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Julius Friedrich Sachse.

The wayside inns on the Lancaster roadside between Philadelphia and Lancaster online

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JULIUS Fr'^CHSE, LiTT.D.

Librarian, Masonic Temple, Philadelphia: Member of American Philosophical Society,

American Library Association, American Historical Association, International

Congres des Orientalistes, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, American

Jewish Historical Association, Pennsylvania-German Society,

Colonial Society of Pennsylvania, Quatuor Coronati,

London



SECOND EDITION



Lancaster, Pa.
1912



5 /^



Copyright, 191 5
By Julius F. Sachse



PRESS OF

THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANV

LANCASTER, PA.



FEB 19 1916



C€^



©JI,A4}S9J1



CONTENTS.

Page.

Foreword

Introduction 5-14

The Wayside Inns on the Lancaster Road-
side FROM Philadelphia to Lancaster 15-27

The Spread Eagle Tavern Near the 14

Milestone 28-43

The Warren Tavern Near the 20 Mile-
stone 44-77

The Blue Ball on the Old Road. The
Halfway House between the Schuyl-
kill AND THE BrANDYWINE 80-94

The Eleven Taverns formerly on the
Lancaster Turnpike between the
Eagle Tavern and the Paoli Inn. ... 9 5- 117

The General Paoli Tavern 11 8-149

The Green Tree in Willistown Township

Near the 19 Milestone 150-172

The " Ship " in West Whiteland Near the

27 Milestone 173-184

The "Sign of the White Horse," on the
Old Road 26 M. i Qr. 18 Perches
FROM THE Court House, Second and
Market Sts., Philadelphia 185-201

Index



FOREWORD.

A portion of this series of sketches of the old Wayside
Inns on the Lancaster roadside, was originally published
some thirty years ago in the Village Record, at West
Chester, the county seat of Chester County, one of the
three original Counties of Penn's Colony on the Delaware.
These papers gave a description of the old Inns on the
Lancaster turnpike, between the "Eagle" near the four-
teenth milestone and the old " Ship " Tavern near the
twenty-seventh milestone.

Many of these facts and incidents were gleaned from
time to time, by the writer while yet a lad, dating back
some sixty years or more, when an occasional Drove was
not an unusual sight, upon the neglected highway — and
some of the old Conestoga wagons, were still to be seen
under the wagon shed on an adjoining farm.

To these sketches, a list has been added of all the Old
Inns from the "Fish" at the Schuylkill Ferry to the
"Swan" at Lancaster. Illustrated with photographs by
the writer of such views of the Old Inns as were standing
as late as 1886.

In the year 19 12-13, these papers were printed as part
XXIII of the " Narative and Critical History of the Ger-
man Influence in the Settlement and Development of
Pennsylvania" in the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania-
German Society, and are now republished to meet a wide-
spread demand.



ILLUSTRATIONS.

A Scene on the Lancaster Turnpike Frontispiece. ^

The Buck Tavern facing page 1 7 ''^

The Red Lion " " 15/

The Blue Ball, Springhouse, Drove and Stage

averns 19

The Paoli, Four Views " " 20 . -

The General Washington " " 22

The Steamboat, Green Tree, General Jackson,

Toll Booth " " 24^

The Rising Sun " " 26v/

The Old Spread Eagle " " 28 -^

The Spread Eagle, Four Views " " 34 ^

The Ship Tavern, Mt. Vernon, two not Identified " " 38^

The Gallagherville, Gen. Wayne " " 42 ^

The Warren, Four Views " " 441-

The Half-Way, Swan, Sheaf, Ship " " 46 ^

The Cross Keys, State Arms, Sadsbury, Rainbow. " " 50 \/'
The Old Moscow, Mantua, The Latta Home-
stead, Gen. Wayne " " 54 1/

The Mt. Vernon, Washington, two not Identified " " 58 -^

Views between 43 and 45 Milestone " " 64 /

Lancaster in the Early Days " " 78

The Paoli " " 118

Home of Anthony Wayne " " 124 ;

John D. Evans " " I45 ^

Amish Mennonites of Lancaster Co " " 156 '^

Sergeant Andrew Wallace " " 166-

Camp Wayne " " 168

The Sign of the White Horse " " 185



J^^




THE WAYSIDE INNS ON THE
LANCASTER ROADSIDE.



N provincial or colonial days the
most important institution in
our commonwealth, next to the
church and school-house, was
the wayside inn. Scattered as
they were along the roadside
throughout the province they
were important beacons for the
weary traveller, as well as a
haven of rest and refreshment
for the sojourner, whether
farmer, drover, teamster or
traveller upon business or pleas-
ure bent. Many of these tav-
erns or inns became important
landmarks in both our social
and political history^, growing in the course of years from
the lowly log tavern, to the stately stone turnpike inn of
later years, in which important social functions were held.
In many instances they were also polling places, and the
meeting place of Masonic Lodges and similar organiza-
tions. Some also were favorite places for mass meetings

5




6 JFayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike.

and political rallies, where the candidates held forth, occa-
sions upon which the barrel of hard cider was ever in evi-
dence to slake the thirst of the prospective voter.

Many of these wayside inns in Pennsylvania became
known throughout the land for their good cheer, cleanli-
ness and hospitality. The hosts or landlords of these
houses of the better class were almost invariably Germans
or Pennsylvania-Germans, and the culinary department
was supervised by the wife of the innkeeper.

Everyone of these wives was a hausfrau in every sense
of the word. Upon her devolved not alone the culinary
department but the care and oversight of the whole estab-
lishment, except the bar, stable yard, and supervision of
the hostlers and reception of the guests, which fell to her
husband the landlord.

The meals at these inns, such as the Spread Eagle
and Warren presided over by the Pennsylvana-German
matron, as served were entirely different from the fare
set out in the houses kept by other nationalities, for
instance where in the other wayside inns, even of the
better sort, regular fare consisted of fried ham, cornbeef
and cabbage, mutton and beef stews and mush and
molasses, bread half rye and corn meal, with occasional
rump steak and cold meats, and tea. In these Pennsylva-
nia-German Inns we had such dishes as Kalbskopf (mock
turtle) soup redolent with the odor of Madeira; Sauer
braten a favorite dish of the Fatherland; Schmor braten
(beef a la mode) ; Spanferkel (sucking pig stuffed and
roasted) ; Kalbsbraten (roast veal filled) ; Hammehbraten
(roast mutton) ; Kuttlefleck (soused tripe spiced) ; Hinkel
pie (chicken pot pie) ; Apfelklose (apple dumplings) ;
Bratwurst (sausage) ; applecake, coffee cake with its coat-



Social Status of the Old Inns. *j

ing of butter, sugar and cinnamon, and many other dishes
unknown to their English competitors.

To conduct one of these stands in turnpike days required
quite as much executive ability as is required to manage
one of the pretentious hostelries of the present day. The
proprietors In many cases were men of intelligence and
prominence in the community; even members of Congress
and State Representatives are to be found among their
number.

So closely were the lines drawn between the classes of
the stage tavern and the wagoner, that no stage tavern
would on any account permit a teamster to put up there
for the night, for if It became known that a wagoner had
stopped there It would be considered a lasting disgrace
and would result In the loss of the better class of patrons.

From the earliest days In our history there were sharply
defined lines In these wayside Inns, as each class catered
for special custom. Thus those of the better class were
known as "stage stands," Inns where the travelling public
by stage stopped for refreshment, meals, and sometimes
rest over night. Here also the relays were changed.
Next In the scale came the "wagon stands," taverns
patronized by wagoners or teamsters : here they " put up "
for the night, feeding their tired teams, and In many cases
sleeping upon a bag of hay upon the floor of the bar-room
or barn. Another class were the " drove stands," where
special accommodations were to be had by the drovers
for their cattle, which were here watered, fed or pastured,
until they were again upon the hoof towards their desti-
nation. Lastly, come the lowest class of the passing
wayside inns, the "tap house," where the lowest class of
the passing or resident public was catered to. These
houses harbored such as none of the other classes would



8 JVayside Inns on Lancaster Turnpike.

entertain. The chief income of these "tap houses" came
from the sale of bad spirits or whiskey. They were
invariably kept by Irishmen.

In olden times all distances between cities and places
were computed from inn to inn. Thus by referring to
any old provincial almanac, tables like this will be found.



Copy of an old Distanxe Table giving a List of Taverns on the old
Lancaster Road or King's Highway, which was the Predecessor
OF the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike.



Philadelphia to

Colters Ferrj'

Black Horse

Merion Meeting

Three Tuns

The Buck

The Plough

Radnor Meeting

Mills Tavern

The Ball

Signe of Adr'l Warren

White Horse

Downing Mill

The Ship

The Wagon

John Miller at the Tun

Pequa Bridge

Dougles's Mill

WiddowCaldwells"Hat"...

John Vernon's

Conistoga Creek

Lancaster Court House



I

6

7

9

II

13
H
i6

19

23
26

33
34
41
47
4?
49
S3
60
64
66



Qts.



52
16

65
66
42
48

87
26
62
22
18

4
30

o

50
II

20
58
52
10



Another feature of these old inns of the days gone by
were their sign boards which swung and creaked in their
yoke, high upon a mast or pole set in the roadside. These
sign boards were all figurative and in some cases painted
by artists of note. The cause for the figurative feature
was twofold; first, they were more ornate and could be
better understood by the two different natlonalltes which



• Miles, quarters and perches.



Old Tavern Signs. 9

made up our population than signs lettered in either
German or English. Thus, take for Instance, " The Black
Bear"; a representation of this animal was known at
once to either German or Irishman, while the words
" Black Bear" would have troubled the former, while the
latter certainly never would have recognized his stopping
place If the sign board bore the legend: " Der Schwartze
Bar." Secondly, but few of the teamsters or wagoners,
irrespective of race, could read; nearly all had their orders
to stop at certain houses, and they knew them by the sign
board when they came to them. Then again, in some
cases the name of the subject would be different in the
High or Palatinate German dialect; thus, twelve miles
from Philadelphia, there was a wagon stand upon whose
sign board was painted a sorrel horse, and among the
English-speaking teamsters the inn was known by that
name; referring to a High German distance-table, we
find It scheduled as " Braunes Pfed," the "Brown Horse."
To the Palatinate wagoner, however, it was known as
" Der Fuchs," "The Fox." This was not an Isolated case,
the inn often receiving a nickname which eventually found
Its way into the local distance tables.

Many of these signs were of a homely character, such
as The Hat, The Boot, The Wagon, The Eagle, The
Lion, The Cat, The Turk's Head, etc.

The drove stands usually had signs pertinent to their
class of patrons, such as The Bull's Head, The Lamb,
The Ram's Head, The Swan (black or white) , etc.

The tap houses were known by such names as "The
Jolly Irishman," "Fox Chase," "The Fiddler," "The
Cat," etc.

The better class of inns or stage stands were usually
named after popular heroes, such as "The King of Prus-



lo JFaysidc Inns on Lancaster Turnpike.

sia," "St. George and the Dragon," "General Washing-
ton," "General Paoli," "Spread Eagle," and the "Indian
Queen." The names were sometimes changed, owing to
political changes; thus, one of the most noted taverns on
the Lancaster roadside, the "Admiral Warren," after the
Revolution had the coat on the figure of the sign board
changed from red to blue, and henceforth it was "The
General Warren," in honor of the hero of Bunker Hill.
Similar cases are upon record where the head of " King
George," after the struggle for Independence, w'as, by
aid of the painter's brush, metamorphosed into " George
Washington."

The highest development of the wayside inn was
reached when the Lancaster turnpike became the chief
highway and the model roadbed in the United States.

Pennsylvania merits unquestionably the praise of hav-
ing contracted the first stone turnpike in this country. It
led from Philadelphia to Lancaster, it was 62 miles long;
was commenced in 1792, and finished in 1794, at an
expense of $465,000, by a private company, and it
became the pattern for all subsequent hard roads in this
country.

Originally nine toll bars (" Schlagbaume ") were
erected between Philadelphia and Lancaster, at the fol-
lowing distances, beginning at two miles west of the Schuyl-
kill, viz., 2, 5, 10, 20, 293/^, 40, 493/


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Online LibraryJulius Friedrich SachseThe wayside inns on the Lancaster roadside between Philadelphia and Lancaster → online text (page 1 of 15)