Karl Alois Kneller.

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splendidly classified collection in which every branch
of Zoology, Botany, Geology, and Palaeontology was
represented. The fauna of Northern China showed a
variety of forms, rich beyond all expectation, many
among which were species hitherto unknown and very
remarkable. On the despatch of the greater part of

1 Natur und Offenbarung XX, Miinster 1874, 574. Verhandlungen
der k. k. Zoolog.-botan. Gesellschaft in Wien XXIV, Wien 1874, 481.

2 Annales de la Congregation de la Mission XLVI, Paris 1901,
46 49. Karl Berthold, Die Forschungsreisen des franzosischen
Missionars und Naturforschers Armand David, in Katholische Studien,
herausgeg. von J. B. Stamminger III, Wiirzburg 1878. For David's
first two journeys v. Revue des deux mondes 1871, 15 fevr. 718 737,
15 mars 368394, 15 mai 317335, 15 juin 611632. David
himself gives a comprehensive survey of his theory of evolution and
his discoveries, in Les Missions catholiques XX, Lyon-Paris-Bruxelles


the collection to Paris these species were soon exhausti-
vely investigated. David was brought into intimate re-
lations with the authorities of the Jar din des Plantes
and at their instigation undertook still more adventurous
journeys." 1 One of the most important of these was
that made in 1869 to the capital of Se-tschuen. David's
bishop allowed him to make a long stay in No-ping,
where there was a large Christian population and an
ecclesiastical seminary. "It was an Eldorado for the
naturalist. . . . His scientific spoils exceeded all expec-
tation. It seemed impossible in our day to discover
anywhere on the earth's surface so large a number of
new species of mammals as David was able, at the end
of a year's labour, to send to the Museum of Zoology
at Paris. The importance of his collection had been
recognised by the most eminent authorities." 2

David himself in a paper read in Paris in i888 3 ;
wrote as follows 4 :

"Until quite recently scientists were acquainted with only
a very limited number of the animal species of China, two
or three of its birds and practically none of its reptiles,
fishes, or molluscs. ... As regards its flora, the precious
but limited collections of Fathers D'Incarville and Cibot 5 ,

1 Ferdinand Freiherr v. Richthofen, China I, Berlin
1877, 711.

2 Ib.

3 Congres scientifique international des Catholiques tenu a Paris
du 8 au 13 avril 1888 II, Paris 1888, 451467.

4 Ib. 452.

5 Pierre d'Incarville (f 1757) and Pierre Martial Cibot (f 1780)
were Jesuits. The former drew up a list of 260 Chinese plants, in
1742 sent drawings of 72 animals and plants to Paris to Anton and
Bernard Jussieu , established the first herbarium of Chinese plants,
which lay for many years disregarded in Paris, until 1882 when


together with Bunge's two or three hundred northern plants,
gave only a very inadequate idea of the vegetable wealth
of the kingdom.

"In short, now that this mighty and mysterious country
has become more accessible, the labours of scientists, working
in many ways, have so improved our knowledge of its na-
tural products that I myself was able to indicate 200 species
of wild mammals (63 of which were new) and 807 species
of birds (65 of which were formerly unknown). A con-
siderable number of reptiles, batrachia, and fishes, as well
as of molluscs and insects of every kind have also become
known to us. The herbaria sent from Ylin-nan by M. 1'Abbe
Delavay, or collected by me in various parts of China, raise
to the number of about 4000 the species of vascular plants
of the Empire, classified by the distinguished labours of
M. Franchet of the Museum. In passing I give you a hint
of the unparalled wealth of certain well known genera. Thus
the genus Rhododendron gives us 52 new species, Primula
nearly 40, and Gentiana, in the mountains of Western China
a still greater number *.

"David ranks, as the most remarkable of the animals dis-
covered by him, a species of bear (ursus melanoleucus) which
exhibits a form intermediate between the bear and cat spe-
cies. In Europe it is known only by the four specimens
which David sent to Paris. Another remarkable 'find' is
Elaphurus davidianus, the animal of which the Chinese say
that it has the horns of a stag, the hoof of a cow, the neck
of a camel, and the tail of an ass. He succeeded, after
great trouble, in obtaining for his Paris friends a specimen
of this famous long-tailed stag."

Franchet described it. Cibot composed works on certain remarkable
plants of China, e. g. cotton , bamboo, Chinese Ash , apricot , etc
C. Sommervogel, Bibliotheque de la Compagnie de Jesus II,"
Paris 1891, u68f; cf. U4if; IV (1893) 559 f. - For Abbe De-
lavay of the Society of foreign Missions v. A. D a v i d in the Missions
cath. 1888, 226.

1 Congres scientifique international des Catholiques II 435.


Another untiring student of the animal world of China
was the Jesuit missionary Petrus Heude 1 (f 1902,
January 3 rd at Shanghai). Despatched to China in 1868
he began in that year a series of scientific journeys,
especially in Kiang-su and Ngan-hwei which occupied
him almost without interruption for thirteen years. He
established an admirable Museum of Natural History in
Zi-ka-wei, returned to Europe in 1884 1885, and from
1892 till his death was once again engaged in scientific
expeditions. He visited the Philippines, Singapore, Ba-
tavia, Celebes, and the Moluccas, reaching Japan and
Wladiwostok in 1897, and Further India in 1899. At
Tongking he was stricken with his fatal illness. Heude
gained his reputation mainly by his work on shell-fish: "La
Conchyliologie fluviatile de Chine" (Paris 1875 1885)
in which he described many new species and variations.
He also made valuable contributions to the study of
the tooth-formation, and general anatomical structure
of animals 2 .

The department of Zoology which deals with insects
counts among its pioneers a Catholic priest, Pierre
Andre Latreille 3 (1762 1833). In his childhood
he was abandoned by his parents and thus left depen-
dent on the charity of strangers; in 1786 he chose
the Church as his calling with the intention of devoting
all his leisure to science. The outbreak of the Revo-

1 Cf. for him Natur und Offenbarung XLVIII, Miinster 1902, 625
to 627. F. v. Richthofen, China I, Berlin 1877, 712.

2 Memoires pour servir a 1'histoire naturelle de 1'Empire chinois,
Shang-hai 1882 1901.

3 Biographic generale XXIX 850 854. List of his writings by
Carus-Engelmann, Bibliotheca zoologica II, Leipzig 1861,


lution compelled him to fly from Paris, and take refuge
in his native town of Brive. Here he was arrested and
sentenced at Bordeaux to deportation. A rare insect
(Necrobia ruficollis) which crawled out the planks of
his cell saved him: the prison doctor brought this
"find" under the notice of Bory de Saint -Vincent, the
naturalist, and the latter secured the liberation of La-
treille a few hours before the convict ship was due
to sail *.

In 1797 Latreille was again in the clutches of the
law, but once again his friends managed to save him.
He was appointed later to a post in the Paris Museum
of Natural History where he had charge of the entomo-
logical collection , and occupied important teaching
chairs. "They give me bread", he said, "because I
have no longer any teeth." Latreille's work relates to
reptiles, Crustacea, and insects, more especially ants.
He was the author of the sections on Crustacea, spi-
ders and insects, in Cuvier's great work on Zoology,
and also of the description of the collection of cru-
stacea brought by Von Humboldt and Bonpland from
South America. Latreille stands among "the leaders
of natural science, and holds the first place in Syste-
matic Entomology" 2 .

Another most distinguished entomologist was Jean
Theodore Lacordaire (f 1871), brother of the famous
pulpit-orator. He made four journeys to South America,
and one to Senegambia, lived for a time in Paris by
his pen, and in 1835 obtained a professorship in the
University of Liege. His scientific reputation rests

1 Details in Natur und Offenbarung XXX, Mtinster 1884, 701703.

2 Ib. XXX 701.


mainly on his work in ten volumes "Genera des Coleop-
teres", an epoch-making study which has not yet been
surpassed. His "deeply religious attitude towards life"
has been recorded by his biographers 1 .

Arnold Forster (f 1884) a native of Aix-la-Cha-
pelle, and for many years Principal of the Real-Gym-
nasium in that town, won a name of great authority in
every branch of Entomology, but especially in that re-
lating to the microhymenoptera. "Reared in the most
ardent piety he was all his life a loyal Catholic. He
was one of the leaders of his party, but his Catholicity
was not merely external ... it was a matter of earnest,
every-day practice. He showed the warmest interest in
all works of charity; many were the needs which his
benevolence unobtrusively relieved, and when his own
recources fell short he was always ready to appeal to

others "To the friends of his youth as well as to those

whom he won in later years, he was always unwavering
in his fidelity ; and the two or three whom political or
religious differences led to abandon him - - he never
abandoned anyone - - received at his hands a respect
and regard which made them in the end ashamed of
their foolish rancour." 2

1 II n'eut conscience de sa position que quelques heures avant
de s'eteindre ; mais a ce moment supreme la fermete de son caractere*
alliee a des sentiments profondement religieux , lui firent accepter
sans defaillance 1'arret qui allait recevoir son execution (Annuaire
of the Belgian Academy XXXVIII, Bruxelles 1872, 155). A daughter
of his became a nun (ib. 156).

2 Omar Wackerzapp in Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen
Vereins der preufiischen Rheinlande, Westfalens und des Regierungs-
bezirks Osnabriick XLIII, Bonn 1 886, Korrespondenzblatt p. 38.
On Joh. Egger (f 1866), who "stets einen Ehrenplatz einnehmen

Kneller, Christianity. 23


No purpose would be served by adducing any further
names of distinction in Zoology. The objections to
Christianity, drawn from that science, are bound up
with the theory of evolution , and that we reserve
for separate treatment. But a science closely akin
to Zoology, Botany, will yield us some instructive

The first to whom we appeal is Karl Friedrich
Philipp Von Martius (f 1868), a friend and col-
league of Ehrenberg 1 . Von Martius was a student
at Erlangen when in 1812 the Munich Academicians
Von Schrank and Spix made his acquaintance during
a passing visit, and induced him to change his resi-
dence to Munich. In the year 1816 he accompanied
Spix on a scientific expedition to Brazil. In four
years they covered 1400 German Miles, traversing
seven Brazilian provinces, and ending with the Ama-
zon. "From the point of view alike of the area ex-
plored, and of the brilliant discoveries made, it was
the most important of all the expeditions to the
South American continent." On his return Von Martius
published an account of the journey "which possesses
the same importance in regard to Brazil, as the works
of Von Humboldt in regard to the other regions of
tropical America" 2 . He followed this up with a work
on Palm-trees of which Humboldt wrote: "So long as

wird" in the history of Entomology in Austria, we are told in the
Verhandlungen der k. k. Zoolog.-botan. Gesellschaft in Wien (XVII,
Wien 1867, 536) : "Er starb ruhig und mit voller Ergebung in den
Willen des Herrn."

1 Wunschmann in Allgemeine deutsche Biographic XX 5 J 7
to 527. Ch. Rau, Memoir of C. F. P. von Martius, Washington 1871.

2 Wunschmann ante 521.


we continue to speak of palms, and to study palms, the
name of Martius is safe from forgetfulness." Von Martius
undertook further the colossal task of writing a Flora
Brasileensis, and at his death had completed the des-
cription of more than 8000 plant varieties.

On March 3O th 1864 Von Martius celebrated his
Golden Jubilee as a University Professor. In his reply
to the address presented by the Academic Body we
find the following * :

"Public opinion is in our day much too apt to assume
that the study of natural science produces in those who
pursue it a materialistic temper, which is hostile to every be-
lief that lies beyond the range of the senses, and refuses to
entertain the notion that the universe rests on a spiritual
foundation. And yet who can grasp that truth more clearly
than the scientist who stands, not on the mere crust of pheno-
mena, but in the central stream of life ? He recognises, 'that
this great Whole can have been made only by a God', and
that a something moves in it quite other than the laws of
the phenomenal world. These he seeks, and in greater or
less measure, discovers, and his intellect discerns their har-
monious correlation as the expression of a supreme, a divine
purposiveness. But to their source and first cause he can
never penetrate, and his clear perception of the limitation
of the human mind teaches him humility. . . . Mysteries en-
circle the path of the scientist. The disintegration of white
light into the gay variety of the spectrum, the endless disso-
lution and re-combination of matter, the origin and growth
of the simplest speck of life, its evolution and ascent through
organisms rising higher and higher in the scale until we
reach the human body: we see all these, we study them,
we classify phenomena and determine the conditions of their
uprise but we do not penetrate into the essence of their
being. . . . Deep down in abysses that we cannot fathom, lies

1 Sitzungsberichte der k. bayr. Akademie der Wissenschaften 1864
I 190 192.



their source and ultimate ground, and the 'wonder' of Plato
is not merely the first incitement to research, but also its
final result. The scientist, finding that the beginning and
the end of phenomena alike lie beyond his grasp, is driven
in on the conception of a spiritual force, working behind
and upbearing this sublime order of things in which life
comes to mean death and death life, this surging ocean the
waves of which rise and fall and take new shapes under the
stress of a living infinite power, and not as mere dead spindles
of an ingenious machine.

"Chance there may be in the material world, but not in
that higher region of the intelligences which pursue their
mysterious paths under the paternal eye of God. This was the
faith of the great masters of science, of Linnaeus, of Kiel-
meyer, Cuvier, Humphry Davy, of my unforgettable teacher
Schrank, and many another. It is also mine. . . ." 1

These words give us an unambiguous declaration of
the philosophical position of Von Martius. From a pri-
vate letter to C. G. Cams, of January i8 tb 1861, we learn
how he stood with regard to Christianity. Carus had
lost his eldest daughter; the letter, published by the re*
cipient after the death of Von Martius, 'was one of com
fort and condolence 2 :

1 Von Martius wrote once to his pupil A. Spring, in Liege: C'est
par la pensee et par 1'aspiration vers 1'Eternel que 1'humanite a la
chance de se soustraire a 1'action aveugle des forces de la nature,
a peu pres comme certains etres ont traverse vivants les cataclysmes
geologiques , alors que leurs congeneres n'ont transmis que leurs ca-
davres aux periodes suivantes. Deus autem , sempiternus rerum om-
nium auspex et iudex, sedet alta in arce et tremenda fata spargit per
mundum. Combien , ajouta-t-il, je desirerais m'entretenir avec vous,
a 1'ombre d'un tilleul fleuri , sur les merveilles de 1'etre et de la
pensee ! (Annuaire of the Belgian Academy XXXVII , Bruxelles
1871, 293.)

2 Leopoldina, Amtliches Organ der kaiserl. Leopoldino-Karolini-
schen deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher Heft 6, Nr. i 2, Februar
1869, 109.


"Most wonderfully has God, Whose wisdom and justice I
humbly reverence, fashioned us of sense and spirit, and where
the body plays a part there follows on the light that passes
the shadow of pain. When we enter within the circle of
immortal life we find eternal joy, everlasting life. Yes!
what eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, what it has not
entered into the heart of man to conceive, that is the
bliss which I hope to possess when I have put off the
flesh. There is no more potent intimation given us of such
an existence than the experience of pain. . . .

"Since your last letter I have thought of you every night
with unwearying sympathy while I lay awake in bed. The
night before last there came a sudden brightness in my room,
and the mightiest and noblest of humankind stood beside me,
and lifted up his hands and blessed me. As I lay with my
eyes fixed on the sacred scars I heard a gentle voice : 'Thus
the destiny of every man lifts him up on his cross of pain,
and lifts him nearer to heaven. The one feels it ; the other,
still in the darkness of primitive man, as so many are even
now, does not see that it is towards heaven he is raised.
But you who know this, bear in mind that the Calvary which
every man must climb is written and appointed in the wis-
dom and justice- of God, and long not after rest nor after
love, for human life can give neither. What is your craving
for bodily ease but mere weakness?'

"It was a lesson for my poor, weak, and anxious heart,
and I said to myself while I thought of you : Be brave, hold
your way unwaveringly, and do not long after the peace of
heaven until the time is come. ..."

"The fervour of Martius' faith", writes a contempo-
rary 1 , "found expression even after his death: on the
white hood of the habit which he had prepared for
himself there was embroidered a green cross 'a cross',
as he said, 'because I am a Christian, green in honour
of Botany'. "

1 E Ringseis, Erinnerungen des Dr. J. N. v. Ringseis II,
Regensburg und Amberg 1886, 274.


Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer(f 1844) of whom Von Mar-
tius spoke in his address, was a professor at Tubingen, then
director of the institutions in Stuttgart for both science and
art; but as he wrote nothing he is to-day all but forgotten.
But others as well as Martius, ranked him with the "masters"
of science. Humboldt in dedicating to him the "Observations
in Zoology and Comparative Anatomy" called him the first
of German physiologists. Cuvier wrote that he "always re-
garded Kielmeyer as his master, and admired his genius no
less than he loved his character", and it is certain that
Kielmeyer exercised great influence on the ideas of Cuvier.
Martius' account of his religious belief will be found con-
firmed in the biography of Kielmeyer by G. Ja'ger *.

The botanist and zoologist Von Schrank (f 1835) was a
member of the Society of Jesus. On the suppression of his
Order he turned to teaching, and in 1784 secured a pro-
fessorate at the University which was at first in Ingolstadt
and later in Landshut. In 1809 he went to Munich, where
he was placed in charge of the Botanic Garden. Von Schrank
rendered great services to Bavaria, and enjoyed a distin-
guished reputation. "There was a time in Germany", says
a notice of his death 2 , "when if it had been asked who
was the greatest scientist in Germany, the reply would have
been Von Schrank." He was called "the third Linnaeus". His
pen was untiring, and he laboured in the most diverse de-
partments of science. He was the author of more than 40
independent works, and 200 papers and minor studies. In
Botany he will always bear a name of the most honourable
repute 3 . His greatest work is his Flora Monacensis published
in four folio volumes 1811 1818. Von Schrank was always
a worthy and pious priest. "He never failed in the duties

1 Verhandlungen der Leopoldinisch -Karolinischen Akademie der
Naturforscher XXI, Breslau und Bonn 1845, * ff -

2 Allgemeine Zeitung , Augsburg 1836, auBerordentliche Beilage
Nr. 2224, p- 85 f 93 f.

3 E. Wunschmann in Allgemeine deutsche Biographic XXXII
451. According to Von Martius he is the most fruitful of German writers
(Akademische Denkreden, Miinchen 1866, 53).


of his sacred office. One often found the old white-haired
man on his knees reading his breviary ; he said Mass every
day, as long as he retained sufficient strength for any-
thing." He was buried in the Jesuithabit which he had worn
for half a century *.

We could find among botanists a wealth of names
friendly to religion as e. g. Jussieu 2 (f 1836); Benjamin
Delessert 3 (f 1847); F - H - L i nk4 (t 1851); Karl Adolf
Agardh (f 1859), w ^ was the first to undertake the
study of seaweeds and who as Swedish Bishop of Karl-
stad 5 wrote against D. F. Strauss ; Adalbert Schnizlein 6
(f 1868); H. G. L. Reichenbach 7 (f 1879); L. R. Tulasne
(f 1885); P. E. Boissier(f 1885); M. Willkomm (f 1895).

One of the most distinguished of the more recent
Botanists was Alexander Braun (f 1877).

"What distinguishes Braun's scientific works", writes a bio-
grapher 8 , "is not merely their vast range though there is no
department of botanical science which he has not mastered
and developed - - and the depth and penetration of his
mind, but also the steadiness with which he keeps his eye
fixed on a higher goal. He is never content with the
study of particular phenomena, master though he is of
observational methods; his eye is ever fixed on the totality
of nature, the living interrelation of all its parts, the great
general laws through which we reach back to the ultimate

1 Allgemeine Zeitung 1836, 94.

2 A.-M. Ampere, Essai sur la philosophic des sciences II, Paris
1843, xxxiv.

3 Flourens, Recueil des eloges II, Paris 1857, 325 386.

4 v. Martius in Bulletin der k. Akademie der Wissenschaften,
Miinchen 1851, 218 220.

5 H. Steffens, Was ich erlebte IX, Breslau 1844, 144.

6 Allgemeine deutsche Biographic XXXII, 178.

7 Leopoldina XVII, Halle 1881, 35.

8 Ib. XIII, Halle 1877, 6869.


source of being. ... In all his writings and addresses we
find him insisting that all true science must lead from the
created to the Creator. To him 'Nature is not dead matter,
not a cunning mechanism kept in motion by unknown forces,
but the ordered history of the evolution of life, life coming
from that Creator, Whom through analysis of his own life
he finds to be the source of all being and all force, and to
Whom he reverently prays'" 1 .

In his address on "The Significance of Morphology"
(1862) and "The Significance of Evolution in the History
of Nature" (1872) the freedom of mind with which he dis-
cusses Darwinism, not rejecting it, but pleading for a deepen-
ing of the theory so as to harmonise it with morphological
laws, is very notable.

Of Braun's private life his biographer writes 2 :

"Under all these trials (family losses) he showed patience
and humility; his profoundly religious mind accepted joy
and sorrow as coming alike from the hand of God, Whose
love is shown in taking away as in giving."

Johannes Hans te in (f 1880), the Bonn botanist,
maintained that "physico-chemical forces are quite in-
sufficient to explain organic life". "Organic life becomes
intelligible only when interpreted teleologically , and
from the point of view of purpose." 3

If Hanstein appealed to Botany against Darwinism it
was from the same science that the most uncompro-
mising and convinced opponent of that form of the
theory of evolution drew his chief arguments. J.W.Albert
Wig and (f 1886), Professor in Marburg, may have

1 A. B r a u n , Uber den Zusammenhang der naturwissenschaft-
lichen Disziplinen unter sich und mit der Wissenschaft im allgemeinen,
Leipzig 1855, 2 3-

2 Leopoldina XIII, Halle 1877, 71.

3 Ih. XVII, Halle 1881, 7778.


borne himself a little too savagely in polemics, but he
certainly showed the inadequacy of the Darwinian
theory to explain the actual facts of development.
Wigand was a fervent Christian as well as a leader of
science, and he died in the conviction that between
science and religion there is no enmity or antithesis 1 .

Ferdinand Von Miiller (f 1896), Professor of the
Australian Geographical Society, and "admittedly the
first authority on the flora of Australia" 2 distin-
guished above all as a "systematiser" - "made it a
practice to enrich his works with carefully chosen Latin
mottoes, commonly drawn from the Bible, declaring the
glory of the Almighty as manifested in the creation" 3 .

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