K. V. (Kandadai Vaidyanatha) Subrahmanya Aiyer.

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In collecting and publishing these contributions
of his to periodicals from time to time, Mr. K. V.
Subrahmanya Aiyar has in my humble opinion done
a real service to students of South Indian History.
Though from the very nature of the contributions,
they are more or less discursive, yet they deal with
subjects of considerable interest to the student and
are the result of an assiduous and careful study
carried ou over many years mostly of epigraphic
evidence which of course constitutes the most reliable
basis for authentic history. The difficulties in the
way of arriving at correct conclusions on some of
the points involved must be obvious to all'who have
paid any attention to the kind of work such pioneers
as the author have to do under present circumstances.
Nevertheless it seems clear that Mr. Subrahmanya
Aiyar has endeavoured to avoid'starting novel theories
and tried to judge upon the evidence with a judicial
frame of mind. The paper on Ancient Dekhan Polity
is not only well worth reading but shows how the
author has been able to gather most valuable informa-
tion from the dry bones of lithic records and to give
us good glimpses into the actual life of the people at
different times during nearly the past 20 centuries in
this part of India. It is to be hoped that the
encouragement which this publication receives at
the hands of the public will make the author persevere
in the career of research which he has hitherto, so
well pursued.

APRIL, 1917.




THERE is a growing interest evinced in the
study of the ancient history of Southern India, and
the want of a book, based on the authority of trust-
worthy literature as well as the results of the latest
research, is keenly felt. It is hoped that this collec-
tion of historical sketches will meet the demand to
a certain extent.

Ancient Dekhan had a special charm about it
which is no longer in existence. Nature had kept it
for a long time free from foreign aggressions, due
mainly to its isolation and natural protection. Never
had its institutions, social or political, been interfered
with, prior to the waves of the Muharnraadan inva-
sions which took place in the 14th century and later.
Like the history of Greece and more especially of
Sparta, the annals of the people of the Ancient Dek-
han have an absorbing interest, which Is exclusively
its own. It has been my endeavour to present a
continuous narrative of some of the principal dynas-
ties of Southern India and to give a true picture of
the people and their kings. In doing so, it fell on
my way 'to piece together, the information obtained
from several sources and to clear up gaps. As much
as possible, pitfalls due either to speculation or to the
UBG of materials of doubtful value have been avoided.
To make each account complete in itself, certain
facts had to be repeated in more places than one.


In this volume, four dynasties have been dealt
with viz. the Pallava, Paudya, Chola and the Kaka-
tiya. It opens with the ancient history of Conjee-
varaiii in which an attempt has been made to show
the importance of the place in early times, to give a
more extended genealogy of its principal rulers i.e. the
Pallavas than has hitherto been supplied by scholars,
who have written on that dynasty of kings, and to
prove, by conclusive evidence, when and by whom they
were dispossessed for the first time of their kingdom
and the benefits which the country derived under their
sway. The early history of the Pandyas, not
having been attempted in full by any, is taken up
next. Here, the period of rule of many of the
kings mentioned in the Tamil literature has been
determined and they are assigned their proper places
in the pedigree furnished in copper-plates. The
commercial relationship of this ancient stock, in
the early centuries of the Christian era, with
the civilised nations of Europe, has been traced
mainly with the help of the coins discovered in
Southern India and the notices made by Roman
historians. Their history subsequent to the 10th
century A.D. has been worked out from contemporary
accounts principally that of the Cholas and it has
been brought up to the 17th century. In the history
of the Chdlas too, in spite of the fact that much has
been written about them, there remained big gaps
in the information about the kings that preceded the
Vijayalaya line and about those that ruled in the
interval between Parantaka I and Rajaraja I, The
latter is no doubt one of the very -puzzling chapters
of the South Indian history and it has proved an ass's

fBEFACE. ill

bridge to many an enquirer. The conflicting opinions
advanced so far have, therefore, been carefully
examined and the flaws in them pointed out. In
the fourth book is given a succinct account of the
Kakatiyas of Warraugal, who played an important
part in the political history of the Dekhan in the
13th and 14th century A.D. The last part deals
with ancient polity of the Dekhan and its interest,
it is impossible to over-estimate. It has all the
charms to requite the labours of any earnest enquirer
and could be more fully worked out.

In writing the following narrative, a definite
plan has been adopted viz. of fixing the genealogy
of each dynasty at the outset, mentioning the salient
features of each reign, determining the chronology
of the kings, showing the importance of such of the
events which had any far-reaching effect and tracing
the causes that led to the rise and decline of the


The sources of information are given either in
foot-notes or in the body of the book. For earlier
periods we have utilised the Singhalese chronicle
Mahawansa which is an invaluable guide to the
student of ancient Dekhan history. Whenever
lioman historians and foreign writers refer to the
activities of South Indian kings, they have been
made use of. Though mostly inscriptions had been
our loadstar in steering through our course, the light
shed by the Tamil classical works which-, as has
been very often said, compare favourably with the
fund of information bequeathed to the world by the
Chinese travellers, was found to be of immense service.


No student of Indian history can fail to profit by a
perusal of the accounts given by that master of
observation Hiuen Tsiang. This authority had been
consulted to know the character and pursuits of the
people. For the later history of the Pandyas and the
Kakatiyas, much useful material had been obtained
from the writings of the Muhammadan historians as
presented by Sir Henry Elliot in his eight volumes,
Brigg's Ferishta and from the account of Morco Polo.
Last but not least, it remains to acknowledge the
help derived from the Bombay Gazetteer and the
Annual Reports on Epigraphy, especially those from
the pen of the late Rai Bahadur Venkayya.

I beg to tender my best thanks to Prof. S. J.
Crawford, the editor of the Christian College
Magazine, for kindly permitting the reproduction of
Books I, II and IV which originally appeared in that
Journal and to the proprietor of the Modern
Printing Works for the neat execution of the work.
I have often received sincere words of encouragement
from the venerable gentleman Dr. Sir S. Subramanya
Aiyar to whom I always feel grateful.

The most tedious part of the work viz. the pre-
paration of an exhaustive index to the book, which
covers the last few pages, devolved on -my brother Mr.
K. V. Padmanabier, B.A., who helped me also in check-
ing the references and fair copying the manuscript.



1st February, 1017.)


Section. Page.

i. The antiquity of Conjeevaram ... ... 1

ii, The Pallavas ... ... ... 15

iii. Genealogy of the Pallavas ... ... 25

iv. An account of the kings ... ... 34

v. Later Pallavas and Cholas .. ... 50

vi. Muhammadan occupation of Kanchi ... 64

vii. Conjeevaram under the Vijayanagara Kings ... 67


i. Sources ... ... ... ... 73

ii. Eeferences to the Pandyas in early works ... 76

Buddhism in the Pandya country ... ... 80

iii. Eoman intercourse with South India ... 82

iv. Tamil classical works and their historical value 91

v. Genealogy of the early Pandyas ... ... 99

vi. Pandya kings up to the 7th century A.D. ... 105

Identity of Malakuta with Milalai-kurram ... 115

vii. Pandya kings from A.D. 770 to 900 ... . . 135

viii. Ditto from A.D. 900 to 1200 ... ... 143

ix. Pandya expansion in the 13th and 14th centuries 164

x. Chronology of the later Pandyas ... ... 175


i. Introductory ... ... .. 183

ii. Earlier ChoUs, Manu-Chola, Senganrian, Kari-

kala, Killi and an extract from Pattinappalai ... 185

iii. Chdlas (7th century to the 9th) ... ... 204


Section. Page.

iv. Reigns of Vijayalaya, Aditya I and Parantaka 1 209
v. Thirty- three years' rule of the Chola dominion

(953 to 985) ... ... ... 222

vi. Expansion of the Choja dominion (985 to 1070) ... 244


i. Introductory ... ... ... 267

ii. Genealogy of the Kakatlyas ... ... 274

(An account of the kings, Beta, Prola II, Rudra,
Mahadeva, Ganapati, Rudramba and Pratapa-

rudra ... ... ... ... 276

iii. Decline of the Kakatlyas ... ... 305


i. Introductory ... ... ... 311

ii. Administration ... ... ... 312

iii. The temple ... ... ... 328

iv. Charitable endowments and taxation ... 339

iv (a) Misappropriation of charitable endowments. ... 345

v. Profession and trade tax ... ... 347

vi. Land assessment ... ... ... 350

vii. Sale of lands ... ... ... 355

viii. Survey and settlement ... ... ... 357

ix. Territorial divisions, boundary-marks etc. ... 360

x. Formation of villages and towns ... ... 362

xi. Irrigation ... ... ... ... 365

xii. Officers and their duties... ... ... 371

ziii. Weights and measures ... ... ... 374

xiv. Coins and ornaments 377

Some ancient customs ... ... ... 384

Aryan colonization of the Dekhau ... ... 388

Index 395





ONE of the most ancient cities of Southern India,
which retains at the present day part at least of its
past greatness, is Conjeeveram in the Chingleput
district 1 . Every school boy knows that it is a chief
centre of pilgrimage in the Dekhan resorted to by a
large concourse of people of both the Vaishnava and
Saiva creeds. Unlike Madura, Uraiyur 2 and Cran-
ganore 3 , the capitals of the Pandya, Chola and
Chera sovereigns, this city which was once the capital

1 Conjeeveram is 43 miles south-west of Madras and 20
miles west-norbh-wesb of Chinglepub (Sewell's Lists of Antiquities,
Vol. I., p. 146) wibh which ib is connecbed by bhe Soubh Indian

2 The Cholas had several capibals ab differenb periods of
their rule and Uraiyur is one among bhem. The inscripbions
found in this village do uobbake us bo a period earlier bhan the
llth century, A.D. The place is said bo have been destroyed
by a shower of sand. The other capibals are Kavirippumpattinam
now known as Kaverippattanam in the Shiyali taluk, Tanjore,
Gangaikondasolapuram, etc.

3 This is Tiruvanjaikkalam, 10 miles east of Ponnani in the
Cochin Stabe. There- is a Siva temple in this village,


of the Paliavas abounds in structural monuments
of early ages containing a very large number of
lithic records from which it is possible to make out
its history from the earliest times 1 .

If any city of Southern India has a claim to our
study on account of its antiquarian interest, Conjee-
veram is pre-eminently one among them 2 . The
time-honoured sculptural monuments enshrined in
the city show to some extent the importance of the
place ; and there is not the least doubt that in its
entrails lie hidden more interesting specimens of
olden times awaiting tlie application of the explorer's
spade to come into view. When the city rose into
prominence, how many dynasties of kings ruled over
it, what vicissitudes of life it witnessed and the degree
of civilisation it reached in the past, are questions
whose solution would interest any student of ancient

The place is variously called Kachchippedu,
Kachchi, Kanchi, Kanchipuram and Kanchi. The
form Kachohippedu 3 of which Kachchi * is a

1 No less than 283 inscriptions have been collected by Sir
Walter Elliot from Conjeeveram. Mr. Sewell who notices them,
remarks that they do not exhaust the number of epigraphs in
the place (Lists of Antiquities Vol. I., pp. 178 to 187).

2 Buddhism, Jainiem, Saivism and Vaishnavism, each in its
turn had powerful hold on the city and have left unmistakable
marks of their influence.

3 South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I., pp. 113, 114, 117, 139,
141 and 143.

4 Inscriptions of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III state
that he took Kachchi and Tanjai. Sir Walter Elliot figures a coin
which bears the legend Kachchi-valangum-peruman. Kulottunga-


contraction, occurs in early inscriptions and is
perhaps the fullest and the most original. Both
Kachchi and Kanchi find place in Tamil works
composed in the middle of the 7th century, A. D. 1 .
The popular form Kanchi 2 is an authorised change
from Kachchi obtained by softening the hard con-
sonant. Kanchi is a further change from Kanchi and
is derived by the lengthening of the initial short
consonant. These changes are supported by rules of
Tamil grammar 3 . We may also note here the opinion
of some that Kanchi is the Sanskritised form of the
name Kachchippedu 4 . Dr. Burnell gave out that the
Sanskrit Kanchi is a mis-translation of the Dravidian
Kanchi 5 . Varaharnihira locates Kanchi in the
southern division 6 ; and Hiuen Tsiang calls this
Kin~clii-pulo and states that it was the capital of
Ta-lo-pi-cha, i- e., Dravida, and that it was 30 li
round 7 .

Some of the early records omit to give the name
of the district in which the town was situated. They

Choja III claims to have captured Kachchi in one of his inscrip-
tions at Tirukoilur (No. 2 of the Madras Epigraphical collection,
for 1905. Also see Ep. Ind., Vol. III., pp. 284-5).

1 See the hymns of Tirunavukkarasu-Nayanar, and
Jnanasambandha on the temples of Conjeeveram.

2 The temple of Tirukkamakkottam (Kamakotyambika)
is popularly called Kanchi Kamakshi.

3 For these changes see Nanmd PunariyaL

4 Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I., Part II., p. 318, Note 3.
3 South Indian Palaeography, Ix. note 2.

6 Ind. Ant., Vol. XII., pp, 171 and 180.

7 Beal's & yu ki, Vol. II,, p. 22b.


mention only the larger division Tundaka-Visha-
ya l . It may be noted that this term had several
variants, viz., Tondira, Tundira, Tonda, Tondai,
etc 2 . The Tamil equivalent of it is Tondai -manda-
lam. Twenty-four districts called Kottam were
comprised in this division 3 and Kanchipuram

1 South Ind. Inscrs., Vol. I., p. 146.

2 Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I., Part II., p. 318. where Dr.
Fleet gives references to the places where these forms occur.

3 The Tamil work Tondamandalasadakam states that
Tonda-mandalam was divided into 24 kottams. Mr. Kanakasabai
Pillai, in his Tamils 1800 Years Ago, names these districts as
follows :

(1) Pulat-kdttam. (2) Ikkattu-kottam, (3) Manavir-kdttam,
(4) Sengattu-kottam, (5) Paiyur-kottam, (6) Eyil-kottam, (7)
Damal-kottam, (8) Urrukkattu-kottam, (9) Kalattur-kottam,
(10) Sembur-kottam, (11) Ambur-kdttam, (12) Venkunra-kot-
tam, (13) Palakunra-kdttam, (14) Ilangadu-kottam, (15) Kali-
vur-kottam, (16) Chemkarai, fl7) Paduvur-kottam, (18) Kadi-
kur, (19) Sendirukkai, (20) Kunravatfcana-kottam, (21) Ven-
gada-kottam, (22) Volur-kottam, (23) sethoor and (24) Puliyur-
kottam. Here is an interesting question of ancient geography for
study. Except a few of these kottams, the rest are all mention-
ed in inscriptions. Each of them appears to have had a number
of sub-divisions called nadu under it. Ambattur-nadu and Pulal-
nadu were in Pulal-kottam. The fact that TiruvoV.P.iyur W as
situated in Pulal-nadu, roughly indicates where this district lay.
Puribai-nadu, Kanrur-nadu, Kunrur-nadu and Palaiyanur-nadu
were some of the sub-divisions in ManaviF-kottam. Since Tiru-
valangadu was a chief place in Palaiyanur-nadu, the country
round about that place should have been in Man.avir-kottam.
Maganur-nadu was a sub-division in sengattu-kottam. Paiyur-
kottam, also known as Paiyur-llangottam, had in ic Tekkur-nadu
in which the modern village of Satyavedu fPonneri taluk) was
situated. The city of Kanchiwas in Eyil-kottam. The modern
villages of Damal and tjrr.ukkadu in the Chingleput district,


was the principal town in one of them, viz.,
Eyil-kottam l . During the time of the Chola king
Rajaraja I, i.e., at the commencement of the llth cen-
tury A. D., the name Tondai-niandalam was changed
into Jayangonda-Chola-niandalam after one of the
surnames of that king and it was hy this latter name
the territory was known for several centuries, i. e.,
until the Vijayanagara times 2 . But it may be said
that though the original names of villages, districts
and sub-divisions of a country underwent changes at
different periods in the history of their existence and
were known sometimes by the two names and at other
times exclusively by the new names the original names

ought fco have been chief places in ancient times in the divisions
which bear their names. Valla-nadu was a sub-division in
Damal-kottam, while Velima-nadn, Kunra-nadu and Damanur-
nadu were some of the territorial divisions included in tjrruk-
kattu-kdttam. The country round Tirukkalukkunram was com-
prised in Kalattur-kottam which had in it Paidavur-nadu, Ka-
lattur-nadu and Sengunra-nadu. From the inscriptions of
Paramesvaramangalam we know that it was a village in Sembur-
kottam. And from other records we learn that Amur-nadu,
Kumili-nadu and Paduvur-nadu were in Amur-kottam and that
Mangalur-nadu and Vattiya-nadu were in Kuuravattana-kottam.
Vengada-kottam must be the country near the Tirupati hill.
Madras and its suburban villages were situated in Puliyur-
kottam. Among the sub-divisions of this district are mentioned
Kottur-nadu, Nedungunra-nadu, Mangadu-nadu and Surattur-

1 South Ind. Inscrs. Vol. I., p. 125.

2 Inscriptions earlier than the time of Kajaraja I mention
the territorial division Tondai-mandalam and it is only in the
latter part of the reign of Bajaraja I, that the other name
Jayangonda-ChoJa-mandalam came to be applied to it.


survived to the very last while the intermediate ones
died out completely 1 . We have an instance of this in
the name Tondai-mandalarn and its later equivalent

v O *

References to this aucietit city are nob wanting.
The facts connected with the place incline one to
the belief that from the earliest times it was a strong-
hold of people of various religions. From the
Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, we learn that as
far back as the 5th century B. C. when Tathagatha,
i. e., Buddha was living in this world he frequented
this country much ; he preached the law here and
converted men ; and, therefore, Asokaraja built stupas
over all the sacred spots where these traces exist.

1 When the Chdlas had permanently conquered or annexed
the dominions of other kings, they appear to have given, in addition
to the original namas of villages, districts and sub-divisions,
new designations called after their own names and sur-names or
those of their ancestors. This innovation was first started in Pal-
lava times. The re-naming of places was not necessarily effect-
ed after a conquest or an annexation, though that was certainly
one of the many occasions when it seems to have been done.
There was a general tendency among the (Hiola kings to change
the existing names of all places situated within their territory
and call them after the names of Chola kings. This was perhaps
done to mark out the places by their very names as belonging to
the Cholas. Some of the later members of the family further
altered the new names and thus we have several surnames for a
single place. A proper study of these names alone affords a clue
to find out the surnames of Chola kings. The survival of the
original names and complete effacement of the intermediate ones,
may be accounted for by the fact that it is the former that find
place in literature, in preference to the latter.


Kanchipura was the Dative place of Dharmapala
Bhodisatva who assumed the robes, of a recluse and
attained brilliant reputation 1 . To the south, of the
city, not a great way off, is a large sangharama
frequented by men of talent and learning and there
is a stupa about 100 ft high built by Asokaraja 2 .
At best we can only regard this account of the
pilgrim as a record of what the people of Conjeeveram
had to say in the 7th century A- D., concerning the
origin of Buddhism in the place. But even as re-
presenting the belief or tradition of the 7th century,
the reference is certainly valuable. The truth of the
pilgrim's account cannot be assumed without sub-
jecting it to scrutiny. We. are not in a position to
test the correctness of the first part of the statement
which connects Buddha with Kanchi. As Buddhism
does not appear to have made any real progress in
the south during the lifetime of its founder, we are
inclined to think that the statement is not grounded
on solid fact. But it is not improbable that at the
time of Asoka, Buddhist stupas came to be erected at
Conjeeveram. Though the edicts of Asoka do not
include the capital of Dravida among the places to
which he sent missionaries, the Singhalese chroni-
cle MaJiawansa gives a long list of countries to
which 'Buddhist apostles were sent by the Maurya
emperor 3 . Some of these countries are in the neigh-
bourhood of Dravida. An inscription of Asoka has

1 Seal's Si yu lei Vol. II., p. 229.

2 Ibid,, p. 230.

3 Wijesinha's translation, p. 116f. See also the author's
paper on the origin and decline of Buddhism and Jainism in
Southern India in Ind. Ant. Vol. XL.


been discovered at Siddhapura in the Mysore State,
the ancient Mabishamandala l . The countries of
the Pandya, Chola and Keralaputra, where Buddhism
found votaries at the time of Asoka, are not far off
from Conjeeverarn. It will not be a wild conjecture,
therefore, to suppose that some of the missionaries
to these parts exercised their influence at Conjee-
verarn as well and were instrumental in building the
monasteries and stupas referred to by Hiuen Tsiang.
That Conjeevaram had in early days a large number
of sangharamas and mendicants of high order, is also
learnt from the Tamil work Manimegalai which states
that at the time when the Chola capital Kavirippum-
pattinam was destroyed by the encroachment of the
sea, the inhabitants of that place removed to Coajee-
verarn and changed their faith to Buddhism 2 . We are
here informed that Ilankilli, the brother of the Chola
king Todukalar-killi also built a big Buddhist monas-
tery at Conjeeverarn 3 . The book completely bears
testimony to the pilgrim's words that there were some
hundreds of sangharamas and 10,000 priests at the

1 References in ancient Tamil literature to Erumaiyur,
show that it is identical with he present Mysore State. Erumai-
yur is an exact rendering of Mahishamandala. The thera
Majjhantika was deputed to Kasmira and Gandara, the them
Mahadeva to Mahishamandala, the thera Eakkita to Vanavasi,
the thera Yona-Dhammarikkita to Aparantaka, the thera Maha-
Dhammarakkita to Maharatta, the thera Maharakkita to the
Yona country, the thera Majjhima to the Himavanta, the two
theras Soma and Uttara to Suvanna-bhumi and the thera
Maha-Mahinda together with Moggali's disciples to Lanka.

2 See Canto 28.

3 Annual Report of the Director- General of Archceology in
India for 1906-07, p. 220,


time of his visit i e , in the middle of the 7th century

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