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Julius Friedrich Sachse.

Justus Falckner, mystic and scholar, devout Pietist in Germany, hermit on the Wissahickon, missionary on the Hudson : a bi-centennial memorial of the first regular ordination of an orthodox pastor in online

. (page 1 of 9)
Online LibraryJulius Friedrich SachseJustus Falckner, mystic and scholar, devout Pietist in Germany, hermit on the Wissahickon, missionary on the Hudson : a bi-centennial memorial of the first regular ordination of an orthodox pastor in → online text (page 1 of 9)
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UC-NRLF



B ^ SIE 7D4



FALCKNER

IFVOU r FI&TSST IN GERMANY

HERMIT ON niE WISSA.HICKON
MISSIONARY ^N IIIE HUDSON






FALCIvlN^ER.



JUSTUS FALCKNER

/Ift^stic anb Scholar

DEVOUT PIETIST IN GERMANY
HERMIT ON THE WISSAHICKON
MISSIONARY ON THE HUDSON



■■ ■"'■■■ A

Bi' Centennial Memorial

OF THE First Regular Ordination of an Orthodox Pastor in

America, done November 24, 1703, at Gloria Dei, the

Swedish Lutheran Church at Wicaco, Philadelphia

Compiled from Original Documents, Letters and Records at Home and Abroad

BY

3uUu0 J^ric^ricb Sacbse, Uitt.D.

Member American Philosophical Society — Historical Society of Pennsylvania — Pennsyl-
vania-German Society — American Historical Association — XHI
International Congress of Orientalists, etc., etc.



l^llflaticlplifa:
PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR

MDCCCCIII










Of this Letter Press Edition
Five Hundred Copies have been Printed

No. /^'

February, 1903.



copyright 1903
By Julius F. Sachse.



All rights reserved.



PRESS OF

THE P4ew ERA PRINTING COHPANV

LANCASTER, PA.



flDublenbers Colleoe,

The Institution Bearing the Name and Perpetuating
THE Faith of

Tbcnrg ^elcbfor /IBublenberg

The Patriarch of the Evangelical Lutheran Church

IN America, who Cherished, Revived and Propogated

THE Seed cast into the Virgin soil of Pennsylvania

AND New York by

2)ominie Justus jfalcSner

Who was the First Lutheran Minister Ordained
IN North America

THIS

/IDemocial is rcepcctfuU^s OeMcatcd



111



f^53959




PROLOGUE.




®'



iF all the interesting char-
acters, prominent in the
earl}' history of the settlement
of Pennsylvania, none are more
so than the company of Ger-
man Pietists, Mj'stics and^The-
osophists, who, in the year 1694
settled on the shores of the
romantic Wissahickon, a tribu-
tary to the Schuylkill, and now
within the corporate bounds of the City of Philadelphia.
The stories of Magister Kelpius, Johan Selig, Daniel Falck-
ner, the heroic Koster, and their associates have served as a
theme for manj' writers. The subject has been exhaustively
treated by Rev. T. E. Schmauk, D.D., in his new " History
of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania" as well as by the
present writer in his " German Pietists."

No incident, however, in the life or history of this Mystic
Community surpasses the story of Justus Falckner, the
younger brother of Daniel Falckner. How he came here
with his brother upon his I'eturn to America, and at first
withdrew from the world and lived as a recluse or hermit
in a sheltered dell on the Wissahickon, passing his time in

(X)



Prolosrue.



b '



prayer, study and silent contemplation. Thence urged by
the appeals of the Hollandish Lutherans in the valley of
the Hudson who were in dire straits, and the persuasion of
the Swedish pastors on the Delaware, finally consented to
be ordained by them to the ministry, according to the
Swedish Lutheran ritual, in the venerable landmark on the
Delaware, " Gloria Dei," after which he at once assumed
charge of the scattered Lutherans in the adjoining Colonies,
and remained a faithful shepherd amongst them until called
to join the church triumphant.

The present year marks the two hundredth anniversary
of this ordination, and it is but meet and right that some
special notice be taken of this episode, and that the story
of this noble missionary should be more widely known —
how he labored for twenty years in his extended field,
reaching from Manhattan to Albany, and East New Jersey
to Long Island, until at last he succumbed a martyr to his
zeal and duty.

Upon this account the writer presents this sketch as a
Bi-Centennial Memorial to that devout pioneer. The foun-
dation of this storj- is my chapter on Justus Falckner in
the " German Pietists." Much new and additional material
of greatest importance, however, is presented in the present
publication — material gathered at home and abroad at a
great cost of time and labor. The finding of the letters
from the Swedish pastors and the diploma of ordination
signed at the Old Swedish Church, November 24, 1703,
now published for the first time, however, amply repaid the
writer for his outlay.

This memorial is issued in the hope that the history
of this devout pioneer may be further investigated and
studied, and that the name of Domine Justus Falckner,
the German Pietist of the Halle School, hermit and theos-



Prologue. 3

ophist on the Wissahickon, and devout pastor and mis-
sionary in New York, may be enrolled in its proper place
in the historic annals of our state and country.

Acknowledgments are due to the College van Ouder-
lingen der Evang. Luthersche Gemeente te Amsterdam,
specially to Pastor Van Wijk, Jr., Captain A. F. P. Car-
tens and Herr G. D. Martens of that corporation, also to
Rev. J. H. Sieker, pastor of St. Matthew's Ev. Luth-
eran Church in New York, who is a direct successor in
office to the subject of our sketch, to Rev. Henry Eyster
Jacobs, D.D., for assistance in the Latin translations,
to the Right Reverend Archbishop of Sweden, at Upsala,
for the verification of the diploma of ordination, to the offi-
cials of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania for cour-
tesies extended to the writer, and to William C. Lane, Esq.,
librarian of Harvard University, for title page of Zenger
pamphlet and Swedish pastoral.




CONTENTS.

Prologue



CHAPTER I.

Justus Falckner.
Genealogy — Arms — Earliest Record — Halle Uni-
versitj' — Thomasius and Francke — Student at Halle

— Composes Hymns, " Rise Ye Children of Salvation,"
" If Our All on Him We Venture." — Candidat Theo-
logia — Leaves Halle, Journeys to Dutchy of Schles-

wig — Dominie Miihlen I3~23

CHAPTER II.
Daniel Falckner.
Returns to Europe — Aug. Her. Francke, Leader of
German Pietists on Wissahickon. — Falckner's Report

— German Pietists in Pennsylvania and Virginia. —
Philadelphian Society. — Reception at Halle — Citizen
and Pilgrim in Pennsylvania — Answers Questions —
Abstracts Published — Political Nature of Visit — Re-
ports to Benj. Furley. — Frankfort Company Appoint
Him to Supersede Pastorius — At Rotterdam — Lubeck

— Return to America 24-31

CHAPTER III.
On the Wissahickon.
Arrival of Daniel and Justus Falckner — Bailiff and
Burgess — Justus Retires to Hermit's Cabin — Sends
Missive to Dom : Muhlen. in Scheswig. — Returns to
Active Life, Attorney for Penn and Furley — Before
Land Commissioners — Spleen of Pastorius — Purity
of Character 32-37

CHAPTER IV.
Falckner's Missive from Germantown.

Condition of the Church in America — As a Her-
mit — Indians — Innumerable Sects — Qiiakers — Evan-

(5)



6 Contents.

gelic, Lutheran and Reformed Churches — Swedes and
Their Church — Germans — Attend Swedish Church —
Pastor Rudman Dehvers German Address — "Satur-
nine Stingy Qiiaker Spirit " — Appeal for an Organ for
Gloria Dei — Quotes Luther — Asks for Intercession
with Sweden's King. Colophon 3S-48

CHAPTER V.

Causes Leading to the Ordination at Wicacoa.
Justus Falckner's Interest in Swedish Church —
Dom. Rudman Called to New York, Assumes Lutheran
Charges. — Taken Sick with Yellow Fever — Returns
to Philadelphia — Sends Call to Justus Falckner —
Rudman and Biorck Remove Falckner's Scruples" —
Interesting Correspondence — Call Extended from New
York, Biorck's Missive — Acceptance of the Call . . 49-59

CHAPTER VI.

The Ordination at Gloria Dei.

A Venerable Landmark — Solemn Occasion — His-
toric Importance, November 24, 1 703 — Procession —
Candidate Invocation — Rudman as Vice Bishop —
Questions and Answers, Apostolic Succession — Sign-
ing of the Ordination Diploma 60-71

CHAPTER VII.
Dominie Falckner in New York.
Arrives in New York — Accepts the Charge — Re-
ports to Amsterdam — Sends Copy of Ordination Di-
ploma, Finding of this Document, Fascimile — An Im-
portant Historic Document — Latin Invocation in Church
Book, Troublesome Times — His Extended Charges —
Calls Church Meeting — Appeals for Financial Help —
Description of Church — First Report to Amsterdam —

Needs of the Congregation ']2-&o

CHAPTER VIII.
Copy of the Report to the Amsterdam Consistory. . S1-S4



Contents. 7

CHAPTER IX.

A Rare Bradford Imprint.

Lutheran vs. Calvinist, A Rare Book — Justus Falck-
ner's Fundamental Instructions — Compendium Doc-
trinae Anti-Calvinianum — Facsimile of First Original
Lutheran Hymn printed in America — Falckner's Ex-
tended Charges, New York to Albany, New Jersey
to Long Island — Kocherthal — Biorck's Account of
Justus Falckner's Ministrations. S5-94

CHAPTER X.
Dominie Falcker's Church Records.
Records of Old Trinity Church — How Rescued —
Commenced by Dom. Rudman, Table of Contents —
Facsimile — Baptismal Register — - Invocations — Com-
municants — Indian Baptism — Exorcism of Satan —
Baptism of Negro Slave — Rev. John Sharpe — Dom.
Falckner's Marriage, Facsimile of Entry — Letter of
Thanks to Amsterdam, Last Entry and Death of Dom-
inie Justus Falckner — Widow and Children — His
Character — Documentary Evidence 95-111^

CHAPTER XI.
The Van Dieren Controversy.

Dom. Falckner's Experience with Van Dieren, Hes-
selius' Advice to Falckner — Berkenmeyer's pamphlet —
Title — Falckner Admonishes his People Against Van
Dieren — Sybrand's Offer — Johann Michael Schiitz —
Contradictory Missive — Van Dieren's Attempts to
Preach, Ejected from Pulpit — Description of Church
— Account of Services — Trials of the Pastor — Tailor
and Preacher — Van Dieren and his Actions, Alleged
Ordination by Pastor Gerard Henckel — Opposition of
Swedish Pastors 116-131

CHAPTER XII.
Pastorai, to the Hackensack Congregation. 132-13S



LIST OF PLATES.



Falckner arms . frontispiece

Tutors of Justus Falckner facing page i6



Magister Kelpius •

Typical Hermit's Cabin

Falckner Swamp Lutheran Church

Gloria Dei (old Swedes) Wicacoa, exterior

" " " " interior, organ loft ....
" " " " tomb of Dom. Rudman . .

" " " " interior, chancel

" " " " ancient Swedish carvings

Dominie Eric Tobias Biorck

New York, street scene in 1704

" Old Dutch Stadt Huys

" " Trinity Lutheran Church, 1729

Certificate of ordination

Old Lutheran Church at Amsterdam

Swedish Churches on the Delaware, Cranehook

Church of 163S
" " " " " Christina . . .

" " " " " Penn's Neck . .

" " " " " Racoon

The Vallev of Schoharie



24
32
36

44

48

52
60

64
56
72
96

79

74-75
82

106
112
120
136

128



(9)



ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE.

ARMS.

Falckner. ... 13

Halle 14

Lubeck 23

William Penn 24

Rostock 33

Pastorius 36

Schleswig 38

Amsterdam 81

Printer's Guild 84

New York (1686) ..... 92

New York Colony iiS

Holland 131

Sweden 132

AUTOGRAPHS.

Sprogel, John H. . . .

Falckner, Justus

Falckner, Daniel

Furly, Benjamin

Kelpius, Johannes

Falckner, Justus and Daniel . ,

Rudman,And

Biorck, Rev. E. T

Gerhartt, Henkell

TITLE PAGES AND
FACSIMILES.



14

25
30
30

3.';

so

.S7

134



Hvmn, "Aiif ihr Christen
Weyrauch's Hiigel . . .
Curieuse Nachricht, 1702
Continuatio, 1704 . . .
Missive to Muhlen . . .
Colophon to Missive . .
Rudman's entrv in churchhook



19
20

28

29

40

47



PAGE.

Rudman's letter to Falckner. . 53

Rudman's reply to Falckner . . 56

Biorck to Falckner ...... 58

Notice to Amsterdam 73

Certificate of Ordination . . 74-75

Falckner's first entry 76

Falckner's official signature . . 77

Grondlycke Onderricht, title . 88

Original hymn . 89

Quassaik Church 91

Dissertatio Gradualis, title . . 93

Falckner's Entry 97

Baptismal Record 99

Section of Map, 1704 lOO

Section of Map. 1740 .... loi

Communicant Record .... 103

New York Paper Money ... 105

Marriage Entry 107

Getrouwe Wachter Stem ... 117

EMBELLISHMENTS.

Headpiece, History 13

Halle Student i6

Halle University 15

Halle Lecture Room 17

Rostock, View of 22

Headpiece, Literature ... 24

Halle, View of 26

Falckner Colophon 31

Headpiece, Mysticism 32

Minuet's Monument 37

Headpiece, Dawn 38

GloriaDei, A. D. 1800 ... 48

Headpiece, X. P 49

Seal of Solomon 49



Illustrations.



II



PAGE.

Tailpiece, Light and Time . . 59

Headpiece, Faith 60

Halle Symbol 60

Portrait, Rev. Collin 71

Headpiece, pilgrims 72

Labor and hope 72

Seal of New York 77

Seal of New York Congregation 78

Gloria Dei, A. D. 1700 .... So

Headpiece, Dutch Si

Headpiece, Labor 85



PAGE.

Falckner Seal 94

Headpiece, Manuscript .... 95

Ephrata pilgrim 95

Albany Seal 102

Portrait Wm. Vesey .... 108

Headpiece, Controversy ... 116

Vignette 116

Headpiece . 132

Book plate London Society . 135

Tailpiece, finis 138






Ube Jfalckncc Hrms from Seal of
Justus yalcbncr.



^'



USTUS FALCKNER,

born November 22,
1672, was the fourth
son of Rev. Daniel Falck-
ner, the Lutheran pastor at
Langen-Reinsdorf (former-
ly known as Langen-Rhens-
dorf and Langeramsdorf),
near Crimmitschau, parish
of Zwickau, situated m that
part of Saxony formerly
known as the Markgravate
of Meissen, and was a scion
of an old Lutheran family. His ancestors on both sides
had been ordained Lutheran ministers.

His grandfather. Christian Falckner (d. November 5,
1658), as well as his son Daniel Falckner (d. April 7,
1764) father of the subject of our sketch, were both pastors
of Langen-Reinsdorf. The latter left four children, viz :
Paul Christian, born February 2, 1662 ; Daniel, born No-
vember 25, 1666; a third child of whom the writer has
found no record, and Justus, the subject of our sketch.^



'For the history of Daniel Falckner-vide Dr. Schmauk's "Lutheran
Church in Pennsylvania, 163S-1S00," and Sachse's " German Pietists,
1694-1708."

(■3)



H



Dominie Justus Falckner.



All the sons were educated with the same object in view,
and were eventually ordained to the holy ministry.

He was the younger brother of Daniel Falckner, a
leader among the German Pietists, who came to America in

1694 with Kelpius and Koster, and accompanied him upon
his return to Pennsylvania in the year 1700, and together
with Johann Jauert, Arnold Storch, Johann Heinrich and
Ludovic Christian Sprogel, and others, reinforced the com-
munity of German Pietists who had
established themselves on the roman-
tic banks of the Wissahickon a short
distance from Germantown.

The earliest official record of Jus-
tus Falckner known to the present
writer, excepting the entry of his
birth, is that recorded in the oldest
register of the venerable university
at Halle a. S. Germany, which bears the following title
and date, viz :

" Catalogus de?-er Studiosorum, so anf hiesiger FRIED-
RICHS, Universitdt, immatriculiret worden. Nach Ord-
nung des Alphabet's Eingerichtct. De Anno MDCXCHI."
The first entry upon the sixth page reads :
" FALCKNER, Justy, Langeramsdorf, Miss."
"P. R. Thomasius, 1693, 20 Jan."







o




yustHS- Tci/c-ytln.er'



St tide lit at Halle.



IS



The above entry shows that Justus Falckner was one of
the students at Leipzig who followed Thomasius ^ to Halle
after the latter's expulsion from that city.




THE UNrV'ERSITY AT HALLE, A.D



Just how long the student remained at the university at
Halle is not known to the writer. There is ample evi-



2 Thomasius was one of the most distinguished German philosophers of
his time ; born at Leipsic^in 1665, he studied .it Frankfort on the Oder, and
returning to Leipsic in 1679 delivered philosophical lectures there. His
freedom of thinking, however, raised him many enemies, and he was
finally obliged to leave the country. He went to Halle in 1690, where he
took an active interest in establishing the university, and three years later
became a professor and afterwards, head of the university. Thomasius
was the first in Germany to exert his influence to procure the abolition of
torture, of trials for witchcraft, and of restraints upon freedom of thought.
It was under the tutelage of this great man that Justus Falckner studied
and graduated.



i6



Dominic Justus Falclcner.



dence, however, during his sojourn there that he was in
close touch witli the celebrated German Pietist, August
Herman Francke,' under whom he studied the oriental




QjiJlcadetniciLf 0fall£fhrts.



A STUDENT AT THE HALLE UNIVERSITY, 1698-170O.

languages at the universit)-, and who was then one of the
recognized religious leaders in Europe.

'August Herman Francke, German Pietist, theologian and philanthro-
pist, was born at Liibeck, March 23, 1663. Embracing the pictistical
teachings of Spener, he began to lecture on the practical interpretation of



Within the Aula.



17




i8 Dominie Justus Falckner.

The devout and spiritual trend of mind of the young
theological student is best shown by several of his hymns,
incorporated at the time by Francke in his revised hymn-
book :

" Geistreiches Gesang Buck " Halle i6gy.

The most noted of these hymns is the one commencing
with the line :

^^ AuJ ! ihr Christen, Christi glieder."

This is found on page 430 of the original edition. This
hymn is a stirring, vigorous composition of eleven stanzas
of six lines each. It was set to the melody " Meine Hojff-
nung stehet veste," and was well calculated to raise the
religious fervor of the worshippers.

Upon a manuscript copy of this hymn, Falckner notes
two references to the scriptures as his theme, or the foun-
dation of its composition, viz. :

" Finally my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of His
might" (Eph. vi. lo).

" For whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world, and is the vic-
tory that overcometh the world, even our faith " (i John v. 4).

Originally the hymn was designated, "An encourage-
ment to conflict in the Christian warfare," it was retained
by Freylinghausen in the make-up of his Gesang Buck of
1704, but in subsequent editions it was relegated to the

the Bible, and met with so much success that he was attacked on all sides,
and the celebrated Thomasius, then residing at Leipsic, undertook his de-
fence. '^ Successively driven from Leipsic and Erfurth, he went to Halle as
orofessor of the new university, at first, of the Oriental languages, and
afterwards of theology. Francke was personally interested in the band of
German Pietists who settled on the Wissahickon under Kelpius, 1694-170S.
The old Trappe Church in Pennsylvania was named in his honor, " Z>«e
Augustus Kirche" by Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, who was sent to
these shores in 1742 by the son, Rev. Gotthilf August Francke.



As an Hymnist.



19



J 9?. XWt\. mcinc ^off;

OrUf,it)t *il)Ci|'e"/ 5()ii|li
a(^t aufiermannt (net) mic^
t)er,tt)i()rn)er&et tjingtraubt.
©atan btur an btn *Str-eit
€f)n(lo iinb fca* €{)n|l{nl)cit.

2. Sluflfolgt 6l)rift0/ eurtm
^a. it)ei§ iinb roll) gt;
fprengt,i|l fd)on auf DemSitgt^
*i5Innc un^ jum Xro|1e a-igge^
J)dngt;n5crbl{r tritgt, nie er -
liegt, fonbtfn unttcm grcu^c

fi«gf.

?. iMcftn Sieg bfltrtiicf)cm<
pfiinben Bieler i>ei(gcn (larcftr
SKutl), ba fie baben uberroiinbc
frfali* Dure!) DtS Eamcs 5SIut,
©olttn mir bann aObier au((>
uitbt (Treitcn mit ®cgicr.

6. 5Bei: l)i{[email protected]«lap«iD jiurVte^



b«,3Ieifc5e«':)iiibunbSi(^ff
|}eit,unbbcn'Siiiibcn|i(1)er9ir
b(t/ bcc t)nt n-^t'iig fuft sum
©licit ; Den bic SJartjt, »£ Qtan<
^ad}t,bnt it}ninDcn Srtjiaf
gebfa(J)t.

7. 2ibern)cnbic5Bciii)tiii(i),
ret, tras bie Jieobeii fur nn
Xl)til,bc|[cn^eiii 111 (i)jDii flit)
ferret, feincm adcvliod) fie W.
fu(f)taDeinoUncSd)tin5i)tifil
frcDcr Sncd)! jii fci;ti.

8. Senn Dcrgniig! ciiKljiiiolil
bas Sebcn, fo ber ^'rci)beii iiiiw
g{InmuS?2Cerfi(!)(yDiini(l)l
gnn^ trgebcn, bai niir 5?ii!),
9lng|l unb 9?erbrii|;';t>cr,titr
triegt recjjt cevjtiiigt/ireifiin
I'eben fclfrlUcfiegt.

9. Brum ail f! (aft iin^iit'tr:
rcinben in bcm Sluie r>5|ii
e()ri|T, nnb an .unfre @iin«
binbenfeinI!3ort,foein3e"3"if
i|], baS uno be(f 1 iinD eriuKfi,
unb nnd) holies CicbefdjintiJi.

10. Unfcrl'cbenfeoccrl'ocgcii
mitet)ri|1oin«0itnilc|n.(iiif
\io,^ roir an iennn iUlorgeii mil
it)moffenbnraii(l)fci;n,bat"''
l'eit)bicfer3eiMi?ci'beiii3icDltt

lauicr ^reuD.

11. S)a GiDtl feiiicn ircmii
Rne(f)ienqcbeiin)iibDen&nn>
Den^eobn, unb Die ;?!i.'ieiij)«
®crc(J)tenf!iniinfnniibcn«ii;

qe^^Jbon; Dfl fiii'iPi'')f 7';
K« ettnar Jbn n-irb Icnj

iinintcDar.



FACSIMILE OF HYMN IN THE ZIONITISCHER WEYRAUCHS HUGEL.



20



Dominie Justus Falckner.



Anhang ox appendix. Thus in the edition of 173 1 it be-
came hymn No. 634, p. 769.

From the very outset the hymn came into extended use
in both Europe and America. It became a favorite hymn
with the so-called separatists, or dissenters from the
orthodox church, and was incorporated into their hymn-
books ; a prominent instance being the Davidsche Psalter
Spiel der Kinder Zions, Berlenburg, 1718. This was the



ZIONITISCHER

Otitr:

liDttpen geto,

D(f noA Sipoihcrtr ' JTunil labutiicKi
3jQU(^ ■ TOtrtf ju finCcn.

^rt Qll(rl(n tifbfiJ'^^iirtfungcn b(r in ffiOtX

St()(i[r9t(n €((lcn, rodift fiit m oidtr ant) manttttltj

gcrfllKtcn uno iKMiittn tlicDtrn aujgcbtlCU.

9llj barmnm

2)(r If^tf Kuff ?iu 6fm abmBmabt ^ca grop

fen (B^TtceB auf unttrfdjiiMiAc ITcife

trctflicb 0115 gt^rucfttuR i

Bum SitnH

Dtr in bfm SiNnB. ^'anSifchin ^TOdf • 't^nl aU

CiU ^f'n ItnKrqan) bee ^pnncu tript


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Online LibraryJulius Friedrich SachseJustus Falckner, mystic and scholar, devout Pietist in Germany, hermit on the Wissahickon, missionary on the Hudson : a bi-centennial memorial of the first regular ordination of an orthodox pastor in → online text (page 1 of 9)