Kan.) Mounted Service School (Fort Riley.

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THE ARMY HORSE



IN



ACCIDENT AND DISEASE



A MANUAL

PREPARED FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS OF THE

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR FARRIERS

AND HORSESHOERS

BY THE

TRAINING SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS
1909



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Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at
Tufts University
200 Westboro Road
North Grafton, MA 01536



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THE ARMY HORSE



IN



ACCIDENT AND DISEASE

EDITION: 1909



A MANUAL PREPARED FOR THE USE OF
STUDENTS OF THE TRAINING SCHOOL
FOR FARRIERS AND HORSESHOERS BY
THE TRAINING SCHOOL INSTRUCTORS



MOUNTED SERVICE SCHOOL
FORT RILEY, KANSAS



MILITARY PUBLISHING CO.

42 BROADWAY

New York



PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION, 1906.



This manual, as originally compiled l)y Alexander Plummer, D. V. S., veterinarian
Fourth Cavalry, and Richard H. Power, V. S., veterinarian Artillery Corps, was pub-
lished in 1903. In this edition the work has been revised by the compilers, assisted
by Charles 11. Jewell, D. V. M., veterinarian, Thirteenth Cavalry, and Capt. Geo. H.
Cameron, Fourth Cavalry, secretary.

Matter from the companion text-book, '"The Army Horseshoer," has been substi-
tuted in several places for that of the original.

An original chapter on Tropical Diseases, by Veterinarian Jewell, and many illus-
trations from photographs and drawings, have been added.

Captain Cameron, in addition to his work on the revision of the text, made the
original drawings and prepared the others for reproduction. His valuable assistance
is here acknowledg(?d.

The greater part oi the photographic work was done by First Lieut. S. B. Pearson,
Ninth Cavalry.

The arrangement of tlie text has been adapted to the course of practical instruction,
and the language, as far as possible, to study by men who, as a rule, have had limited
educational advantages.

, School of Application for Cavalry and Field Artillery,
Fort Kilt'!/, Kans., Decernhrr JO, 1905.



PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION, 1909.



In this edition- a few errors of plates and text have been corrected, and certain
parts of the text have been rewritten as the result of the class room experience of the
instructors, \'eterinarian Alexander Plummer, Fourth Cavalry, and Veterinarian
Charles II. Jewell, Sixth Field Artillery (horse).

A chapter on Age by the Teeth, compiled by the secretary, First Lieut. Robert M.
Danford-, Fifth Field Artillery, has been added. Plate IX has been redrawn and
Plate XIX, prepared by Capt. Geo. H. Cameron, P'ourth Cavalry, assistant comman-
dant.

Mounted Service School,

Fort BUey, Kans., Jubj .W, 1909.

3



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.



BcEEAU OP Animal Industry: Special Report on Diseases of the Horse.
Cadiot: a Treatise on Veterinary Therapeutics of the Domestic Animals.
Chauvbau: Comparative Anatomy of Domesticated Animals.
Dun: Veterinary Medicines, Their Actions and Uses.
Fleming: Operative Veterinary Surgery.

Friedburger and Frohner: Pathology and Therapeutics of the Domestic Animals.
GouBAUx AND Barrier: The Exterior of the Horse. (Translation.)
Law: Veterinary Medicine.
Liautard: Manual of Veterinary Surgery.
Moller: Operative Veterinary Surgery. (Translation.)
Neumann: Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of the Domesticated Animals.
Quitman : Notes on Veterinary Medicine.
Smith: Veterinarj' Hygiene.
Smith: A Manual of Veterinary Physiology.
Strangeway: Veterinary Anatomy.

Williams: Principles and Practice of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery.
Winslow: Materia Medica.
Wyman: Diagnosis of Lameness in the Horse.
4



CONTENTS,



Chapter I.— Conformation and Points. Defects and Blemishes.
II.— Stable Management of the Sick and Injured.

III.— Anatomy.

IV.— Administration of Medicines. Weights and Measures.
v.— Wounds, Sprains, Bruises, Abrasions, and Abscesses.
VI -Diseases of the Respiratory System and Influenza.
VIL-DisEASES of the Digestive, Urinary, Nervous, and Lymphatic

Systems.
VIII.— Miscellaneous Diseases.
IX.— Diseases of the Skin and Eye.
X. — Diseases qf the Feet.

XI. - Diseases of Bone and Detection of Lameness.
XII. — Age by the Teeth.
XIII.— Tropical Diseases.
XIV.— Medicines, Their Actions and Uses. ^



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Frontispiece. — Attendance at operation.
Plate I. — Points of the horse.
II. — The horse in slings.
III. — Skeleton of the horse.
IV. — Muscles and tendons of the horse.

V. — Respiratory apparatus.
VI. — Digestive apparatus.
VII.— Circulatory apparatus.
VIII. — Section of the eye.
IX. — Section of the hoof and pastern.

X. — Fig. 1, Curb. Fig. 2, Bursal enlargement. Fig. 3, Sprain of the flexor
tendons (bowed tendons). Fig. 4, Line firing. Fig. 5, Capped hock.
XI.— Fig. 1, Fistulous withers. Fig. 2, Poll evil.
XII. — Characteristic symptoms of spasmodic colic.
XIII. — Lymphangitis.
XIV. — Purpura hemorrhagica.
XV.— Farcy.
XVI.— Tetanus.
XVII.— Grease.
XVIII.— Fig. 1, Sidebone. Fig. 2, Ringbone. Fig. 3, Bone spavin. Fig. 4, Splint.

XIX. — Longitudinal section and cross sections of lower incisor.
XlXa. — Surra: characteristic swellings.
XX. — Surra parasite.
XXI. — Chronic epizootic lymphangitis (tropical).

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THE ARMY HORSE IN ACCIDENT AND DISEASE.



CHAPTER I.



CONFORMATION AND POINTS— DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES.

CONFORMATION AND POINTS.
(Plate I.)

The forehead should be broad and not bulging; the eyes full, clear,
and prominent, with a mild expression, and not showing any of the
white; the muzzle not too large, as a coarse, large muzzle indicates
ill breeding; the nostrils large and open; the face straight; and the
lower jaw with ample width between the two sides, for the develop-
ment and play of the larynx (Adam's apple) and windpipe, and, in
addition, to allow the head to be nicely bent on the neck.

The ears should be of medium size, set well on the head and held
erect.

The parotid and submaxillary regions should be free from large
glands and without any loose skin at the lower part of the throat.

The neck should be of moderate length, clean and not too narrow
at a point just in rear of the throat; a short, thick neck does not allow
of free movement from side to side, and a long, slim neck is apt to be
too pliable. A neck with concave upper border, known as "ewe
neck" is unsightly. The jugular channel or furrow should be free
from enlargements. The point of the shoulder should be well devel-
oped. The point of the elbow should not be turned in, as the horse
in that case is apt to turn his toes out; the opposite conformation
results in the condition called "pigeontoed."

The forearm should be long and muscular; the knee broad, and
when looked at from the front, much wider than the limb above and
below, but tapering off backward to a comparatively thin edge. A
bending of the knee backward is called a "calf knee," and is very ob-
jectionable. The opposite condition isJcnown as "knee sprung."

The cannon should be of uniform size; if smaller just below the
knee than elsewhere (a condition called "tied in"), weakness is to be
expected.



10 THE ARMY HORSE IN ACCIDENT AND DISEASE.

The fetlock joint should be of good size and clean; the pasterns of
moderate length, and forming an angle of between 45 and 50 degrees
with the ground or floor.

The foot should be of moderate size; a flat foot or one too narrow
at the heels is objectionable.

The relative proportions of the shoulders and the exact shape de-
sirable vary considerably in cavalry and artillery horses. Thus, when
speed and activity are essential, as in the cavalry horse, the shoulder
should be oblique (sloping), as this shape gives elasticity to the gait
of the horse. For the artillery horse, working in harness, a more up-
right shoulder bears the pressure of the collar more evenly, and when
the collar is at right angle to the traces the horse exerts his strength
to the greatest advantage. The front line of the shoulder must be
clearly marked; an irregular surface or excessive muscular develop-
ment in the region marked A (Plate I) prevents a = lose fit of the
collar.

The withers should not be thin and high, as this conformation will
allow the saddle to slip too far forward and the pommel will rest upon
the withers. The bars of the saddle will be forced against the shoulder
blades, causing irritation and inflammation, and preventing free mo-
tion of the shoulders; the constraint causes stumbling. On the other
hand, the withers should not be low or thick, as the saddle is then
apt to pinch them.

The breast and chest should be of moderate width and have con-
siderable depth; the narrow chest indicates weakness, and the wide,
heavy chest is suitable for heavy-draft horses only.

The capacity of the lungs is marked by the size of the chest at the
girth, but the stamina will depend upon the length of the back ribs.
The barrel should not be broad back of the cinch, as it would cause
the cinch to slip forward and chafe the body just back of the point
of the elbow. The opposite conformation would allow the saddle and
cinch to sUp backward. The back should be short, with muscles well
developed, and the upper lines of the back bending down a little be-
hind the withers and then swelling out very gently to the junction of
the loins, which can hardly be too broad and muscular.

The last rib should be placed close to the point of the hip, as this
is an indication of strength, and the horse is more easily kept in good
condition than one having the opposite conformation.

A slightly arched loin is essential to the power of carrying weight;
the concave or "sway-back" is therefore a sign of weakness; the
much arched or ' ' roach back ' ' is almost sure to give uneasy action from
its want of elasticity.

The hips should be broad, smooth, and muscular.

The croup shouW be well rounded, should slope slightly downward
and be of moderate length; both the straight, horizontal croup and



DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES. 11

the drooping croup are unsightly; when the croup droops and also
becomes narrow below the tail, the conformation is known as "goose
rump " and is a sign of weakness.

The dock should be large and muscular; the tail carried firmly and
well away from the quarters.

The quarter (thigh and buttock) and gaskin should be broad.
The muscles of the two quarters should come close together, leaving
no hollow below the anus; the widely separated conformation is an
indication of a want of constitution.

The hock should be of good size, but clean and flat, and with a
good clean point standing clear of the joint. The two hocks should
stand well apart, but not enough to give the horse the appearance
of being "bow-legged." "Cow-hocked," so called, is when the
hocks stand close together and the hind feet wide apart, with the toes
turned out.

If the hocks stand in, it will be noticed that the stifles stand out,
and the reverse. "Straight hock" and "crooked hock" are terms
used to express the shape of the hind leg as seen from the side; both
shapes are objectionable. "Sickle hock" describes the curve which
results from a crooked bock, a short cannon, and a sloping pastern.

The cannon should be short, not tied in below the hock, and the line
from the point of the hock to the back part of the fetlock should be
straight.

The fetlock when bent forward is an indication of weakness known
as "cocked ankle." The hind fetlocks, pasterns, and feet should
correspond to those of the fore extremity, but the pasterns are usually
more upright.

DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES.

Defects and blemishes are those results of injuries (more or less
severe) which show on the outside of the body. They are regarded
as external diseases, and may be classed as follows:

1 . Diseases of bones.

2. Diseases of synovial membranes.

3. Diseases of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and skin.

4. Diseases of the foot.

1 . Diseases of hones.

Bone spavin. — Location : Lower and inner part of the hock joint.

Splints. — Location: Usually appearing on the inner side of the
upper third of the front cannon ; occasionally found on the outer side
of the upper third of the hind cannon.

Sidebones (ossification of lateral cartilages). — Location: Sides of
the foot just above the coronet.

Ringbone. — Ix)cation: Between coronet and fetlock joint.



12 THE ARMY HORSE IN ACCIDENT AND DISEASE.

2. Diseases of synovial meTinbranes.

Bog spavin. — Location: Front part of hock joint.

Thorough-'pin. — Location: Upper and back part of hock joint.

Wind puffs (windgalls) . — Location: On the sides of the tendons
just above the fetlock joints.

Other bursal enlargements (distended synovial sacs or pouches)
may be found located on various parts of the legs, but no special
name has been given to them.

3. Diseases of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and sTcin.

Poll mZ.-^Location : In the region of the poll.

Fistulous withers. — Location: In the region of the withers.

Sweeny (atrophy or wasting of the muscles). — Location: Usually
in the shoulder or the hip.

Brolcen knees. — Location: Front part of the kneejoint.

Capped elbow. — Location : Point of the elbow.

Capped ^oc^.— Location : Point of the hock.

Curb. — Location: Lower and back part of the hock.

Sprung Jcnees. — Location : Ejiees.

Cocked ankles. — Location: Fetlock joints.

Bowed tendons. — Location: Flexor tendons below the knee and
hock.

Breakdown. — Location: Sprain of the suspensory ligament.

Saddle galls. — Location: On the saddle bed.

Cinch galls. — Location: On the parts coming in contact with the
cinch.

Collar galls. — Location: On the parts coming in contact with the
collar.

J).. Diseases of the foot.

Thrush. — Location: Frog.

Canker. — Location : Frog and sole.

Chronic laminitis. — Location : Sensitive laminae.

Com. — Location: Between the wall and bar.

False quarter and quarter crack. — Location: Quarters of the hoof.

Quittor. — Location : Top of the coronet.

Contracted heels. — Location: Heels.

Toe cracks. \ j^^ation: At the toe of the hoof.
Seedy toe. ) /



CHAPTER II.



STABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE SICK AND INJURED.

CARE OF THE SICK.

The sick horsiB should, if practicable, be immediately removed to a
large, clean, light and well-ventilated box stall, free from drafts and
located as far as possible from other horses. Clean bedding should
be provided, and the stall kept free from manure and moisture. If
such a stall can not be provided a double stall, with the kicking bar
removed and ropes or bars placed across the front of it, will answer
the purpose.

If the patient is suffering from a febrile disease (fever) during the
cold season of the year, paulins or horse covers can be hung up in such
a nianner as to serve as a protection from drafts, care being taken to
allow sufficient air to enter this improvised box stall. Such patients
must be clothed according to the season of the year, the blanket
drawn well forward on the neck and fastened in front, the legs, after
hand-rubbing, bandaged with red flannels. The bandages should be
changed several times daily, and the legs thoroughly rubbed to stimu-
late circulation.

Horses with diseases of the nervous system require to be kept
absolutely quiet, and must be removed as far as possible from all
noise. It is preferable that only one man be allowed to attend to
their wants, as a change of attendants would very likely cause excite-
ment and thus increase the severity of the disease. Animals suffering
from debilitating diseases should be tempted with and fed any food
that is rich in nourishment and easily digested. Salt should fre-
quently be added. The food, etc., should be given only in such
quantities as the animal will readily eat, and any portion left over
should be at once removed, as food constantly placed before a sick
animal will have a tendency to deprive it of all appetite. Food that
is wet, such as bran mashes or steamed oats, will soon sour in warm
weather and will get cold or may freeze during the winter; if eaten
in these conditions it may cause diarrhea, colic, etc. Feed boxes,
water buckets, and all parts of the stall must be kept clean and free

13



14 THE ARMY HORSE IN ACCIDENT AND DISEASE.

from odor. The hay should be clean and bright, and only the best
given to the sick animal. Pure water should be provided, and placed
in such a position as to enable the animal to reach it without difficulty;
a sick horse will frequently rinse the lips and mouth with water if
given the opportunity, even when not thirsty. The water should be
changed as often as necessary during the day to insure a pure and
f resb supply at all times.

A horse suffering from colic requires sufficient space, well bedded,
to prevent injuring himself by rolling during a spasm of pain. A
man should be constantly in attendance, as there is danger that the
animal may become cast and be unable to get up without assistance.

Undigested matter being the exciting cause in almost all cases of
colicj food should be withheld for about twelve hours after all pain
has disappeared, and then given only in small quantities during the
next twenty-four hours, after which the ordinary ration may be re-
sumed. A few swallows of pure water may be given at short intervals,
but special care must be taken when the water is very cold.

The pulse is the beating of the arteries, usually felt at the jaw (the
submaxillary artery), and is an important guide in determining the
physical condition of the animal; the normal pulsations are about 40
per minute. The count is best taken by placing the fore or middle
finger transversely on the artery. The slightest excitement, when
the horse is sick, will cause an alteration in the pulse; therefore the
animal should be approached very quietly. A strong and full pulse
is an indication of health.

In the first stages of fever the pulse is full and bounding, after-
wards becoming small and weak. A very slow pulse denotes disease
or injury of the brain or spinal cord. An imperceptible pulse indi-
cates the approach of death.

At rest the healthy horse breathes from 13 to 15 times per minute.
Difficult or rapid breathing is a prominent symptom of disease of the
respiratory organs ; it may also be observed in some cases of flatulent
colic. Abdominal breathing is the respiratory movement performed
with the ribs fixed as much as possible, owing to pain or mechanical
obstruction in the chest, and is a symptom of pleurisy and hydro-
thorax (water in the chest).

Irregular breathing is that condition where there is a want of
harmonious correspondence between the inspiratory and expiratory
movements, and is observed in the disease commonly known as
"broken wind" or "heaves." The inspiratory movement in this
affection is performed quickly and with jerky effort, while the expi-
ratory movement is performed slowly and with a double action,
more particularly of the abdominal muscles. Irregular breathing
often becomes spasmodic or convulsive during the progress of the
disease. The condition and color of the visible mucous membranes



STABLE MANAGEMENT OF SICK AND INJURED. 15

should be closely observed ; as will be learned in detail later, they are
an important guide in determining the physical condition of the
animal.

The normal temperature of the horse in the internal part which
is most easily accessible, the rectum, may be estimated at from 99°
to 101° F. In ver}'^ young animals the temperature is commonly
about 101°, but in very old ones it has been known to be as low as
96° F. The temperature of the external parts of the body becomes
lower according to their distance from the heart, and liable to much
vr.riation from the state of the surrounding atmosphere. Fever is
an elevation of temperature.

The production of animal heat is due to certain chemical and vital
changes which are continually taking place in the body ; these changes
consist in the absorption of oxygen by the capillaries in the lungs, and
the combination of that oxygen with the carbon and hydrogen derived
(first) from the disintegration of animal tissues and (second) from cer-
tain elements of the food which have not been converted into tissue.

This combination with oxygen, or oxidation, not only takes place
in the blood, which may be looked upon as a fluid tissue, but in the
tissue cells also, in all parts of the body, the animal heat being main-
tained by the natural changes which are essential to a healthy
condition.

As previously stated, oxygen is absorbed from the air by the capil-
laries of the lungs in respiration (breathing). Expired air is found
to have lost about 10 per cent of the oxygen contained in pure air,
and to have accumulated a like aniount of a combination of carbon
and oxygen, called carbonic acid gas. If we imagine the animal
breathing and rebreathing the same air, it can be seen that the oxygen,
so necessary for the purification of the blood, would soon diminish
to a dangerous degree. Hence, we realize the importance of a large
supply of air to draw on and the necessity of good ventilation. At
each inspiration the horse draws about 250 cubic inches of air into
the lungs, and he therefore requires about 2 cubic feet per minute,
or 120 per hour. It is customary, in building ordinary stables, to
allow 1,600 cubic feet of air space (over twelve hours' supply) for
each animal, and to provide means of admitting fresh air without
causing drafts. In infirmary stables the allowance is increased to
1,900 cubic feet.

Without good air the blood is imperfectly purified, the vitality of
the animal is lessened, he is more susceptible to disease, and will suc-
cumb more easily when attacked; consequently horses should never
be kept in the vicinity of a marsh, the air from which contains an
excess of carbonic acid gas and a diminished supply of the necessary
oxygen.



16 THE ARMY HOBSE IN ACCIDENT AND DISEASE.

^CARE OF THE INJURED,

■P

If the horse is seriously injured and stands with difficulty, he should
be placed in slings (Plate II) to partially support the weight of the
body. The slings must be properly adjusted, fitting closely behind
the elbows in such a manner as to support the weight of the body on
the chest and not on the abdomen. This position is maintained by
the use of the breast piece and breeching, which prevent the shifting
of the sling. A single stall, having a level floor, free from bedding,
is more suitable than one allowing more motion to the animal.

If the horse is but slightly injured, there is no necessity of placing
him in slings. An ordinary stall with a level floor is all that is re-
quired. After the injury has been dressed he should be allowed to
stand without being disturbed. If very lame, and movement is
painful, the more quiet he is kept the more quickly will recovery
take place. Absolute rest and perfect quietude are two very essential
things, and when secured they will hasten the process of recovery with-
out inflicting unnecessary pain upon the animal. In some surgical
cases it is necessary to restrain the animal so that he can not injure
himself by rubbing or biting the affected parts. This can be accom-
plished by tying up the head or by the application of side lines.
Bandages may be applied to the legs of animals for different purposes :
First, to give support to the blood vessels and synovial bursae; sec-
ond, to dry and warm the legs; third, to support packs used in apply-
ing hot and cold lotions; and fourth, when conditions are favorable,
to check haemorrhages.

WATER SUPPLY.

However harmless impure water may have been to animals in a wild
state, the more we subject them to an artificial existence the more
we remove them from the immunity they may have possessed against
common causes of disease and the greater liability is there for the
development of diseases which originally may never have existed.
In other words, the domesticated animal should always have pure
water; when the vitality is further reduced by sickness the necessity
of absolute purity is even more imperative.


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Online LibraryKan.) Mounted Service School (Fort RileyThe army horse in accident and disease : a manual prepared for the use of students of the training school for farriers and horseshoers → online text (page 1 of 10)