe after two seasons, sol-
itary or clustered, ovate cones, brown, 1 to 3 inches long, with
recurved prickles on the flat scales. Persistent many years,
often swallowed up in the wood. Dist.: New Brunswick to
Georgia; west to Ontario and Kentucky.

CUBAN PINE; SWAMP PINE (Pinus Caribcea, Morelet).
80 to 120 feet. Tall, tapering trunk and dense, round head of
heavy limbs. Bark brown, scaly, showing orange in the fur-
rows between broad plates. Wood heavy, very hard, resin-
ous, coarse, dark orange with pale, thick sapwood. Yields
turpentine. L T ses of wood same as longleaf pine. Leaves

e n curve, purps spes, crowe near ps o
twigs; pistillate oval cones, clustered, pinkish, in 3's, \ inch
long. , Fruits tapering cones, 3 to 6 inches long, red-brown,
the thin scales armed with small, curved prickles; seeds
mottled, winged. Dist. : Coast plain, South Carolina to Florida
and Louisiana; also Bahamas and the Antilles, Central

SHORTLEAF PINE; YELLOW PINE (Pinus echinata, Mill.).
80 to 120 feet. Slender-trunked tree with round or pyramidal
head. Bark thick, checked into cinnamon-red, scaly plates.
Wood orange or brown, with pale sapwood, coarse, heavy,
durable, strong, used for lumber. Sap yields turpentine.
Leaves blue-green, 3 to 5 inches long, in 2's and 3's, subtended
by close sheath of long, silvery scales. Flowers sub- terminal,
crowded, purplish: staminate orange-brown at first, with
abundant pollen; pistillate on opposite, short stems, greenish
at first. Fruits oblong-conical, often curved, clustered, about
2 inches long, scales with curved prickles, soon shed. Dist.:
Connecticut to Florida; west to Illinois, Kansas, and Texas.

RED PINE; NORWAY PINE (Pinus resinosa, Ait.). 75 to
140 feet. Tall, straight tree, with broad, pyramidal head
often branched to the ground. Bark reddish, with shallow
fissures and broad ridges. Wood red, light, hard, close-
grained, used in building houses, bridges, and ships. Leaves
2 in each close sheath, 5 to 6 inches long, flexible, soft, dark
green, with a row of pale dots; fall during fourth or fifth year.
Flowers staminate in purple spikes, near tip of shoot; pistillate
red, in 3's on end of twig. Fruits ovate cones, 1 to 3 inches
long, brown, shining, without prickles, shedding seeds early
in the second autumn. Cones persist. Dist. : Southern Can-
ada and Northern States, from Maine to Minnesota; south
to Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Preferred habitat-
light, sandy soil and rocky ridges. Handsomest pitch pine
for parks and home grounds in Northern States.

SAND PINE; SPRUCE PINE (Pinus clausa, Sarg.). 15 to
20 feet; rarely to 80 feet. Flat-topped, bushy tree clothed
to the ground with slender branches. Bark red, scaly, on
branches ashy gray. Wood pale orange, light, brittle, soft,
used for masts of boats. Leaves dark green, 2 to 3^ inches
long, 2 in each sheath, shed during third and fourth years.
Flowers staminate, crowded spikes, orange color; pistillate in
lateral clusters. Fruits reflexed, 2 to 3| inches long, reddish
brown, set with prickles, often remaining closed for years
after maturity, and turning gray. The growing branches
engulf these in the wood. Dist.: Mexican Gulf coast from
Alabama to Florida; east coast of Florida, in a narrow strip,
on sandy, low plain.

80 to 100 feet. Tall, deep-rooted tree, narrowly pyramidal, of
very quick growth. Bark bright reddish brown, scaly, with
broad ridges. Branchlets yellow-brown. Wood soft, weak,
very resinous, coarse-grained, brown, used in building ships,
docks, cars, and houses. Excellent fuel. Leaves in 3's,
slender, stiff, twisted, pale green, glaucous, falling during
their third season; length, 6 to 9 inches. Thin basal sheath
close. Flowers March- April; staminate in crowded spikes,
yellow, with abundant pollen: pistillate lateral, 1 to 3 oval,
scaly cones, below tip of new shoot. Fruit ovate-oblong cone,
3 to 5 inches long, reddish brown, with thin scales bearing
short, stout spines; seed triangular, with long, thin, shining
wing; 2 under each scale, shed irregularly; empty cones per-
sisting another year. Dist. : New Jersey to Florida and Texas
following the coast; inland from the Carolinas to Arkansas
and Louisiana.


POND PINE; MARSH PINE (Pinus serotina, Michx.). 40 to
30 feet. Open-headed, water-loving tree, with stout, gnarled
branches, orange when young, becoming dark brown. Trunk
with red-brown bark, thin, scaly, with fissures wide apart.
Wood heavy, resinous, soft, dark orange, yielding some tur-
pentine and lumber in North Carolina. Leaves in bundles of
3's (rarely 4's), dark yellow-green, 6 to 8 inches long, falling
in the third or fourth year. Flowers staminate in orange-
colored spikes; pistillate in paired cones, on short stems.
Fruit nearly globular or oblong, 2 inches long, with thin,
nearly flat scales armed with slender, incurved prickles, which
are shed. Cones hang long after ripe. Dist.: Low land
from North Carolina to the St. John's River, Florida, usually
growing with the longleaf pine.

SPRUCE PINE; CEDAR PINE (Pinus glabra, Walt.). 80 tc
120 feet. Tall tree with narrow head of short, irregular
branches. Bark thin, reddish, scaly, with broad plates and
shallow fissures. Wood pale, soft, weak, close-grained, little
used, except for fuel. Leaves 2 in a sheath, 1^ to 3 inches
long, dark green, slender, flexible, shed during second and
third seasons. Flowers staminate in short, crowded, yellow
clusters; pistillate cones, 2 or 3 on recurved stems. Fruits
solitary or few in a cluster, reddish brown, shining, \ to 2
inches long, stout, with weak prickles, soon shed. Dist.-
South Carolina to Louisiana, in lowlands.


JERSEY PINE; SCRUB PINE (Pinus Virginiana, Mill.)- 30
to 40 feet. Loose, flat-topped, broadly pyramidal tree, with
drooping branches. Bark reddish brown, in irregular, scaly,
thin plates. Wood coarse-grained, brittle, pale orange to
white, soft, weak, but durable in soil; used for fuel, rarely
for lumber, pumps, water pipes, and fencing. Leaves in 2's,
stout, gray-green, scattered on the twigs, l to 3 inches long,
persistent 3 or 4 years. Flowers staminate orange-brown,
crowded; pistillate solitary cones, green, tinged with rose, set
opposite on short stalks, near middle of the new shoot. Fruits
oblong-conical, often curved, with red, spined scales and per-
sistent 3 or 4 years on the branches. Dist.: Long Island,
New York, to southern Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee;
New Jersey and south along coast to Georgia. Light sandy
soil, of "pine barrens" it forms forests.


GRAY PINE; JACK PINE; SCRUB PINE (Pinus divaricata, D\.
Mont de Cours). 40 to 70 feet. Tall tree with open, sym-
metrical head, or crouching, sprawling habit; branches long,
spreading, made ragged by the clumps of old cones, and shed-
ding, rusty foliage. Bark rough, thin, reddish. Wood light,
orange or pale brown to white, weak, close-grained, used for
canoe frames by Indians, for railroad ties and fuel. Leaves
rarely 2 inches long, in 2's, the bundles scattered, yellowish
green, becoming dark and rusty gray, falling irregularly for
several years. Flowers staminate pale yellow spikes, crowded;
pistillate clustered, dark purple cones, on new growth. Fruits
tapering, curved, without stems, erect, purple, becoming yel-
low, shining, with minute prickles. Dist.: Northern Canada
to middle of northern tier of states, and west to the Athabasca
River. Forests of it cover barren plains in Michigan and in
the far North.


TAMARACK; LARCH (Larix Americana, Michx.). 50 to 60
feet. Slender, regularly pyramidal tree, with weak, horizon-
tal branches. Bark thin, broken into reddish-brown scales.
Wood heavy, hard, brown, durable in soil, resinous, used for
telegraph poles, ties, ships' timbers, and for fuel. Leaves nar-
row, about 1 inch long, keeled below, clustered on knob-like
side spurs, scattered on end shoots, turning yellow, deciduous
in early autumn. Flowers monoecious; staminate in squat,
yellow knobs; pistillate in erect, oval cones, purplish pink,
with finger-like bracts; both scattered along last season's
shoots, along with fascicles of new leaves. Fruits brown, oval
cones, of few thin, broad, unarmed scales; seeds winged, shed
during second season. Dist. : Swamps and mountain slopes,
Newfoundland to Rocky Mountains; south into Minnesota,
Illinois, Indiana, and Pennsylvania.


BLACK SPRUCE (Picea Mariana, B. S. & P.). 20 to 5U
feet; rarely to 100 feet. Pyramidal evergreen, with drooping
branches that curve upward. Bark brownish gray, thin,
scaly. Twigs downy, wood yellow, soft, weak, used for wood
pulp and fuel. Leaves blue-green, 4-sided, stiff, sharp, curved,
with pale bloom above, \ to f of an inch long; single
in close, spiral around twig. Flowers staminate in globular
ccne-like spikes, lateral, solitary; pistillate oblong, cone-like,
with broad, notched, purple scales. Fruits brown, thin-scaled,
persistent, solitary, pendant cones, \ to l inches long; seeds
winged. Dist.: Northern Canada to Alaska; south to Vir-
ginia, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Sap yields spruce gum
and spruce beer.


RED SPRUCE (Picearubens,Sa,Tg.). 70 to 100 feet. Pyra-
midal or conical tree, with long-persistent lower branches.
Bark thin, scaly, reddish brown; branches scaly; twigs stout,
downy, and green, becoming smooth and bright red the second
year. Wood light, soft, close-grained, pale red, used for
lumber and paper pulp. Leaves dark, yellow-green, shining,
4-sided, curved, sharp, less than an inch long, in spiral line,
or horny projections of twig. Flowers staminate spikes oval,
solitary, lateral, scarlet; pistillate oblong cones, purplish, with
rounded, reflexed scales, separated by fringed or notched
bracts. Fruits oblong-ovate, 1 to 2 inches long, purplish to
brownish red, pendant, on stalks, opening in fall, and shed
with the winged seeds. Dist.: New England and following
the mountains to North Carolina.


WHITE SPRUCE (Picea Canadensis, B. S. & P.). 60 to
150 feet. Broadly pyramidal, open head of wide-spreading,
stout branches, with upward-sweeping ends, smooth, orange-
brown, becoming gray. Bark thin, pale gray, scaly, turning
brownish. Wood light, soft, yellow, weak, straight-grained,
used for lumber and wood pulp. Leaves 4-sided, pea green
(silvery at first), to f inch long, twisted to spread on upper
side of twig. Flowers in solitary, cone-like clusters, pale
red, turning yellow. Fruits cylindrical, blunt cones, stalked,
about 2 inches long, with thin, blunt, or notched scales, falling
soon after seeds. Dist. : Northern Canada and Alaska, south
to northern tier of states.


HEMLOCK (Tsuga Canadensis, Carr.). 60 to 100 feet.
Tapering, pyramidal tree, with slender, horizontal branches,
drooping, and ending in feathery spray. Bark thin, scaly,
cinnamon-red to gray. Wood light, soft, coarse-grained,
reddish brown, used in building, and for railroad ties. Bark
used in tanning leather, and dyeing. Leaves ^ to f inch long,
flat, blunt or notched at tip, pale and ridged beneath, shining,
dark green above, on minute petioles, spiral on twig, but
twisted to seem 2-ranked, falling off the third season, leaving
bare twigs rough with persistent, horny leaf-bases. Flowers
in May: staminate globular, lateral, solitary; pistillate con-
ical, terminal, purple, with thin scales overlapping. Fruits
pendent, brown, thin-scaled cones, on downy stalks, opening
during the first winter, letting fall the winged seeds. Dist.:
Nova Scotia to southern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota;
south along mountains to Alabama. Favorite ornamental


CAROLINA HEMLOCK (Tsuga Caroliniana, Engelin). 40
to 70 feet. Compact, pyramidal tree, with pendulous, grace-
ful branches. Bark red-brown, thick, checked into irregu-
lar plates by deep clefts; branches brown; twigs orange, pubes-
cent. Wood pale brown, brittle, coarse-grained, weak; used
locally for fuel; planted as a park tree. Leaves dark green,
lustrous above, whitish beneath, grooved, curved, i to f inch
long, blunt or notched at tip, twisted to appear 2-ranked on
twigs. Flowers solitary, purplish, in early spring; staminate
globular, minute; pistillate oblong, w T ith broad scales and
bracts. Fruit pendent, brown, thin-scaled cones, 1 to l
inches long, stalked, scales spreading widely to discharge the
winged seeds in winter. Dist.: Rocky banks of streams in
mountain districts from Virginia to Georgia, forming groves
Excellent ornamental tree, hardy in New England.

BALSAM FIB (Abies balsamea, Mill.). 50 to 60 feet.
Broadly pyramidal tree, with stiff limbs and slender, pubes-
cent twigs. Bark thin, brown, broken into shiny plates,
with blisters of white, dried, or sticky balsam. Clear drops
of balsam from ruptured pockets in the bark occur on branches.
The "Canada balsam" of the useful arts. Wood soft, weak,
coarse, brownish, not durable, used for packing cases. Leaves
dark green, lustrous above, white linings, stiff, blunt, 2-ranked,
\ to \\ inches long, aromatic, cut for pillows. Flowers lat-
eral, purplish; stamina te tinged yellow by the anthers, minute,
button-like; pistillate with round scales and toothed bracts.

Fruit erect cones, purple, 2 to 4 inches long, blunt, with broad,
plain scales, that fall away from the axis, revealing the short
bracts, and liberating the winged seeds. Dist.: Labrador

through Canada to Minnesota; New England and along high-
lands to southwestern Virginia.

BALSAM FIR; SHE BALSAM (Abies Fraseri, Poir). 40 to
60 feet. Open, pyramidal tree, with stiff, horizontal branches ;
ending in stout, yellowish-brown, fuzzy twigs, with crowded,
shining foliage. Bark cinnamon-red, thin, scaly, at length
becoming gray. Wood coarse-grained, pale brown, weak,
soft, used locally for lumber. Leaves dark green, lustrous
above, pale beneath, \ to 1 inch long, narrow, flat, with median
groove above, curved and twisted to appear 2-ranked on the
twig; tips blunt or notched. Flowers cone clusters; stami-
nate yellow, with red anthers; pistillate erect on upper side of
twig, with broad green scales, each over a yellow-green, fingei-
tipped bract that stands out from it. Fruit erect oval cones
about 2 inches long, the toothed bracts, yellowish green,
turning back over the plain purple scales; seeds winged, falling
with the scales and bracts, leaving the axis of the cone, which
is tardy in falling off. Dist.: In forests 4,000 to 6,000 feet
elevation in Appalachian Mountains, southwestern Virginia
eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina.


ARBOR VIT.E; WHITE CEDAR (Thuya occidentalis, Linn.). 25
to 60 feet. Compact, narrow, pyramidal tree, with trunk often di-
viding into 2 or 3 erect, secondary stems above the short, often
ridged and buttressed trunk. Twigs flattened into frond-like
spray. Bark brown, thin, splitting into frayed-out, stringy strips.
Wood light, soft, brittle, yellowish brown, coarse, durable,
used for posts, telegraph poles, railroad ties, and shingles.
Leaves minute, scale-like, 4-ranked, close, covering the twig
by the overlapping of alternate keeled and flat pairs. Aro-
matic. Flowers May, purplish, on tips of side twigs; staminate
in globose stamen clusters, very small; pistillate on different
branches, larger, cones of 8 to 12 scales, spreading, red. Fruit
annual, pale brown, erect cones, of few, plain scales, the middle
ones largest and fertile, each with 2 winged seeds. Dist.:
Wet ground; New Brunswick to Manitoba and adjoining
states to the south; Atlantic States into New Jersey; along
Allegheny Mountains, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Cul-
tivated in many varieties as a hedge and ornamental tree.


WHITE CEDAR (Chamascyparis thyoides, Britt). 40 to 80
feet. Narrow, pyramidal tree with short branches, ending
in fan-like spray of 2-ranked, flat twigs, covered with the blue-
green foliage. Bark thin, reddish, shallowly fissured into
stringy ridges, often spirally twisted around the trunk. Wood
pale reddish-brown, soft, light, aromatic, close-grained, used
in boat-building, interior finish of houses, shingles, wooden
wares, cooperage, posts, ties. Leaves minute, paired, keeled
and pointed, or flat and blunt, appressed to cover twigs, and
form flat spray, as in arbor vitse. Flowers April; staminate
abundant, red or yellow, globular; pistillate few, greenish,
oblong, usually of 6 shield-shaped, fertile scales with 2 to 5
bottle-shaped ovules at the base of each. Fruit a cone, small,
spherical, of thickened, peltate scales, pea green, becoming
brown; seeds 1 to 2 under each scale, winged. Dist.: Swampy
land near coast; Atlantic and Gulf States, to Mississippi.
Planted as an ornamental tree, but not commonly.


Rich) . 75 to 150 feet. Tall, pyramidal tree with wide-spread-
ing, pendulous lower branches, becoming round-headed when
aged. Trunk lobed and flaring into buttresses at base, which
is usually hollow. Roots stout, horizontal, bending upward
to form woody, angular "knees." Bark pale reddish gray,
nearly white on young trees and branches; twigs reddish, at
first pale green. Wood soft, light, brown, easy to work, dur-
able, used for construction, posts, ties, cooperage, shingles,
doors, and fencing. Leaves deciduous with the branchlets
that bear them, 2-ranked, spreading, bright yellow-green,
often pale beneath; on pendulous branchlets, closely appressed,
keeled, scale-like. Flowers small; staminate in loose panicles,
drooping, showy; pistillate button-like, scattered near ends
of last year's growth, scaly, purplish. Fruit woody, globular
cones, 1 inch in diameter, in pairs or solitary. Dist.: Coast

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Online LibraryJulia Ellen RogersTree guide : trees east of the Rockies → online text (page 1 of 10)