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us great gratification to be able to state that, in our judgment, the lack for-
merly complained of no longer exists. The city has constructed a system
of water works, by damming a ravine about a mile east of the insane hos-
pital, and catching the surface drainage and the overflow after a rain or a
melting snow. The engineer empfoyed was Mr. £. S. Chesbrough, of Chi-
cago, who, afW personal inspection of the locality, and much careful study,
fiimished a plan and specifications, which have fully realized the expecta-
tions of the originators of the scheme. The present capacity of the im-
pounding reservoir u fifty million gallons. Its capacity can be doubled,
when necessary, with little additional expense. The dam is eighteen feet
high, and in no part of the reservoir does the water stand less than twelve
feet deep. That depth insures pure water at all seasons of the year; as it
is claimed, and we believe it to be a fact, that water stored in a depth of
not less than twelve feet will not stagnate or become impure. To efiect
this depth, an excavation was made to the extent of ninety-three thousand



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36 INSTITUTION FOR DEAF AND DUMB.

cubic yards. After cloeiDg the gate in the weir, the reservoir filled in four
' weeks, and since that time — during nearly one year's operation of the
works — at no time has the water been more than two feet below the point
of overflow. From the impounding reservoir the water is conveyed, through
iron pipes, by the action of a powerful steam pump, to a second or distrib-
uting reservoir, on College Hill, immediately south of the institution for
the deaf and dumb. The capacity of the distributing reservoir is two-and-
a-half million gallons. Its elevation is ninety feet above the public square,
and this head is found to be sufficient to throw water, without the inter-
vention of an engine, from the fire-plugs at the curbstone, over any house
in the city, save a few in the immediate neighborhood of the reservoir. * ♦ *

"The saccess of this experiment, attempted so far as we are aware for
the first time upon a large scale, is a legitimate source of congratulation,
not only to the people of Jacksonville, but of the State of Illinois, and of
the entire Northwest^ who have seen with dismay the gradual drying-up of
streams, ponds an^ springs witliin the past fifty years, and have experienced
the inconveniences everywhere arising from the want of an abundant supply
of pure and healthy water."

Let it be borne in mind, that in the year 1870 the State of
Illinois had invested in the city of Jacksonville, in public build-
ings and grounds, over two millions of dollars; yet so grave a
deprivation was a lack of water esteemed, that the Commissioners
did not hesitate to recommend the abandonment and virtual loss
to the State of all this property.

The expense of providing a sufiicient dam at ope of the points
above referred to, at this place, would be quite insignificant. At
this point and in its vicinity are numerous springs, which could
be utilized to improve the character of the water store, as well
as to insure its permanency beyond a question. I am quite con-
fident that the water husbanded in the vicinity of these springs,
by the means proposed, will be superior in quality to any water
attainable from any^ running stream, and will therefore justify

any trifling extra expense involved in its storage.



EPHPHATHA.

*' 32. And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment
in his speech ; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him.

"33. And he took him aside from the multitude, and put his fingers into
his ears, and he spit, and touched his tongue:

"34. And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him, Ephpha-
tha, that is, Be opened.

"35. And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue
was loosed, and he spake plain." — Mark vii.f 82-85,

At the date of the above miracle, and for many centuries later,



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FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT. 37



dambness, as well as deafness, was considered answerable only to
miraculous power.

"And the string of his tongue was loosed/' plainly indicates
the prevailing sentiment at the beginning of the Christian era.
Then, and for full fifteen centuries afterward, it was the universal
opinion that dumbness was the result of a paralysis of the organs
of speech. But as the human race began to emerge from the
long, dark night which so sadly retarded and beclouded the in-
tellect and reasoning faculties during the period known as the
''dark ages," a rational opinion began to take the place of a
superstitious dogma, and it is now a well-established fact among
the enlightened of both hemispheres, that the organ? of speech
in a very large majority of the deaf and dumb are entirely per-
fect. In a few rare cases they may be found impaired or wholly
paralyzed ; but in the few cases of persons afflicted with impaired
or paralytic vocal organs, it rarely happens that they are likewise
deaf. The only case of total dumbness alone ever connected
with this Institution, was the case of a young lady who was
utterly incapable of uttering a sound, but whose faculty of
hearing was perfect. The organs of vocality, primitively, are as
perfect in the deaf and dumb as they are in the cases of the
most eloquent public orator or voluble spinster in the country.
The power of intelligent utterance is simply latent, and when
these silent organs are reached through the proper avenues and
set into intelligent action, the dumb will "speak plain" without
the interposition of miraculous power.

It will be observed that I am approaching a subject which
occupied a large share of my former report, viz., the subject of
ARTICULATION. It is Unnecessary for me now to dwell upon this
subject at length. The facts presented in my former report, and
the result of my feeble and imperfect efforts in that department
of instruction, I think are conclusive to all who havS given any
consideration to the subject, that the dumb, or some of them,
may be taught to talk. In my former report I reserved my
opinion as to the comparative merits of the two systems of
teaching, by signs or by articukUiorif presenting in eoctenso the
opinions of others. I am still unable to decide between the
merits of the two systems, owing to the very imperfect and un-
satisfactory test I have been able to* give to the articulation
method. The subject, when presented, was so entirely novel to



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38 INSTITUTION FOR DEAF AND DUMB.

the Trustees that they were not sufficiently impressed ¥rith its
importance to second my application for an appropriation for a
special teacher of this method ; but precedent to a positive com-
mittal to what might be only a visionary measure, they desired
that I would personally test the practicability of the system.
This I have done, not sufficiently to satisfy me that it is the
preferable method, but to establish conclusively to myself, and I
hope to the Trustees, that no school, for the deaf and dumb is
fully organized until the means and facilities for teaching articu-
lation are supplied. There are in this Institution several pupils
whom it seems almost criminal to teach by the medium of signs
alone. In behalf of these and many others. I renew my appeal
for a teacher of articulation, entertaining a lively hope that all
doubts of its pertinency are fully\iispelled.

THE INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT.

The wisdom of the Legislature in providing the means for the
organization of this department, is fully vindicated.

To provide for our deaf-mute population the means of free
education, free board, free lodging, free washing, free mending,
free text-books, free medical attendance, and, when necessary,
free clothes and free transportation to and from school, should
relieve our State from a charge of stinted benevolence; but when
it has superadded to all these gratuities, a free trade, its public
benevolence is certainly complete beyond the power of cavil.

The pupils who now complete a full course of instruction at
this Institution, may go forth into the world, not only fitted for
society by education and general information, utilized by a ready
use of the pen and pencil, but able to encounter the sterner
realities of life, and hew out for themselves a livelihood and a
fortune. Their knowledge of handicraft, acquired here, should
render them measurably independent of relatives and friends,
and relieve the public of any further expense for their support
That they will be self-supporting is evidenced by the deep inter-
est they manifest, and the rapid progress they make in acquiring
trades. The remarkable proficiency of the pupils of the Indus-
trial Department, in all its branches, is one of the cheering
features of the Institution. Everything connected with the
Department is encouraging, and has more than met the expecta-
tions of its most sanguine advocates and friends. One of the



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FIKST BIENNIAL REPORT. 39

happiest reflectious associated with the addition of a trade to the
usual course of study is, that it provides pupils with the means
of ohtaining a livelihood ; and this extra boon will be supplied,
at no very remote period, without any increased cost to the State,
for the yearly support of the Institution. The shops, when
thoroughly organized and equipped, will not only be self-sustain-
ing, but productive of a small revenue to the State. This is the
experience of older institutions. Why may it not be of ours?

We present below a financial exhibit of the three branches of
industry pursued at this Institution, since the organization of
the trades department.

FIfiST— SHOEMAKING— CHABLEB H. HYEB, Fobrmak.

XXPBNDITUBBS.

For tools and stock ^ 9998 80

For salary of foreman 402 00

Total « $1,400 80

BBCXIPTS.

For manufactured stock and repairs, cash 1847 60

Outstanding accounts, good 48 28

Outstanding accounts, doubtful 41 20

Manufactured stock, ralued at 215 00

Total $1,162 08

It will be observed that if this branch had ready sale for all
its manufactured stock, and realized the cash on all its sales, it
would have nearly paid its way.

SECOND— PEINTINO— EDWARD WINTHROF BOWLES, Fobeman.

XXPSHDrrUBBS.

For press and materials $648 85

Total cost of paper 102 05

Salary of foreman 842 88

Total $1,067 78

BBCXIPTS.

Cash on subscription $47 60

The printing office, with its present meager variety of type and
materials, is only fitted for printing our little paper and teaching
the pupils plain type-setting. It is hoped that at an early day
this office will be supplied with such an assortment of type and
job materials as will enable the foreman to instruct his class in
all the various branches of printing. When these facilities are
provided, the receipts of that office will be more respectable, and
when its facilities are so enlarged so as to enable it to print our
own Institution reports, and other similar public work, the re-
ceipts will then begin to rival or excel the expenditures.



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40 INSTITUTION FOR DEAF AND DUMB.

THIRD— SEWING -MISS TILLIE SABCHET, Teachkb.

ISXPBNDITURBS.

For MwlDg mBchine ^.. $55 09

For cloths ftnd other stock ^ ^ ~. 610 97

For saUry of teacher » ^ ~ ^ 306 00

Total -. SI, 004 Of

RBCEIPTB.

From pupils, cash ,^.....^. fM 8S

Outstanding accounts ^ 29 7S

Manufactured stock on hand ~ 387 9fi

Total $443 57

This branch may approximate self-support when it is relieved
from the gratuitous task, or can realize pay for, the interminable
mending which constitutes about half the labor of the class.

In conclusion on this subject, I would respectfully recommend
the organization of another branch of industry at this Institu-
tion, viz., cabinet-making. The establishment of this branch may
be made self sustaining from the start; and for the incoming year,
before a special appropriation is made in its behalf, other specific
Appropriations need not be encroached upon, nor the usual ex-
penditures abridged, to support this valuable addition to the
trades-learning department. By supplying this addition, we will
be able to meet a want which has been felt since the inauguration
of trades in the Institution, viz., affording the boys, to a limited
extent, an opportunity to acquire the trades of their choice.
Many have commenced the shoemaking or printing trades re-
luctantly, because there were no others authorized — their prefer-
ence being to learn a trade involving working in wood.

Woodcraft is a favorite occupation with boys. By the adop-
tion of this trade, we will be able to satisfy the wishes of pupils
to a great extent, and I think can annually abridge the recurring
costs for repairs and furniture.

INDIFFERENCE— TARDINESS— ABSENTEEISM.
The State has literally undertaken the paternity of its deaf-
mute population of school age. It offers to board, clothe, edu-
cate, and furnish them pocket-money. It proposes virtually to
relieve their parenis of the trouble and expense of their care
and maintenance during nearly half their minority. It seems,
therefore, wholly incredible that there should be any persons so
insensible to the wants of defective offspring, not to say indiffer-
ent to their own material interests, as to neglect to avail them-
selves to the fullest extent of the rare benefits guaranteed by the



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FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT. 41



State's generous hospitality. But it is a lamentable fact that
there are in this community, as in every other, many such ex-
amples of human stupidity. The friends of deaf-mute education
have two causes of complaint. One is indifference of the parents
of the deaf and dumb about sending their unfortunate children
to school at all, and the other is their feilure to send them to
school promptly and regularly after they have been admitted.
These are grave evils, and to discover the proper remedy will
elicit careful thought and study. The subject of compulsory
education has for several years received the attention of the State,
municipal and district officials connected with the public school
system of the country. If there are any schools wherein this
measure would seem justifiable, these are certainly the State
schools for the deaf and dumb. The extraordinary provisions
made for the education of this class, the imperative necessity of
an education to fit them for human intercourse, and the in-
humanity of withholding it, are circumstances which would
divest such a law of all its alleged undemocratic features. The
first of the above-named evils we are in no condition to remedy
now. I have before stated that there are as many legitimate
pupils out of school as in, and there are as many in as can be
accommodated. Hence, all moral and legal enforcements will
have to be held in reserve against those not already enrolled as
pupils, until more accommodations are provided. But some
means may now, and certainly should, be adopted to enforce the
prompt and regular attendance of such as we can accommodate.
The first day of the yearly term is the second Wednesday of
September. Usually, about one- half of the pupils arrive on
that day. The remainder will arrive, a part every month, until
the close of the year, before the yearly complement is fairly en-
rolled. At Christmas^ a dozen or more are sent for to spend the
holidays at home. These remain at home from one to four
weeks; and, occasionally, one or two have failed to return during
the balance of the session. Each session shows an absence of
about twenty, who were present at the previous session, and are
still entitled to further school privileges. If the cause of this
absence is inquired into, in nineteen cases of the twenty the rea-
son assigned will be hard times, failure of crops, loss of stock,
or some such Providential deprivation of the means to supply a



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42 INSTITUTION FOR DEAF AND DUMR

clothing outfit and pay traveling expenses. The annoyance of
these irregularities to officers and teachers, and the lasting injoiy
to pupils, must be apparent to everybody. How shall we pre*
vent them ? I hope the day is not remote when every qualified
mute in the State will be provided with suitable school accom-
modations, and when it may be in the power of the Trustees and
officers, by the force of precept or otherwise, to enforce a gen-
eral, prompt and regular attendance. I have little hope of any
decided diminution in the irregularities complained of, during
the continuance of our present limited accommodations.

IN GENERAL.

Overlooking the chief executive officer resident in the Instita-
tion, the people of the State have cause of congratulation thai
this important agency in the betterment of defective Humanity if
in such faithful hands. The ill-health of the writer during mach
of the past year has materially interfered with his supervising
duties. A part of the time the administration has consisted
mainly in a firm faith in the honor and fidelity of teachers, asso-
ciate officers and employes. That this confidence has not in a
single instance been misplaced, has been a source of no little
happiness and consolation to the Superintendent during hb long,
weary months of suffering and pain ; while at the same time it
speaks volumes for these faithful public servants, and is a reboke
to the accustomed charge of "shirk" and ''sinecure" preferred
against those in the public service.

The progress made by the pupils in every department of stady
and industry has been highly encouraging, and will compare
favorably with the results of any preceding year. The teachers,
literary and industrial, need seek no higher complimmt to their
faithful labors than the accomplishments of their pupils.

The continued good health of pupils, and all connected with
the Institution, again reasserts the avowed healthiness of this
locality. During the months of January and February, 1877,
we were visited by a measles epidemic. Forty-eight pupils were
smitten with this disease, making a clean sweep of all on the
rolls who had never been so afflicted. Fortunately there were
no deaths. With this exception, no diseases of a serious or p6^
manent character have appeared among us.



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FIRST BIENNIAL REPORT. 43



PERSONAL.

SiDce the last annual meeting of the Board, the hand of
affliction has been laid heavily upon me. For many years I
have been a sufferer from the effects of extreme exposure and
privation, endured during four and a half years' service in the
army.

In November last, my sufferings reached a stage which called
for active and decisive measures to save life. By the courtesy
of the Board, I went to St. Louis, Mo., and placed myself under
the medical care of Drs. Hodgen and Mudd, the most eminent
surgeons of that city, or in the West. Afiter a careful examina-
tion of my case, they decided to subject me to a surgical oper^i-
tion for stone in the bladder. This operation they performed on
the 29th day of November. And, now, when I look back tp
that critical period, and recaU my intervening sufferings, I feel-
ingly realize that only by the interposition of Omnipotent mercy
am I able to make this recital to-day.

My recovery has been slow, but, I think, permanent; and I
look forward with eager hope to that joyous day, when in the
mercy of God, I may, with renewed strength, enter upon the
thorough discharge of the duties of my accidental vocation with
all the enthusiasm I have long unexpectedly felt, but have, dur-
ing much of the time, lacked the physical strength to fully
execute.

In conclusion, I desire to impress upon the Board, with all the
emphasis I can command, my very great personal obligations to
them, collectively and individually. For their uniform courtesy,
their many kindnesses, and especially their great kindness, con-
sideration and indulgence during my long sickness, words are
impotent to express my heartfelt gratitude.

Hoping, in all the earnestness of a grateful heart, that your

courtesies, gentlemen, may never prove to be pearls cast to swine,

and invoking upon you God's choicest blessings,

I am, very respectfully.

Your obedient servant,

THEO. C. BOWLES, Superintendent.

Kansas Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb,
OULTHS, Jane 30, 1878.



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44 INSTITUTION FOR DEAF AND DUMB.



REPORT OF THE PHYSICIAN.



To the Board of Trustees of the InstUution for the Deaf and Dmb
at OlaAe, Kansas:

Gentlemen: It is not only with pleasure, but with gratitude
to the Giver of all Good, that I am able to note the £ict that
there have been no deaths in this Institution during the partial
biennium just closed. This makes nearly six years the Institution
has been under my medical care; and although we have occa-
sionally been visited by severe attacks of sickness, and also an
epidemic of measles in the months of January and February of
last year, during which time there were forty-eight cases of well-
marked rubeola, followed in quite a number of instances by
pneumonia simplex and typhus pneumonia, yet the lives of o/I
have been spared during the whole period of my medical at-
tendance.

In the first half of the term just closed, we had a few cases of
chills and fever. These cases, almost without exception, were
contracted when the pupils were at home, during vacation. How-
ever, these recurrences of ague were nearly all of mild form, and
gave way readily to treatment.

During the last quarter of the present school term the health
of all the pupils has been very good, considering the crowded
condition of the Institution.

Respectfully submitted. C. G. McKINLEY, M.D.,

Attending PhysiAm,

June SO, 1878.



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APPENDIX,



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APPENDIX.



SCHEDULE OF ACCOUNTS.

Statement of Receifts akd Disbubsements durinff the partiiil fiscal
year commencing December 1, 1876, and ending June 30, 1877.



RECEIPTS.

By balance in the hands of Treasurer, on the 80th day of NoTcmber, 1876... $1,681 30

By appropriation— general 9,408 00

By appropriation— special 8,500 00

Total...... $14,539 30



DISBUBSEMENTS.

To billB allowed and paid daring the month of December, 1876, and the months of
January and February, 1877, tIz.:



lb tohom paid.



M.G.Ulller

H. O.Miller

Mariner A Noryille

SeTank & Henry

Price A Welch

Price A Welch

George H. Beach ^

Hubbard A Buch

H. H. Shepard

R.8, Houk

T. J. Maxwell

H.C. lirifBu

McBride A Evarts

J H. Dow

Clemmaus A tiilbert

R.M. liovell

J. E. Suiton

J. A. McNabb

Brown A Legate

L.Wtlcox

H. W. Bushong

J. H. Elder A Son

G. A. Shaffner

M.Cooper

F. E. Henderson

E. P. White,

J.W.Dunn

Ramsey, Mlllett A Hudson.

W.W. A F. Askew

D. Austin A Co

Lothrop A Sheldon

John Hartung

John T. Reton

Sidney Smith A Son

J. C. Howell

Robert Keith A Co

Jaggard A Foster

Institution for the Blind....

Charles W. Eckengren

D. P. Hoagland..

Potter, Ainsworth A Co

Thomas Hamill



On tohat aeoounL



Groceries

Meats

Dry goods ,

Meats

Groceries

Butchers' meat

Hardware

Flour

Books and stationery

Wood and corn

Groceries..

Books and stationery

Furniture

Drysoods..

Haroware..

PrugS"

Groceries......

Lumber

Drugs and medicines

Repairs

Repairs.

Groceries

Masonry

Blacksmithing

Coal „

Milk

Furniture

Paper for "Star"

Leather

Tile pipe

Soap

Harness

Printing materials

School rarntture

Repairs

Furniture

Bed-spreads

Brooms

Plastering

Butter

Books.. I

Hogs

(47)



Amtnmt,



1189 68
112 26
119 24

179 22
117 08

95 06
186 81
241 06

28 75

180 19

24 19
8 80

29 66

10 20
18 70

966
16 16
61 94

25 70
40 40

8 00

26 10
29 90

5 15
232 86

7 61

6 60

20 00

21 28
13 80
26 40

11 76

7 26
70 50

5 00
24 76
21 60
10 00

2 00
10 20
16 60
10 00



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48



INSTITUTION FOR DEAF AND DUMB.



SCHEDULE OF ACCOUNTS — Coktihukd.



2b whom paid.



On ufhai aeeowU.



Amos Sylvester

Kansas City School Furnishing Co...

J. B. Timanus

A.Thavis

E. L. Caress

M. Direly & Co

Cochran & Burch

Frank R. Ogg

E. C. Victor

Thomas Mazey

C. T. OtUwa

Grange Store

Theo. C. Bowles, Superintendent......

Edward A. Fay

Price A Welch -

J. E. Beaton

Supt., teachers, officers and employ^,

J. T. Lanter, Treasurer



Total for three months



Flour

Ink wells

Hay

Repairing flues

Abstract of title ; —

Coal oil

Livery hire.

Stamped envelopes

Hauling water

Hauling water



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