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of the fact that he would be largely endorsed by the business men of the city,
they did not count that one-half of the saloon druggists would also endorse him,
which they did, thus leaving the other half to fight their own people and busi-
ness, with great odds against them; made up of the neutral element, with a
united temperance faction at their back.

This brought about a revolt within their own ranks, and ex-Sheriff W. B.
Masterson and present deputy sheriff of Ford county, entered complaint against
every saloon-drug store in the city, and going even further than this, including
two legally licensed druggists who, he claimed were violators of the prohibi-
tion law under which the complaint was made. Of course, arrests soon fol-
lowed and all have given bonds for their appearance at our present term of
district court, which convenes this day. This closed the saloons, and what
the end will be, we, of course, at this time, cannot say any further than this.
The ball has been started by one they counted as their friend, and even should
he be inclined to hedge, the cases will not be dropped, as we are assured by
the county attorney, but will be vigorously prosecuted to the end.

Ex-sheriff Masterson did not stop in his raid on saloon men, but has filed a
complaint against a number of gamblers as well. He says he is going to make
a general clean up in Dodge.



446 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

" 'Bat' Masterson seems to be a bigger man just now than Attorney
General Bradford, as he has succeeded in closing the Dodge City
saloons, which was more than Bradford could do or did do," said
the Spearville Blade, March 19, 1886.

Bat's actions have never been satisfactorily explained but never-
theless the death knell had been sounded for the "Beautiful, Bibu-
lous Babylon of the Frontier" and the wild cowtown fell into tran-
quil and sedate ways. The town shortly became too prosaic for
Bat Masterson. In 1886 he moved his operations to Colorado
though he did visit Dodge in September and November of that
year. 70 On October 23, 1887, he was staying at the Delmonico Ho-
tel in Dodge. He gave Lamar, Colo., as his home address. 71 Denver
also attracted Bat for it was as wild and woolly as many of Kansas'
earlier frontier towns. When Denver cooled down Bat would move
to other fields, such as Creede, an 1892 Colorado mining town. On
March 3, 1892, the Leoti (Kan.) Standard reported that "Bat Mas-
terson, well known in western Kansas, is the city marshal [at
Creede] ."

In later years, of course, Bat forsook the West and moved to New
York where he became a sports writer and a secretary with the New
York Morning Telegraph. On October 25, 1921, he died, quietly,
at his desk.

1. Dodge City Times, August 11, 1877. 2. Ibid., September 22, October 6, 1877.
3. Ibid., November 3, 10, 1877. 4. Ibid., January 5, 1878. 5. Reprinted by the Kinsley
Valley Republican, February 2, 1878, from its extra of January 27, 1878. 6. Kinsley
Valley Republican, February 2, 1878. 7. Ibid. 8. See, also, Dodge City Times, February
9, 1878, and Kinsley Valley Republican, February 9, 1878. 9. See, also, Ford County
Globe, Dodge City, February 12, 1878. 10. See, oho, ibid., February 19, 1878, and
Kinsley Valley Republican, February 16, 1878. 11. See, also, Ford County Globe, Febru-
ary 26, 1878. 12. See, also, ibid., March 19, 1878, and Kinsley Valley Republican, March
23, 1878. 13. Ford County Globe, March 19, 1878. 14. Kinsley Valley Republican,
March 30, 1878; see, also, Dodge Cfty Times, March 30, 1878. 15. Ford County Globe,
October 29, 1878. 16. Dodge City Times, April 13, 1878. 17. Ibid., April 13, 20, 1878;
Ford County Globe, April 16, 23, 1878. The Mastersons had two farms in Sedgwick county.
One consisted of 160 acres in Garden Plain township; it was the N. E. V*. of Sec. 15,
T. 27 S., R. 3 W. Bafs father, Thomas Masterson, paid $500 for the place in May, 1875.
The other farm was in Grant township, the E. % of the S. W. % of Sec. 24, T. 25 S.,
R. 1 E. 18. See, also, Ford County Globe, April 23, 1878. 19. Dodge City Times,
January 12, 1878. 20. Ford County Globe, June 25, 1878. 21. Dodge City Times,
June 29, 1878. 22. Ford County Globe, September 24, 1878. 23. See, also, Dodge
City Times, December 21, 1878. 24. See, also, Ford County Globe, December 17,
1878. 25. "Records of the War Department, United States Army Commands, Fort Dodge,
Kansas, Reports and Journals of Scouts and Marches, 1873-1879," National Archives.
Microfilm copy in archives division, Kansas State Historical Society. 26. See, also,
Dodge City Times, January 18, 1879. 27. Topeka Commonwealth, March 4, 1879.
28. See, also, Dodge City Times, January 18, 1879. 29. See, also, ibid., January 11,
1879; Ford County Globe, January 14, 1879. 30. See, also, Ford County Globe, January
21, 1879. 31. Ibid., February 11, 1879; Dodge City Times, February 15, 1879. 32.
"Governors' Correspondence," archives division, Kansas State Historical Society. 33. Ibid.
34. "Marking an Epoch the Last Indian Raid and Massacre," Eighteenth Biennial Re-
port of the Board of Directors of the Kansas State Historical Society, p. 30. 35. "Gov-



COWTOWN POLICE OFFICERS AND GUN FIGHTERS 447

ernors' Correspondence," archives division, Kansas State Historical Society. 36. Ibid.
37. Possibly the Times was mistaken in saying Bat's two brothers accompanied him.
James Masterson was along but there is no record of Tom being with them. The fourth
member of the party, as identified by the Dodge City Times, February 15 and 22, 1879,
was Kokomo Sullivan. 38. "Correspondence of the Adjutants General," archives division,
Kansas State Historical Society. 39. "Marking an Epoch the Last Indian Raid and
Massacre," loc. cit., pp. 21-31; "Governors' Correspondence," archives division, Kansas
State Historical Society; Ford County Globe, July 1, October 21, 1879. 40. See, also,
Dodge City Times, February 22, 1879. 41. See, also, ibid., March 1, 1879. 42. "In
the Matter of the Petition of George H. Holcomb, for a Writ of Habeas Corpus," Kansas
Reports, v. 21, pp. 628-637. 43. See, also, Dodge City Times, June 14, 1879. 44.
See, also, ibid., July 5, 1879. 45. See, also, Ford County Globe, August 5, 1879. 46.
See, also, ibid., September 16, 1879; Topeka Commonwealth, September 16, 1879. 47.
"Governors' Correspondence," archives division, Kansas State Historical Society. 48. Ibid.
49. Dodge City Times, September 20, 1879. 50. Ford County Globe, October 28, 1879.
51. Dodge City Times, January 10, 31, 1880. 52. Ford County Globe, January 13, 1880.
53. Dodge City Times, January 10, 1880. 54. See, also, Ford County Globe, March 2,
1880. 55. Dodge City Times, March 13, 1880. 56. Ibid., March 20, 1880; Ford County
Globe, March 30, 1880. 57. See, also, Ford County Globe, April 20, 1880. 58. See, also,
ibid., June 1, 1880. 59. George C. Thompson, Bat Masterson; the Dodge City Years
(Fort Hays Kansas State College Studies, Language and Literature Series No. 1, 1943),
p. 36. Thompson held an interview with Thomas Masterson, Jr., on November 4, 1937.
60. Ford County Globe, February 15, 1881. 61. See, also, ibid., November 20, 1883.
62. Globe Live Stock Journal, October 14, 1884. 63. Ibid., October 28, 1884. 64.
Ibid., November 18, 1884. 65. Ibid., January 13, 1885. 66. Topeka Commonwealth,
July 4, 1885. 67. "Governors' Correspondence," archives division, Kansas State Historical
Society. 68. Globe Live Stock Journal, July 7, 1885. 69. Ibid., October 27, 1885.
70. Ibid., September 28, November 16, 1886. 71. Hotel register in possession of Mrs.
Merritt L. Beeson, Dodge City.

(This Series on Cowtown Police Officers To Be Continued in the
Winter, 1961, Issue.)



Bypaths of Kansas History

THE NATIVES WERE RESTLESS THAT YEAR

From the Marysville Enterprise, January 25, 1868.

Lo! THE POOR INDIAN. Advices from the South, says the Hays City
Advance of the 16th, are that a party of Arapahoes took possession of a Govern-
ment train at Cimmeron Crossing, on the 12th or 13th. The friendlies helped
themselves to all the groceries they wanted, and the chief gave the station
keeper a parting salute of a mouthful of tobacco juice in his eyes. The com-
missioners should visit these gentle savages with supplies.



Exrr THE BUFFALO

From The Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, November 26,
1872.

FROM THE FRONTIER.



A Herd of Buffaloes 10 Miles
Long and 2 Miles Wide.



THEY MAKE A CHARGE ON A CONSTRUCTION
PARTY.



Fourteen Hundred Killed in one Day. . . .

DODGE CITY, KAS., Nov. 25.
Special dispatch to the Commonwealth.

The buffaloes are moving south and crossing the Arkansas. Twenty miles
west of Dodge an immense herd of the creatures, covering an extent of country
two miles in width and ten in length, were passed by the construction train.
Fourteen were run over and killed by the engine. Two hours were consumed
by the construction train in endeavoring to get through this herd. Several
calves were run over and injured, and the construction men, while in the act of
capturing some of them, were charged upon by several hundred buffalo and
barely escaped with their lives. Every ravine is full of hunters, and camp fires
can be seen for miles in every direction. The hides and saddles of fourteen
hundred buffalo were brought into town to-day. A. P. BALDWIN.



IT'S ALL IN THE WAY ONE LOOKS AT IT

From the Stockton Democrat, March 26, 1886.

A gentleman who claims to know, and who, by the way, is a scholar and a
Christian, says the only difference between Kansas and paradise is that Kansas
is receiving much the heavier immigration and has the best roads. Leaven-
worth Times.

We suppose the gentlemen was not thinking of the paradise we are.

(448)



Kansas History as Published in the Press

Histories of the Philomathea and Stony Hill schools of Dickin-
son county, by William H. Riekeman, were printed in the Reflector-
Chronicle, Abilene, November 2, 1960.

The early histories of Hutchinson churches, by C. L. "Bill" Colee,
were printed in the Hutchinson News, November 5, 1960. On
December 11 the News printed a brief history of Humbogen, near
Ellis, by Kittie Dale.

Articles of historical interest in the Hays Daily News recently
included: a biographical sketch of Dr. Harold J. Chapman, Sr.,
former Speed physician, by Bernice Brown, November 13, 1960;
a story on the Peter A. Nelson home, long a landmark near Ogallah,
January 22, 1961; and a story of pioneer days in Hays, by the late
Mrs. Bird Moore, January 29.

In 1902 Millionaire Edward Davis built a 28-room mansion
southwest of Norwich. A history of the house is told by Agnes
Nye in the Harper Advocate, November 17, 1960.

Gordon S. Hohn was the author of "Union Soldiers Once Cut
Curls From Local Southern Editor's Head," published in the Marys-
ville Advocate, November 24, 1960, and "No Murder Conviction
in 75-Year History of District Court Here," in the Advocate, Janu-
ary 19, 1961.

Reports of historical papers given at meetings of the Ottawa
County Historical Society and appearing recently in local news-
papers included: early Minneapolis history, by Mrs. Nellie Davis
Cawley, Delphos Republican and Minneapolis Messenger, Novem-
ber 24, 1960; Indian raids in Ottawa county, by Mrs. Bernice Rice,
Delphos Republican, January 5, 1961; a history of Lamar, by Mrs.
Ellis Bishop, Delphos Republican, January 26.

Orville W. Mosher's column, "Museum Notes," in the Emporia
Gazette, included the following features in recent months: excerpts
from the diary of Emma Clover Stevenson, November 29, 1960;
Christmas in the early days of Lyon county, December 6; and the
reminiscences of May Giger and William Edmunds concerning
early day life in northern Lyon county, January 17, 1961.

John G. Whittier's poem "Brown of Ossawatomie," was discussed
by Cecil D. Eby, Jr., in an article published in The New England
Quarterly, Brunswick, Maine, December, 1960.

(449)



450 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Historical articles continue to appear regularly in the Courtland
Journal. Among those printed in recent months were: "Story of
Richard T. Stanfield, Capt. of Militia," December 1, 1960; a bio-
graphical sketch of the W. R. Charles family, December 8; "Tom
Lovewell, Pioneer of Pioneers/* December 15; a biographical sketch
of the William Osborne family, January 12, 1961; and "Early Day
Transportation" and "Transportation Problems/' January 26.

Sen. John J. Ingalls' life was sketched by Walter C. Walker in
The Wednesday Magazine, Kansas City, Mo., December 7, 1960.
Ingalls settled at Sumner in 1858, later becoming a resident of
Atchison.

In the issue of December 8, 1960, the Belle Plaine News printed
a history of the Great Seal of Kansas by Pearl E. Wight. A history
of Belle Plaine, by Mrs. I. C. Lane, appeared in the News, January
26, 1961.

An article on the first houses and some of the older houses still
standing in Lawrence, by Mrs. Ivan D. Rowe, was published in the
Lawrence Daily Journal-World, December 8, 1960.

Lily B. Rozar is the author of a history of Howard which ap-
peared in the Independence Reporter, December 11, 1960, and the
Longton News, January 5, 1961. The town was established in 1870
as Howard City.

An article by Ben Lindas in the Great Bend Daily Tribune, De-
cember 11, 1960, included a history of Pawnee Rock and a bio-
graphical sketch of John Lindas, one of the town's founders.

With the issue of December 15, 1960, the Sterling Bulletin began
publishing letters written by Emily Isabelle Combes, describing
life in Rice county in 1871.

Kansas newspapers have entered into the spirit of the state's cen-
tennial observance, publishing numerous special editions, including
many pages of historical and informative illustrated articles on
Kansas, its cities and towns, its industries and businesses, its schools
and churches. Among these centennial editions are: Galena Senti-
nel-Times, December 15, 1960; Kansas Farmer, Topeka, January 21,
1961; Newton Kansan, January 28; Topeka Capital- Journal, January
28; Kansas City Kansan, January 29; Coffeyville Daily Journal, Feb-
ruary 26; Winfield Daily Courier, February 27; Southwest Daily
Times, Liberal, March 18; University Daily Kansan, Lawrence,
April 17; Belleville Telescope, April 20; Suburban, Merriam, April



KANSAS HISTORY AS PUBLISHED IN THE PRESS 451

26 and May 3; White City Register, April 27; News, Olathe, May 5;
Great Bend Daily Tribune, May 7; Caldwell Messenger, May 8;
Pittsburg Headlight, May 13; Pittsburg Sun, May 14; El Dorado
Times, May 26; Russell Daily News, June 3; Russell Record, June 5;
Chanute Tribune, June 7; Junction City Union, June 7; Junction
City Republic, June 8; Logan Republican, June 8; Western Kansas
World, WaKeeney, June 8; Wichita Sunday Eagle 6- Beacon, June
11; and Journal-World, Lawrence, June 12.

The Blue Rapids Times, December 22, 1960, printed a history
and description of the Blue valley by Irene Rudisill.

On December 29, 1960, January 5, 12, 19, 1961, the Solomon
Valley Tribune, Solomon, printed a history of the Solomon schools
by Mrs. Irene Jones.

George Washington Earp's recent death at 96 years of age
served to recall some of the early history of Ulysses which was
printed in the Ulysses News, December 29, 1960. Earp was one
of the town's founders.

Historical articles appearing recently in the Southwest Daily
Times, Liberal, included: the story of the Windsor Hotel of Spring-
field, Seward county ghost town, by Harry E. Chrisman, December
30, 1960; an article on the Lone Tree Indian massacre of 1874 in
present Meade county, by Mrs. Mary Short Browne, February 1,
2, 4, 1961; and some biographical facts on the surveyors who were
slain in the Lone Tree massacre, by Mrs. J. N. Haver, February 6.

The Howard Courant-Citizen, January 5, 1961, printed a history
of the Howard public schools by Nancy Barger. The first term was
taught in 1873 by W. S. Kent.

Historical notes on Downs and Downs newspapers, by Darrel
Miller, were printed in the Downs News, January 12, 1961. The
town was founded in 1879 and the first newspaper began the fol-
lowing year.

Harper and Harper county history, by Mrs. Carrie Pitts Omeara,
was published in the Harper Advocate, January 19, 1961. Mrs.
Omeara's father was an early Harper county homesteader.

Greenleaf was surveyed in 1877 and incorporated in 1879 accord-
ing to a history of the town printed in the Greenleaf Sentinel, Janu-
ary 19, 1961.



452 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Early Winona and Logan county history, by Carolyn Mountford,
was published in the Winona Leader, January 19, 1961.

Brief historical articles have been appearing regularly in the
Winfield Daily Courier in recent months under the title "Winfield
City History."

"Highlight of Coal Camp Days," a four-part series on southeast
Kansas, by Frank D. Grispino, was published in the Columbus Daily
Advocate beginning January 24, 1961. The Advocate printed Lyra
Forbes' story of a childhood experience with a herd of longhorn
cattle in the January 25 number.

A brief historical sketch of the Methodist church in Kansas and
at Haven appeared in the Haven Journal, January 26, 1961.

The January 26, 1961, issue of the Pittsburg Headlight included
a review of Herbert W. Hallman's history of banking in Crawford
county, presented at a recent meeting of the Crawford County
Historical Society.

Humboldt's history was reviewed by Nat Armel in the Humboldt
Union, January 26, 1961. The town was established in 1857.

Some of the newspaper accounts at the time of Kansas' admit-
tance to the Union in 1861 were reprinted in the Leavenworth
Times, January 29, 1961.

Rolla A. Clymer, of El Dorado, is the author of a centennial ar-
ticle entitled "A Century of Sunflowers," published in Service, New
York, a publication of Cities Service Co., January, 1961.

'The Story of Julia Rockwell," a five and one-half page article
by Julia Marshall Rockwell and Mary Angela Melville, was pub-
lished in the Junction City Weekly Union, February 16, 1961. Mrs.
Rockwell, born in Philadelphia in 1850, came to Ogden in 1866 to
live with an uncle, David Scott, sutler at Fort Riley. After her
marriage in 1870 she lived in Junction City until 1906. Besides
Mrs. Rockwell's biography the article contains Fort Riley, Junction
City, and Kansas history. Mrs. Mary McFarland Axtell's story of
the early days in Junction City, written by Pearl Mallon Nicholas,
appeared in the daily Union, January 14, and the weekly Union,
January 19, 1961. Mrs. Axtell's father, Edmund S. McFarland,
came to Fort Riley in 1856. On July 2, 1855, the first Kansas terri-
torial legislature met at Pawnee, now on the Fort Riley reservation.
The story of this brief session and of the First Capitol building was
published in the daily Union, February 17.



Kansas Historical Notes

The 86th annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society
will be held at Topeka on Tuesday, October 17, 1961.

Present officers of the Jewell County Historical Society are: C. L.
Black, Mankato, president; Mrs. Darus Henningsen, Mankato, vice-
president; Bernice Howard, Mankato, secretary; Lucy Wiley, Man-
kato, treasurer; and Iden Chilcott, Mrs. Howard Edwards, Mrs.
Kenneth Maag, and Joe R. Beeler, all of Jewell, directors.

Current officers of the Harvey County Historical Society, Newton,
include: Elden Smurr, president; Cecil Hornbaker, vice-president;
and Bill Sage, secretary.

He Hillman was named executive secretary and Paul Grittman
and Dennis Cady chosen vice-presidents at a meeting of the Mitch-
ell County Historical Society, January 31, 1961, in Beloit. Alan
Houghton is president of the society.

Arthur Hodgson was re-elected president of the Rice County
Historical Society at a meeting of the society in Lyons, February 1,
1961. Other officers chosen included: Paul Jones, vice-president;
Mrs. Bill Chandler, Jr., secretary; Mrs. Frank Peppiatt, treasurer;
and Arthur Harvey, Mrs. Bert Hoyt, and I. L. Dresher, directors.

Francis Wilson, Ellsworth, was elected president of the new Ells-
worth County Historical Society at a meeting in Ellsworth, Febru-
ary 12, 1961. Other officers are: Helen Keyser, Wilson, vice-presi-
dent; Mrs. Paul Aylward, Ellsworth, secretary; and A. H. Barofsky,
Ellsworth, treasurer. Directors of the society include: George
Jelinek, Ellsworth; W. C. Frevert, Holyrood; Mrs. Emil Prochaska,
Ellsworth; Oliver Bircher, Kanopolis; and Walter Kohrs, Lorraine.
Stanley Sohl, museum director of the State Historical Society, spoke
on museum methods at the meeting of May 17.

Elected to the board of directors of the Finney County Historical
Society at the society's annual banquet meeting, February 14, 1961,
in Garden City, were: Taylor Jones, F. Arthur Stone, J. E. Great-
house, Amy Gillespie, Merle Evans, Damon Cobb, Mrs. Claude
Owens, Claudine Lindner, J. M. Concannon, H. P. Winget, and
M. L. Russell.

Great Bend's 20th Century club observed the centennial year
with a program entitled "Reflections of Our Town's History," at a

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454 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

meeting March 6, 1961. A review of the historical material pre-
sented at the meeting appeared in the Great Bend Daily Tribune,
March 9.

Emmet Womer was re-elected president of the Smith County
Historical Society at its annual meeting in Smith Center, March 7,
1961. Other officers chosen included: Roy Lumpkin, vice-presi-
dent; Margaret Nelson, secretary; and Opal Diehl, treasurer.

At the annual election of officers, March 10, 1961, the Ford His-
torical Society named Mrs. Walter Umbach, president; Mrs. E. H.
Patterson, vice-president; Mrs. Addie Plattner, secretary and treas-
urer; Mrs. W. P. Warner, custodian; and Mrs. Lyman Emrie, his-
torian.

Earl Vore was elected president of the Bourbon County Historical
Society at a meeting in Fort Scott March 14, 1961. Judge Harry
W. Fisher was elected vice-president, and Mrs. M. L. Prichard,
secretary-treasurer. Vore, Mrs. Prichard, G. W. Marble, Mrs.
Emma Connolly, Bob Waters, Don Torkelson, Harold Calhoun,
George Eakle, Melvin Hurst, A. W. Dickerson, and Hilton Wogan
were named to the board of directors. Eakle was the retiring
president.

Approximately 125 persons attended the fourth annual meeting of
the Missouri Valley Conference of Collegiate Teachers of History,
held March 24, 25, at Omaha, Neb., under the auspices of the De-
partment of History of the University of Omaha. Prof. Bell Wiley
of Emory University; Franklin H. Littell, Southern Methodist Uni-
versity; and Philip S. Brooks, director of the Truman Library, were
the featured speakers. The next meeting will be held at Omaha,
March 23, 24, 1962.

Dedication ceremonies for a new historical marker on the Kansas
turnpike were held April 10, 1961, at the Lawrence service area.
The principal speaker was Fred W. Brinkerhoff, Pittsburg pub-
lisher. The marker memorializes Lawrence, the Oregon trail, and
the Santa Fe trail.

Helen Riepl was elected president of the Gray County Historical
Society at a meeting April 11, 1961, at Cimarron. Other officers
elected were: Merle Warner, vice-president; Grace Truax, secre-
tary; Katie Jacques, treasurer; and Wanda Nicolet, director. Mrs.
Merle Warner was the retiring president.



KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 455

Officers elected at the annual meeting of the Edwards County
Historical Society, April 18, 1961, in Kinsley, were: Mrs. E. G.
Peterson, president; Cecil Matthews, first vice-president; Charles
Anderson, second vice-president; George Ott, third vice-president;
Elsie Jenkins, secretary; Mrs. George Miller, treasurer; Myrtle Rich-
ardson, historian; and Mary Vang, custodian.

Dr. George Anderson of the University of Kansas, Lawrence,
and president of the Kansas State Historical Society, was the
speaker at the centennial banquet of the Rawlins County Historical
Society, April 29, 1961, in Atwood.

On May 5 and 6, 1961, the 35th annual meeting of the Kansas
Association of Teachers of History and Social Science was held at
the University of Kansas, Lawrence. Among the papers presented,
relating to Kansas history, were: "Land and Credit Problems in
Underdeveloped Kansas," Paul Wallace Gates, Cornell University,
Ithaca, N. Y.; "Hatchets and Hoopskirts or the Distaff Side/' Eliza-
beth Cochran, Kansas State College of Pittsburg; "Europeans and
Kansas: a Reappraisal," Hubert C. Johnson, Kansas Wesleyan Uni-
versity, Salina; "A Kansas Romance of the Gay Nineties," Homer
E. Socolofsky, Kansas State University, Manhattan; "Collecting
Material of Kansas History," Alan W. Farley, Kansas City, Kan.;
"Civil War and Reconstruction," Edgar Langsdorf, Kansas State
Historical Society, Topeka; "Political Parties and Party Leaders,
1877-1917," James C. Malin, University of Kansas; and "From World



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