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with small results. It is better to begin small and end large

148 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

than to reverse the process. I have never been more enthusi-
astic for Porto Rico nor more hopeful for the work than to-day.
I believe it will prove a blessing to our country that we have
acquired that beautiful island, the " Queen of the West Indies " —
the " Daughter of the sun and sea." I am sure that it will prove
a blessing to Porto Rico that our Sag has come to stay, and
surely not the least of the blessings to the people there and at
home, will be the fact that the stars and stripes have been fol-
lowed so quickly by the church.

Other missionaries write :

The neglected country districts, densely populated, are be-
coming very hopeful fields for our work. Our little rooms in
the country near Mayaguez are filled with eager listeners, and
there is a constant call for more backless benches, more lamps,
and larger rooms, so that the people may hear the Word of Life.
What can we say to them ? We dare not refuse them the
Gospel. They appreciate what is done for them. . . . Cabo
Rojo, near San German, is a centre of religious enthusiasm.
From the initial service the hall has been crowded. It is insuf-
ficient to hold the people, though it is the largest in town.
Half the audience is in the street looking in at the open doors
and windows. The missionary there has eleven regular preach-
ing stations and is carrying on the varied work with only the
help of his own church members. He writes that many other
fields are calling for workers and begs that help may be sent in
the person of missionaries and Bible readers.

This is a wonderful field just now, with opportunities
rich and multiplying. The moment is critical and auspicious.
Never, probably, in any Catholic country, have people been so
receptive to the Gospel.

I have never seen in any country, such an eager desire to
pass on the good news, as is shown by our native members.

Could God's people at home know the blessings they have
sent to Porto Rico through the Gospel, they would surely hasten

Porto Rico 149

to double and treble their beneficent efforts for a people so
needy, so receptive and so grateful. Surely we shall not say in
the sordid spirit of Spain, " What are they worth to us ? " but
rather, " What may we, with the blessings of the Gospel, be to
them ? " Imperative is our duty, high is our privilege to effect
the redemption of Porto Rico.

After extensive travel in the wide home mis-
sion field, John Willis Baer writes concerning
this island possession :

It is my opinion that what the religion of Jesus has done
for the spiritual life of this island, our government is doing for
its political and commercial life, and the Porto Rican, in the
rapidly developing latent power of his home, is gaining a
lively appreciation of the possibilities of the future. I have no
hesitation in saying that there has not come to my personal
knowledge a field where God has so used men and women to
His own glory, showing definite results, more certainly, than in
the beautiful island of Porto Rico. From the day the Spanish
flag fell from the masthead and Old Glory took its place, there
has been but little opposition to the American idea, and to the
Gospel of Christ. Both have been welcomed, adopted and


" There remaineth very much land to be pos-
sessed." Since Porto Rico became a part of the
United States, the island has made unprecedented
progress in all directions. On the Sabbath more
people now gather in the Protestant churches
than in the Catholic, but this does not mean that
the majority of the million inhabitants have re-
nounced Romanism. It does mean that of those
in the island who are loyal to their church, the
larger proportion are Protestant. The miserable

150 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

life which has pressed down the Porto Rican is
to be laid largely at the door of the old r6gime of
the Spanish priest, and the natives are turning
away from it. A reactionary and revolutionary
change has set in.

But this is a critical time. It is prophesied that
the progress of the past five years, wonderful as
it is, will be far eclipsed by the advance of the
next ten. This means that the opportunity is
golden and the need most urgent.

The cry for help in this white field is so ap-
pealing as to be even appalling, because it repre-
sents the necessity of effort and of ampler aid.

The poor in this island are not "good Catho-
lics" because, as they admit, they "cannot afford
it." "Dollars are scarce" is the reply to the
question, "Why is not your child baptized.?"
"I have no fine clothes," is the excuse for not
attending church on feast days. "Why do you
bury your wife like a dog, without having mass
said for her?" is another question asked, which
has brought the piteous answer, "Because I have
living mouths to feed and the dead do not hun-
ger." In the increasing light of the truth now
spreading, superstition may be cast off, but unless
something better is substituted, and the revolt
against previous oppression followed by the per-
sistent offer of life and love, what will be the

The land to be possessed is now in the transi-
tion state which makes redoubled effort and the
devising of liberal things as imperative as hope-

Porto Rico 151

f ul. The women of Porto Rico among the upper
classes are more faithful in the observance of
Romish forms, and more devoted to the worship
of the Virgin, than the men, many of whom are
emancipated to a degree. " We are not to im-
agine," warns a missionary, "that conscience-
deadening behef, hurtful and age-long, is going
to melt away before a few years of even pros-
perous mission effort. Neither are we to be
discouraged at the odds of superstition and indif-
ference against us."

The religion so long dominant, is now bracing
itself against the power of Protestantism, and
making its festivals more alluring. The newness
of the appearance of American missionaries, is
wearing off, and those attracted by hope of
"loaves and fishes" must needs drop away.
The encouraging fact is that their places are
always filled. Now, as of old, the common
people hear gladly. The point to be impressed
is that the land is not yet won, and the work is
but begun. " There is no discharge in this war."
But the victory is assured through our All-con-
quering Commander and this fair and fertile
island shall yet become Immanuel's Land.

SOCIETIES (See page 159)


" The government is doing all it can to give schools to Potto
Rico, but, so far, the funds in hand su6Bce for but one sixth of
the children of school age. The rest of the children must go

152 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

untaught, unless Christian people come to their aid." The
mission schools are full to overflowing.

" Our reason for doing missionary work in this island is not
because it is uncivilized, for it has a civilization older than our
own, but it is because the form of religion which it possesses
has lost its vitality and seems unable to lift the people from
degradation and ignorance."

" The national sports of Porto Rico are gambling and cock-
fighting. These demoralizing practices abound in every town
and village. Even little children are trained in them."

" Woman's work is clearly defined in this island. It is
needlework, and the beautiful embroideries and fine drawn-
work that are shown to the admiring guest, speak of many
hours passed with the needle and scissors."

In the side yard of the first Protestant church built in Porto
Rico after the American occupation, the visitor in San Juan
may see a water faucet at which for one morning hour stands
the sexton of the church, dealing out water to all comers.
Women and children with empty five-gallon kerosene cans on
their heads, have them filled, replace them on their heads and
trudge off through the deep sand to their washtubs, " happy
enough to know that each morning, for one hour, there is water
for them which does not need to be hunted, begged, or bought,
thankful that the church brings that help to the daily burdens."

Is not this a. beautiful charity ? Surely it is befitting that
such needs should be supplied by those who have come to the
island to tell of the water that springs up to life everlasting,
which " if a man drink thereof, he shall never thirst."

" Among the missionary teachers in our new possession, was
one fair-haired, sweet-faced woman, so very fair and sweet that

Porto Rico 153

some of her friends call her < The Lily of Forto Rico.' She
noticed one day that a little black girl kept very close to her
and finally asked the child why she clung to her so. ' You are
so white, seiiorita,' she answered, ' I thought that perhaps if I
kept real close, some of the white would rub off on me.' "

The child was lovingly told how her heart could be white as
snow though her skin must be always black. But is it not true
in a sense most deep and sweet that " the white " of these lovely
missionary characters will " rub off " in the contact with the
souls they serve ?


1. Give some account of Forto Rico's Yesterday and

2. What are some of the distinctive needs of this field,
physical, moral and religious 7

3. Mention the appliances in use in the cultivation of this
mission ground.

4. What efforts are being made by the American church for
the evangelization of Forto Rico ?

5. Recapitulate the results of this mission work.

6. Is there yet land to be possessed ? Mention reasons and
encouragements for continuing Christian work. What are the
women's societies doing here ?


O let us hear the inspiring word
Which they of old at Horeb heard;
Breathe to our hearts the high command,
" Go forward and possess the land."

Thou who art Light, shine on each soul.
Thou who art Truth, each mind control,
Open our eyes and let us see
The path that leads to heaven and Thee.

— John Hay,

154 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

The River of God

The river fall of water.

Psalm 65 : 5.

River of pleasures.

Psalm 36 : 8.

To make glad the city of God.

Psalm 46 : 4.

Peace like a river.

Isaiah 66 : 12.

Healing and life.

Ezekiel 47 : 8, 9 (as far

" shall live " ).

The trustful soul beside the river.

Jeremiah 17 : 7, 8.

Broad rivers.

Isaiah 33 : 21.

In strange places.

Isaiah 43 : 19.

Deep and vfide.

Ezekiel 47 ; 5,

Water of Life for aU.

Revelation 22 : I, 2.

What Shall We Do

Ah, sisters, 'tis for us to tell the story,
For us to bid Salvation's waters roll.

To us the alien races look, expectant.
And dumbly lift to us the shackled soul.

Their ignorance has claims upon our knowledge.
And shall they cry — and we refuse to give ?

Our very privileges make us debtors ;
To let them die forbids our right to live.

—Mrs. S. C. Clarke.

How Shall We Give

Pour out thy love like the rush of a river

Wasting its waters forever and ever.

Through the burnt sands that reward not the giver.

Silent, or songful, thou nearest the sea.

Look to the Life that was lavished for thee.

— Rose Terry Coeke.

Porto Rico 155

What Is Our Privilege and Prater

What arc our fathers' deeds of praise 7
And what, our fathers' God, are we.

That we, amid these latter days,

Are spared Thy triumphs thus to see ?

Let Thy full river, O our God,

Enrich the land our fiithers trod.

—E. A. B. B.


The Lord giveth the word ;

The women that publish the tidings are a great host.

— Psalms 68 : St,



As already stated, it is the aim of this book, as of the rest of
the series, to present home mission work as such, rather than
the work of distinctive denominations. But the story would be
incomplete without a resum6 of the fields occupied by the
organized bodies of Home Missionary women. The following
statements, approved by the secretaries of the various societies,
can but awaken in the hearts of Christian women fresh grati-
tude for the privilege of service, as they say with reverence,
" What hath God wrought ? " — Editorial Committee.


Woman's American Baptist Home Missionary Society.
Secretary, Mrs. M. C. Reynolds, ^lo Tremont Temple,
Boston, Mass.


THE work of the two societies of Baptist
Home Missionary women among the
Indians and Spanish-speaking people, is
somewhat interlinked, each society helping to
support, for instance, the Indian University at
Bacone, Indian Territory. Some idea of the
dialects spoken in the various tribes represented
here may be gathered from the following:

■ One of the literary societies gave a program, a feature of
which was " Mary's Little Lamb " recited in twelve different
languages. Of these there were English, German, Greek,


i6o Indian and Spanish Neighbours

Latin, and the other eight in the different Indian languages.
First the verse was recited in each language separately, and
then in unison. You can readily imagine the effect.

In Atoka, Indian Territory, special stress is laid
on agriculture, as farming, when properly taught,
furnishes an admirable outlet for the restless
Indian nature. The home here is for "the
neglected young and the neglected old, as well,"
and is blessed by the gift, from the Indians them-
selves, of one thousand seven hundred acres of

In work among the Navajoes, the missionaries
of this society find, as do others, that there must
be constant struggle against the prevailing sins
of gambling, stealing, lying, wife-whipping, and
polygamy. But already there has been time
enough for the parents to see the gain in their
children who have attended school, and learned
there to walk the " Jesus road." One missionary
writes, "Deacon Lone Wolf's daughter says,
' When we get grass money we are going to fix
up our house and paint it, then we will make
two carpets and I will keep house.' I said, 'I
thought you were keeping house.' She replied,
' Well, I am going to wash windows and scrub,
and keep things in place all the time.'" This,
in contrast with the squaw of the blanket Indian,
is a marked indication of progress.

From schools in Oklahoma and Montana come
similar reports. " The mescal feast (heathen
worship) is doomed. The ghost dance is wan-

Woman's Home Missionary Societies i6l

ing." It is the day-dawn that surely precedes
the glorious sunrise of the Light of Life.


In Velarde, New Mexico, and in the City of
Mexico, faithful missionaries are telling the story
of the Cross in patios and tenement rooms, and
weary Mexican mothers and bright-faced chil-
dren listen and are glad. There are also schools
under the charge of trained native teachers in
other places.


A well-attended school is carried on in Santi-
ago, and already the missionaries report visible
fruits from the outlying Sunday-schools. " They
are bright children, promising well for the com-
ing womanhood of Cuba." The teacher in
charge reports her personal work in two Sunday-
schools, a Christian Endeavour Society, and a
Loyal Temperance Legion — work that cannot
fail to bear fruit to life eternal.

The work in Ponce is with the women and
children — how arduous such work is may be
understood from the resum6 given :

There are women's meetings, two a week ; children's classes,
two a week ; the regular church services ; two Sunday-schools
each Sunday (if I were three women I would go to five Sun-
day-schools, as we have five each Sunday) ; the instruction of
candidates for membership, and the house to house work. It
keeps me busy always.

i62 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

Wtmen's Baptist Home Mission Society. Secretary, Miss
Mary G. Burdette, 2421 Indiana Ave., Chicago, III.


This society supports matrons in several of the
schools for Indians, and field workers in other
tribes, having, in all, sixteen missionaries among
seven tribes.

Two of the matrons, or school mothers, are
serving in connection with the Indian University
at Bacone, two in the Indian Orphanage at Atoka,
and one in the Seminole School for girls, all in
Indian Territory. The field workers, who give
special attention to work in the homes, labour
among the Cherokee Indians of Indian Territory,
the Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne and Arapahoe
tribes in Oklahoma and among the Hopi or Moki
Indians of Arizona. This work is being richly
blessed, and many of our dusky brothers and
sisters are being led into the "Jesus Road," and
are honouring Him by their simple, childlike

The young women among the blanket Indians
of Saddle Mountain, Oklahoma, are living a brave
life-story. Their dauntless courage is not cooled
by the chill atmosphere about them and the scant
provision against it, for one of them writes
cheerily of wearing her sunbonnet all the time in
her own room, in the winter weather, but she
"does not mind." From this Saddle Mountain
Mission comes the story of the gift of a dollar by

Woman's Home Missionary Societies 163

an Indian towards building a new church, with
the remark, " If we put it in the bank it will just
stay one dollar, but if we spend it, and work, it
will get bigger and bigger."

The Indian name given to one of the lady
teachers is freely translated, " The-woman-who-
can-do-things," and she has namesakes in every
part of the broad mission field.


This society is exceptional in that its work on
the mainland for Spanish-speaking people is
largely carried on within the bounds of Mexico.
It has missionaries in Puebla, Monterey, the City
of Mexico, San Luis Potosi, and otiier places,
some of them being Spanish natives of Mexico,
trained in the training-school of the society, in
Chicago. They work as teachers in kinder-
gartens, and as Bible women.

A leaflet issued by this society gives the follow-
ing vivid picture of what is and what may be —
nay, what will be:

Dr. William Haigh gave an inspiring account of his visit to
Mexico, and painted in vivid word-pictures the Mexican sisters
asking and receiving hearty recognition as one virith the breth-
ren in Him with whom " there is neither male nor female."
Then he told how he had gone to the cathedral in the gray
dawn of the morning, and amid the gloomy shadows discerned
the. forms of women prostrating themselves in ignorant devotion
on cold stones, muttering prayers and crossing themselves,
while a priest, standing in the dim light of a taper, mumbled in
Latin the morning service, which few heard and none under-
stood. " Here," said the doctor, " I beheld a picture of Mexico

164 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

as she has been, blinded and deluded by Romanism. Aye, a
picture of Mexico as she is. For as the day was dawning in
the natural world, and the sun was even then hastening his ap-
proach, so I saw there a reaching out after God, and I believe
the Gospel is beginning to scatter the gloom. Aye, more. As
1 turned from the scene to the one of the day before, and con-
trasted those ignorant, degraded women with the sisters whom
Christianity has made intelligent and comely, I saw a picture of
the Mexico of the future, when the Sun of Righteousness shall
have arisen, and when Christian light shall flood the land."

The significance of this work in Old Mexico is
still further realized when one remembers that
this country is " the gateway to forty millions of
people farther south who speak the beautiful
language of Castile."


In 1900, this society began work in Cuba,
sending, through special offerings from young
women and girlsi the first "Young Ladies' Mis-
sionary." She reached Santiago November i,
and attended the church prayer-meeting the night
of her landing. She found Sunday-schools and
prayer-meetings brightened by the presence and
voices of those who but a short time before were
bowing to images and pictures. A successful in-
dustrial school was soon opened by this faithful
worker. From El Caney she wrote, June, 1901,
' ' Never had a service since the war. Not a priest
in the village. Is it not foreign mission work ?
And there are so many of these deserted villages,
and the people are willing to come to hear us."

Woman's Home Missionary Societies 165

In December, a young woman was sent to open
up evangelistic work in the province of Puerto
Principe. The methods employed are exactly the
same as in India or China — house-to-house visita-
tion, assisting in the church services, reaching
and helping the children, and study of the lan-

Other consecrated workers sent by this society
are stationed in Sonario, Palma and Manzanillo,
and at least two Cuban senoritas have entered
the Chicago training-school to receive preparation
for work among their own people.


The work in Porto Rico, opened a year earlier
than that in Cuba, follows, as a matter of course,
similar lines. "Porto Rico has been called 'the
open door,' " wrote the first missionary sent out
by the society, "and so it is."

The stories of missionary adaptations to cir-
cumstances, of efforts to make a few pieces of
furniture in a not over-comfortable room seem a
homelike apartment, of travel over plains and
mountains in inconvenient and disagreeable ways
but with unfaltering hearts — these should be read
in the special leaflets and other publications of
the society. They are the same for all workers,
of whatever denomination, and there is always
the heroic spirit that sees difficulties only to make
the best of them, saying, with eyes steadfastly
fixed on Calvary, "By this sign I conquer."

i66 Indian and Spanish Neighbours


The women of the Congregational churches
carry on their Home Missionary work through
state organizations, of which there are now
forty-one. The money raised by these state or-
ganizations is sent to the field through the
treasuries of national societies. In the work
among the Spanish-speaking Americans and the
Indians these four societies are engaged :

The Congregational Home Missionary Society,
which assists in the support of pastors in Cuba,
New Mexico and Southern California ; the Con-
gregational Education Society, which supports
schools among the Spanish-speaking people in
New Mexico and Southern California; the Sunday-
school and Publishing Society, which plants Sun-
day-schools in the same localities, and the Ameri-
can Missionary Association, which works among
the Indians and also conducts work among the
Spanish-speaking people of Porto Rico.


Womarfs Board of Missions. Secretary, Mrs. Dee F.
Clarke, Evansville, Ind.

The women of this church have long been en-
gaged in work for the red men. As early as
1898 a constitution for a woman's society was
drawn up for one of the presbyteries, and this
plan was adopted by the missionary societies of
the three presbyteries which at that time consti-

Woman's Home Missionary Societies 167

tuted the church. In 1819 one presbyterial
society of women, without ceasing to exist as a
presbyterial organization, was made the general
society of the church, and the work among the
Indians was immediately placed under its care.
The field of this church has been largely among
the tribes in the southern portion of our land, and
in Illinois and the far northwest.

In 1887 the Woman's Board of Missions began
educational work among the Indians in the Indian
Territory. This work was carried on for a num-
ber of years, until the establishment of the govern-
ment schools in that section.


Woman^s Home Missionary Society. Secretary, Mrs. Delia
L. Williams, Delaware, Ohio.


The Navajo Mission Home at Farmington, New
Mexico, had a humble beginning in a tent, but is
now amply housed. "The Navajoes are a su-
perior race," says the missionary in charge, "but
they have no conception of a holy God. Our
boys and girls are improving year by year, and
are learning that sin is their worst enemy, and
that Jesus came to destroy this enemy. They
are also learning that those who do not work are
of little account in this world, and that to be
honest and industrious and have a home of one's
own is a worthy aim in life."

i68 Indian and Spanish Neighbours

In Dulce, New Mexico, encouraging work has
been wrougiit, and the young Indian and Mexican
children are learning to lead in prayer and are be-
ing trained for future religious service.

Over two hundred services in one year, and

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