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MAKCHMONT



THE HUMES OF POLWABTH




Hugh.,
1 Earl of March]




MAECHMONT



THE HUMES OF POLWARTH



ONE OF THEIE DESCENDANTS



s, M.Ai.W^rrfi/ttd-eY 3



'■ True to the end "



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS

EDINBURGH AND LONDON

MDCGCXCIV



All Rights reserved



1276446




CONTENTS.



MARCHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH—

CHAPTER I.

Situation of Polwarth parish — The village of Polwarth-on-the-
Green — St Mungo's Fair — Derivation of Polwarth— The
Black Well — Polwarth thorn-tree — Modern version of " Pol-
warth on the Green " — Polwarth church and churchyard —
Vicissitudes of the old parish church — Its restoration by
the Marchmont family — The frightening bell — The early
Polwarths — The family of Home — "The Flyting betwixt
Montgomerie and Polwart" — The barony of Jedburgh,

CHAPTER II.

Sir Patrick Hume, eighth Baron of Polwarth — His marriage —
His daughter, Lady Grisell Baillie — His imprisonment in the
Tolbooth — The projected Caroline settlement — The Ryehouse
Plot — Sir Patrick Hume in hiding — Heroism of Lady Grisell
Baillie — Sir Patrick flees to Holland — Confiscation of the Pol-
warth estates — The Polwarth family in exile — Their return
at the Eevolution of 1688 — Eestoration of their estates —



CONTENTS.



Kingly favours showered on the family — Sketch of the
history of Greenlaw — Its erection into a barony — The ancient
Castle of Greenlaw — The church of Greenlaw, ... 27



CHAPTER III.

Continued prosperity of the Marchmont family — Patrick, first
Earl of Marchmont, appointed King's High Commissioner —
His apartments at Holyrood — The Castle of Eedbraes —
Family portraits at Marchmont — Death of King William III.
— Change in the family fortunes — The Treaty of Union —
End of Lord Marchmont's parliamentary life — Death of
Lady Marchmont — Her character — Lord Polwarth's second
marriage — "Bonnie Jean o' the Hirsel " — Death of Lord
Polwarth — Marriage of Mrs Murray — Unhappy issue of
the marriage — Her residence in England — Her friendship
with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and with Lady Hervey
— Her death, ......... 51

CHAPTER IV.

Lord Marchmont's attachment to the house of Hanover — Devoted
conduct of his daughter, Lady Grisell — Lord Polwarth at
Copenhagen — Colin Maclaurin tutor to the Master of Pol-
warth — Latter years and death of Lord Marchmont — Dif-
ferent estimates of his character — His advice to his children
— Holland revisited — Death of Lord Binning — Death of Lady
Grisell Baillie — Her songs, ...... 71

CHAPTER V.

Alexander, second Earl of Marchmont — His studies at Utrecht —
Eeturn to Scotland with his family — His marriage — His
accession to the Scottish Bench as Lord Cessnock — Becomes
Lord Polwarth — Honours conferred on him by the House of



CONTENTS.



Hanover — Aids in the suppression of Lord Mar's rising —
Becomes Ambassador at the Court of Denmark — His love of
Literature — Appointed First Ambassador to the Congress of
Carnbray — Death of his wife, Margaret, Lady Polwarth —
His return home — His downfall — His death and character —
His twin sons — Perplexing resemblance between the two, . 80

CHAPTEK VI.

Careers of the twin brothers — Intimacy of the elder, Lord Pol-
warth, with Pope — Becomes executor to Sarah, Duchess of
Marlborough — His triumphs in the House of Commons —
Succeeds to title of Lord Marchmont — Takes his seat in the
Upper House — Made Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of
Scotland — His first wife — His second marriage — Letter from
Lord Bolingbroke on the birth of a son and heir — Building
of new house — Marriage of his son, Lord Polwarth — Death
of Lord Polwarth — Marriage of Lady Anne — History of
Eccles House — Sir John Paterson — Deadrigs Cross — Orange
Lane — Marriage of Lady Diana to Walter Scott of Harden
— Beturn of young Mr Scott as member for the county —
Disastrous results of the political triumph — Lord March-
mont's latter years at Hemel Hempstead — His relations —
Lady Anne Purves, and her anecdotes of the Marchmont
family — Mr George Bose — Death of Lord Marchmont —
Final settlement of his estates — Succession of Sir William
Purves — The library at Marchmont — Sir Walter Scott's
recollections of Lady Diana Scott — The barony of Polwarth, 91

CHAPTER VII.

Description of the country round Polwarth village — The Craw's
Entry — The Back Lea — Polwarth Common — Kyles Hill —
The Hule Moss — The Foul Fords — Tragic occurrence at the
Foul Fords — Site of the struggle, . . . . .119



CONTENTS.



ANECDOTES OF THE FAMILY OF MARCHMONT, . . 129

PEDIGREE OF THE HUMES OF POLWARTH, . . 179-180

APPENDIX—

I. THE COUNTESS OF MARCHMONT'S BILLS OP FARE, . . 183

II. TWO SONGS OF LADY GRISELL BAILLIE, . . . .187

III. LETTERS —

GEORGE I. TO THE QUEEN OP PRUSSIA, . . . 190

CAROLINE PRINCESS OF WALES TO THE KING OF PRUSSIA, 190

CAROLINE PRINCESS OF WALES TO THE QUEEN OF PRUSSIA, 191

IV. VERSES TO THE EARL OP MARCHMONT ON THE DEATH OF HIS

FATHER, ........ 192



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

HUGH, third earl of marchmont, From a contemporary Print, Frontispiece

MIRROR OVER DRAWING-ROOM FIREPLACE AT MARCHMONT, . Dedication

BOOKPLATE OF PATRICK, FIRST EARL OF MARCHMONT, . . . XIV

ARMS OF POLWARTH, HUME, AND SINCLAIR, .... 1

site of the old castle of polwarth, From a Sketch, . . 26

Patrick, first earl OF march- ( From the Portrait at Marchmont

mont, ( by Sir Godfrey Kneller, . 27

LANTERN CARRIED BY LADY GRISELL BAILLIE, . . . .50

redbraes castle, . . . From an old Picture at Marchmont, 53

Elizabeth, lady polwarth. . From a Portrait at Marchmont, . 55

From the Portrait at Marchmont

by Sir Godfrey Kneller, . (JO

polwarth church, . . From a Sketch, . . .70

BAILLIE ARMS, ........ 79

ALEXANDER, SECOND EARL OF \

v . From a Portrait at Marchmont, . 80
marchmont, I

MARGARET, LADY POLWARTH, . n n n .84

HUGH AND ALEXANDER, TWIN SONS

OF ALEXANDER, SECOND EARL OF

MARCHMONT,



GRISELL, COUNTESS OF MARCHMONT, -j



ILLUSTRATIONS.



HAMMERED-IRON BALUSTRADE, WITH CYPHER OP ALEXANDER, SECOND

EARL OF MARCHMONT, ...... 90

Elizabeth, countess OF marchmont, From a Portrait at Marchmont, 98

ALEXANDER, LORD POLWARTH, . u n II 101

MARCHMONT HOUSE, . . • ■ ■ • .114

CROSS AT DEADRIGS, NEAR ECCLES, . . . . .118

PANEL DESIGNED BY ADAMS FOR THE LIBRARY AT MARCHMONT, . 125
BOOKPLATE OF ALEXANDER, SECOND EARL, THEN SIR ALEXANDER

CAMPBELL OF CESSNOCK, . . . . • .126

BOOKPLATE OF ALEXANDER, SECOND EARL, WHEN LORD POLWARTH, . 128

lady anne purves, . . From a Miniature, . .129

BOOKPLATE OF ALEXANDER, SECOND EARL OF MARCHMONT, . .182




MAECHMONT



THE HUMES OF POLWAETH.



CHAPTEE I.

: At Polwart on the Green

If you'll meet me the morn,
Where lasses do convene

To dance about the thorn,
A kindly welcome you shall meet

Frae her wha likes to view
A lover and a lad complete —
The lad and lover yon."

— Allan Eamsay.



rTIHE little parish of Polwartli lies in the heart of Ber-
wickshire, midway between Duns and Greenlaw. It
contains 3012 acres, and — with one exception, Eyemouth
— is the smallest parish in the county, and the entire
property of the owner of Marchmont. Four families —

A



2 MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH.

Polwarth, Sinclair, Hume, and Purves-Hume-Campbell —
have succeeded each other in this fair heritage, and with
their history its own is inseparably connected.

The long brown slopes of Lammermuir seem to pause
before making a rapid descent into the Merse, and the
wooded crest of Kyles Hill looks boldly forth across the
wide expanse of plain that sweeps to the foot of Cheviot ;
and there — where the heather ceases, and the rich grass
fields run up among the sheltering plantations — nestles
the little village, which for centuries has been known as
Polwarth-on-the-Green. It is a singularly picturesque
spot. Backed by a narrow strip of wood, where the
rowan-berries hang like bunches of coral every autumn,
the irregularly shaped Green slopes gently to the north.
There are no formal rows of houses ; ash-trees of great-
size and immense age overhang the thatched cottages
which are dotted about in gronps of twos and threes.
Each has its garden, bright with flowers ; while inter-
spersed among them are little hedged-in paddocks, where
generally a pony is grazing. There are only about twenty
inhabited cottages now, for the village is dwindling away;
but within the memory of persons still alive, there were
nearly double the number. Following the traditional
Scottish custom, whereby the inhabitants of a village all
embraced the same trade, handing it down from father
to son, the people of Polwarth were formerly shoemakers,



MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH. 3

tanning their leather in the little stream that runs past
their doors. " The Polwarth folk winna marry oot o' their
ain parish " was the country saying about them, and from
generation to generation the same family names are found
there. Long, long ago the village claimed such import-
ance that St Mungo's Fair was held there twice a-year,
summer and winter ; and traders came from far and wide
to display their wares on the Green. The fair lasted for
two days, on the first of which horses and cattle changed
hands, while the second was devoted to ordinary mer-
chandise. Tradition relates that after one of these fairs a
quarrel took place between two packmen ; and the one slew
the other on the hill-slope to the south-east of Polwarth,
which to this day is called The Packman's Brae. The
murdered man was buried where he fell, and the stone
that marks his resting-place may still be seen in the
hedge to the west of the road.

The name of the village was anciently written Poul-
ivorth, Pauhvorth, and Polworth. Chalmers in his 'Cale-
donia' derives it from Pol -worth, the hamlet on the
muddy stream (Pul in the Cambro-British, and Pol in
the Gaelic, signifying a muddy stream, a marshy place ;
and ivorth or iveorth in the Saxon tongue, a hamlet, farm-
stead, or village). After rain the Swirden burn (or the
Kirk burn, as it is called lower down), in common with
every little stream in the parish, runs a deep red colour,



4 MARCHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH.

owing to the clayey nature of the soil. This would make
Chalmers's derivation appear very probable. Other writers
have traced the name to Paul-worth — the settlement of
Paul — but they do not attempt to unveil the identity of
Paul. The village is of great antiquity, and in 1587 was
made a baronial burgh.

From a little knowe behind the smithy gushes the Black
Well, to which tradition ascribes the same virtues as to the
Fountain of Trevi, — he who drinks here once is bound to
return. Far more picturesque were the wells on the Green,
their cool, dark depths protected from the sun by the
arched mounds built over them, grass-covered above, and
within fringed with ferns. Close by, surrounded by a
railing, stand two large thorn - trees, offshoots of that
original tree blown down about fifty years ago, in which
the earliest traditions of the village centred. Its fame
came down from a time so remote that all memory has
been lost of the origin of its luck-bringing powers. Al-
ready in the sixteenth century it was a well-known land-
mark, as appears from the line —

"In a pit by Pol wart-thorn,"

which occurs in that curious poem, " The Flyting betwixt
Montgomerie and Polwart." A hundred years earlier it
had witnessed the triumphant return of the captive
heiresses, and the wedding dance had circled beneath its



MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH. 5

shade ; and down to the present time there has been no
occasion of rejoicing in Polwarth with which it has not
been associated. It is alluded to also in the lines owing
to which Polwarth - on - the - Green is enshrined in every
collection of Scottish song ; and though Allan Kamsay's
verses — the first of which is quoted at the head of this
chapter — are of no great antiquity, he acknowledges to
having grafted them on the two first lines, —

" At Pol wart on the Green
If you'll meet me the morn," —

which, wedded to an air equally ancient, were by some
unknown poet of a much older date.

At the beginning of this century, another version of
" Polwarth on the Green " was written by John Grieve,
that early friend of the Ettrick Shepherd to whom
" Mador of the Moor " is dedicated : —

" 'Twas summer tide ; the cushat sang

His am'rous roundelay ;
And dew, like clustered diamonds, hang

On flower and leafy spray.
The coverlet of gloaming grey

On everything was seen,
"When lads and lassies took their way

To Polwarth on the Green.

The spirit-moving dance went on,

And harmless revelry
Of young hearts all in unison

"Wi' love's soft witcherie ;



MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH.



Their hall the open-daisied lea,

While frae the welkin sheen
The moon shone brightly on the glee

At Pohvarth on the Green.

Dark een and raven curls were there,

And cheeks of rosy hue,
And finer form, without compare,

Than pencil ever drew ;
But ane, wi' een o' bonnie blue,

A' hearts confessed the queen,
And pride of grace and beauty too,

At Pohvarth on the Green.

The miser hoards his golden store,

And kings dominion gain ;
While others in the battle's roar

For honour's trifles strain.
Away such pleasures, false and vain !

For dearer mine have been,
Among the lowly, rural train

At Pohvarth on the Green."

Another favourite rhyme of unknown origin runs thus :

" At Polwart on the Green
We oft hae merry been,
And merry we'll be still
While stands the Kylie's hill ;
And round the corn-bing
We'll hae a canty fling ;
And round about the Thorn
We'll dance till grey-e'ed morn
Shall lift her drowsy bree
On mountain, vale, and lea.



MARGHMUNT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH. 7

At Polwart on the Green
Our forebears oft were seen
To dance about the Thorn,
When they gat in their corn ;
Sae we their sons wha be,
Shall keep the ancient glee,
Nor let the gree gang doun
While Polwart is a toun."

The crows fly round the wooded knowe, some three-
quarters of a mile to the south-east of the village, where,
half hidden among the trees, the church stands at the top
of a steep bank rising straight above the burn. A low
moss-grown wall bounds the tiny churchyard — so small
that the afternoon sun throws the shadows of the syca-
mores right across it. Here and there the eye lights on
some freshly hewn memorial, with its inscription telling
of present sorrow and future hopes ; but most of the low
irregular head-stones are weather-worn and lichen-stained,
revealing little but the outline of a cherub's head or of a
mutilated scroll. Among them, but barely legible, is the
quaint epitaph on Mr Greig, factor to the first Earl of
Marchmont : —

" 1699.
Remember, man, as thou goest by,
As thou art now, so once was I ;
As I am now, so must thee be ;
Eemember, man, that thou must die."

The ivy creeps up the church tower, and has long ago



8 MAEGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH.

hidden the sun-dial ; it now threatens to bury the sculp-
tured arms which proclaim that it was Patrick, Earl of
Marchmont, and Grisell Ker his wife, who built the tower
and restored the church. Long before they accomplished
their pious work this had been hallowed ground ; and the
voice of prayer had ascended from this spot ere ever the
mighty ash-tree hard by was a sapling, or the seeds had
ripened from which those gnarled sycamores had sprung.
Ten centuries have passed since the pious zeal of those
far-distant days dedicated a church here to St Mungo, the
" Beloved Saint," the memory of whose miracles and
blameless life was still fresh in the land. 1 Since then
many strange vicissitudes have befallen it. Too near the
Borders to escape the tide of war which ebbed and flowed
intermittently for so many hundred years, it more than
once ran the risk of complete destruction. After some such
evil times, it was rededicated by Bishop David de Bernham
in April 1242. 2 Eifty-four years later — in 1296 — Adam

1 St Kentigern, a famous Scotch saint, died in 603. The 13th of January
was held as his day, of which it was said, " Holy St Mungo never leaves the
weather as he found it." Under his name of Mungo, " the Beloved or Gracious
One" many churches were dedicated to him.

2 David de Bernham was born about the end of the twelfth or beginning of
the thirteenth century at Berwick-on-Tweed, and is said to have been descen-
ded from an ancient family of burgesses in that town. He became Gamerariua,
or Chamberlain, to Alexander II. of Scotland, and on the death of William de
Malvoisin, in July 1237, was raised by the influence of the king to the vacant
bishopric of St Andrews, although the clergy' and people of the diocese desired
the appointment of Galfrid, Bishop of Dunkeld. David de Bernham's election
took place at St Andrews in June 1239, and he was consecrated on the 22d of
the following January. In 1240 he and William de Bondington, Bishop of



MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH. 9

Lamb, "Parson of the Church of Poulesworth," bent the
knee to the usurper, and was reinstated by Edward I. in
his benefice. 1 He does not appear to have enjoyed it

Glasgow, were summoned by Pope Gregory IX. to attend a General Council
to be held at Rome, with the object of concerting measures for the overthrow
of Frederick II. of Germany, then in open warfare with the Holy See. On
their way to Rome they were captured, together with many other bishops, by
the emperor, who released them on condition they should return direct to
their homes. The Scottish bishops gave the required promise, but sent on
their procurations by an ecclesiastic to Rome. Owing to the death of Gregory
IX., which almost immediately supervened, the Council was never held. The
rest of David de Bernham's life seems to have been filled with the dedication
and rededication of churches throughout his large diocese, which extended
from the English border on the south-east to the confines of Aberdeen. In the
Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris is preserved a valuable Scottish MS., a pontifi-
cal which contains the forms used by David de Bernham for the consecration of
a church, an altar, a cemetery, or the reconciliation of a church " post effusioneni
sanguinis" ; and in the book is a record of the 140 churches and chapels at
the dedication of which this volume served him during the years 1240 to
1249. Among the churches are mentioned Polvvarth, Fogo, Eccles, Greenlaw,
and many others in Berwickshire. On the 13th of July 1249 the bishop
crowned Alexander III. at Scone, and in the following year took part in the
great religious and state ceremonial of the translation of the body of St Margaret,
Queen of Scotland, from its original resting-place in the outer church at Dun-
fermline to the silver shrine bedecked with gold and precious stones beside
the high altar. In 1251 he went to York, accompanied by several of the
Scottish nobility, to be present at the marriage of King Alexander III., then
only ten years of age, with Margaret, daughter of Henry III. of England.
According to Spottiswoode, he was seized with a fever, and died there on May
1, 1251. The continuator of Fordun's ' Scotichronicon ' states, on the con-
trary, that he died at Nenthorn, in Berwickshire, April 26, 1253, and that he
was buried in the Abbey Church of Kelso. David de Bernham seems to have
possessed great vigour and determination of character. Spottiswoode says of
him that "he kept a severe hand over the clergy, especially the monks and
others that lived in religious orders." (See Lockhart's 'The Church of Scot-
land in the Thirteenth Century ;' also Keith's 'Scottish Bishops.')

1 The benefice was valued in the old Papal Taxation Roll at J14, 5s. 6d. In
the Tax Roll of St Andrews, ] 547, the rectory of Polwarth, in the deanery of
the Merse, was included. It remained a rectory till the Reformation, dial-



10 MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWABTH.

long, for in 1299 the same king presented William de
Sadyntone, clerk, to the living.

During the succeeding century, time and neglect
brought St Mungo's holy fane into a ruinous state, from
which it was rescued about 1378 by the care of John Sin-
clair of Herdmanston, who in right of his wife, Elizabeth,
lorded it over these lands. The Eeformation, which caused
total destruction to many a fair church and abbey, passed
harmlessly over Polwarth. Adam Hume, third son of Sir
Patrick, the fourth Baron of Polwarth, was rector of the
parish at the time. He adopted the tenets of the
Reformed faith, and became the first Protestant minister.
Since then eleven successors have filled his pulpit, 1 but
the church of to-day has been greatly altered and restored

mers states that it was valued in the ancient Ta.vatlo at 12 marks ; and in
Bagimont's Koll the tenth of the rectory was rated at £4, which shows it was
of but little value.

1 The following is a list of the ministers that have been in Polwarth since
1567 :—

Adam Hume, 1567 to 1593.

Alexander Gaillis, M.A., 1593 to 1603.

Alexander Cass or Carse, M.A., 1604 to 1651.

David Eobertson, M.A., 1652 to 1663.

George Holiwell, M.A., 1664 to 1704. (Earl Patrick's tutor.)

Archibald Borthwick, M.A., 1709 to 1727.

John Hume, of Abbey St Bathans, 1727 to 1734.

William Home (son of Walter Home of Bassendean), 1735 to 1757.

Alexander Home, 1758 to 1768.

Bobert Home, 1769 to 1838.

Walter Home (son. assistant and successor), 1823 to 1881.

Charles Watt, 1882.



MARCHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH. 11

since he preached in it. Besides the armorial bearings on
the tower and the crowned orange that surmounts the
eastern gable — both of which tell us that the present state
of the building is due to Earl Patrick — an inscription cut
on the deep red sandstone slab above the south door sets
forth as follows : —

" TEMPLUM • HOC • DEI • CTJLTUI • IN • ECCLESIA • DE • POLUARTH •

A • FUNDI • DOMINIS • EJDSDEM • PRIUS • DESIGNATIONS •

DEIN • COGNOJ1INIS • iEDIFICATUM • ET • DICATUM • ANTE • ANNUM •

SALUTIS • 900 • RECTORIAQUE • BENEFICIO • DOTATUM •

SED • TEMPORIS • CURSU • LABEFACTUM •

A • DNO • JOHANNE • DE • SANCTO • CLARO • DE • HERDMANSTON •

GENERO • DNI • PATRICIJ • DE • POLUARTH • DE • EODEM •

CIRCA • ANNUM • 1378 • REPARATUM •

TANDEM • VERO • VETUSTATE • AD • RUINAM • VERGENS •

SUMTLBUS • UTRIUSQUE • PROSAPLE • HEREDIS •

DNI • PATRICIJ • HUME • COMITIS • DE • MARCHMONT • ETC •

SUMMI • SCOTIA • CANCELLARII •

ET • DNjE • GRISELLI.E • KAR • COMITISSiE • SUjE • SPOS.E •

SEPULCHRI • SACELLO • ARCUATE • RECENS • CONSTRUCTUM •

ET • CAMPANARUM • OBELISCO • ADAUCTUM • FUIT •

ANNO • DOMINI • 1703." 1

The restoration of the church seems -to have been a

1 Translation : "This temple for the worship of God in the church of Pol-
warth by the lords of the soil of the same designation originally, afterwards of
the same name, built and consecrated before the year of grace 900, and
endowed with the benefice of a rector, but in course of time fallen into ruin,
was repaired by Lord John Sinclair of Herdmanston, the son-in-law of Lord
Patrick of Polwarth of the same place, about the year 1378. But at length
verging to decay through age, at the expense of the heir of both lines, Lord
Patrick Hume, Earl of Marchmont, &c, High Chancellor of Scotland, and of
Lady Grissell Kar, his wife and countess, it was fresh built with the shrine
in the form of a vault, and augmented by the addition of a bell-tower. Anno
Domini 1703."



12 MARGHMONT AND THE HUMES OF POLWARTH.

labour of love with, the whole family. Lady Marchmont
gave the bell which was to hang in the new tower, but from
the inscription on it, it does not seem to have been cast
till fourteen years after her death. 1 The green velvet
pulpit-hangings, which still exist under the modern red
draperies, were embroidered in an elaborate arabesque
pattern by Lady Grisell Baillie ; and her sister-in-law,
Lady Jane Home, Lord Polwarth's second wife, gave the
two beautiful silver Communion cups. The proportions of


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