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Among the smaller dictionaries of the English and German languages Cas-
sell's German Dictionary, compiled by Miss E. Weir, has for many years been
held in well-deserved esteem by English and American students of German,
ind even been used by several of the latest German dictionary writers. When
the publishers asked me to revise the book, originally published in 1888, 1
nudertook the laborious task in the hope of being able to correct a number of
ictual mistakes, and to add many important words and phrases that had
either been overlooked or had recently come into existence. But, especially,
I wished to make several general improvements which would materially en-
hance its practical usefulness, and make it, if possible, the best English-Ger-
man dictionary in one volume at a moderate price, a book comparable, in its
more limited sphere, to the new Grieb-Schroer, FlUgel-Schmidt-Tanger, and
the small Muret. To the accomplishment of this task nearly all my leisure
hours during the last eight years have been devoted, but I am only too con-
scious that I have not been able fully to realize the aim which I had set be-
fore me. I shall at all times be sincerely grateful for notifications of mis-
takes or important omissions — the only way in which those who use a book
)f this kind can to some extent repay the compiler for the onerous work he
las performed in their interest.

Only the principal accent of the German words has been given, and this,
t is hoped, will be found helpful. As the book will in all probability be
nainly used by English-speaking students — although not addressed to them
delusively — it did not seem to be equally important to indicate the accentua-
ion of the English words. For the same reason the vocabulary of the German-
English part is somewhat fuller than that of the English-German portion.
n the former, besides the stock of ordinary words that are bound to appear
n both parts, many German dialectal terms (e. g. Deem, man, Marjell, Fluh f
tc.) are introduced, as well as the most common German slang expressions
— such as occur in every modern German book or newspaper, and are f re-
cently heard in educated families — while there was no necessity to give
hem in the English-German part. All reasonable assistance for writing
jerman composition, up to an advanced stage, has, however, been given, and
t will be found that the idioms of both languages have been treated with
articular fullness for a book of this size.

In compiling this new edition the best modern dictionaries of English and
rerman have been consulted, above all the admirable Muret-Sanders, in the
iompilation of which I myself had for some time a modest share. The nature

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of this monumental work precludes all thoughts of comparison or rivalry.
Also the excellent works of Flttgel, Flttgel-Schmidt-Tanger, Grieb-Schrber,
the small Muret (in 2 vols.), Heyue, Paul, Kluge, Heintze, Saalfeld ; the New
English Dictionary, Cassell, Webster's International, the Century, the Stand-
ard, Annandale, Chambers, Skeat, and many others, were frequently con-
sulted, and rarely without profit. A comparison of these valuable works with
the books enumerated by Miss Weir as her chief authorities shows at a glance
the great strides made in the field of English and German lexicography since
the publication of the first edition in 1888.

The chief points in which the present edition differs from the original are
the following : —

Not only have numerous mistakes and misprints been corrected, and many
thousands of new words and phrases been added, but a large number of the
old renderings have been corrected and re-arranged. Words etymologically
connected have, as a rule, been grouped under the same heading, while in
many cases homonyms of different origin, which had been confused in the
former edition, have now for the first time been separated. The forms of all
the strong and irregular verbs, besides appearing in the Indexes, have been
entered in their alphabetical place in the main part of the Dictionary.

In the German-English part the German accentuation has been indicated.
In the English-German part, and in the lists of the German strong and irregu-
lar verbs, the latest official spelling of 1902 (as adopted by Germany, Aus-
tria, and Switzerland) is given. This spelling, which will probably be gener-
ally adopted in the future (e. g. Efeu, Tiir, gibt, imstandesein), has hitherto not
appeared in any other English-German dictionary. Wherever the spelling of
German words in Part I. and Part II. disagrees, the spelling of Part II.
should be followed. The spelling of Part I., however, is the one which until
now is found in nearly every ordinary German book.

A great improvement on the old edition is the insertion, in brackets, of the
case required in particular phrases by German prepositions that take more
than one case. The want of such information is the frequent cause of mis-
takes in German composition, and the way to avoid these common errors is
not always readily discovered even in larger dictionaries. The prepositions
required in connection with certain nouns have as a rule been added (e. g.
Ehrfurcht (vor), Hoffnung (auf), Lust («u), Abneigung (gegen), etc.) The
cases have been added in all such reflexive verbs as do not take the accusa-
tive (e. g. sich denken, sich einbUden, sick verschaffen). The somewhat mislead-
ing etwas and jemand have been replaced by the terms eine S., einer 5. and
einen, einem. In the English-German part great care has been bestowed upon
the rendering of foreign terms by their German equivalents. In conformity
with the moderate principles of the " Allgemeiner Deutscher Sprachvere\n,"
German renderings are generally given alone or in the first place, where in
the previous edition the English word had merely been rendered by a German

Among the new words and phrases inserted will be found many thousands
of idiomatic phrases, well-known proverbs that have no literal equivalent in
the other language, and familiar quotations ; many ordinary dialectal and col-
loquial expressions, and a number of German slang terms in common use that

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often prove puzzling to English students. There will also be found the chief
new cycling and motoring terms, ordinary military, postal, railway, tennis,
historical, geographical, phonetic and linguistic expressions, newspaper terms
and advertisements, the chief technical terms of commerce, education, litera-
ture, aud art. Space was gained for the very numerous additions by the oniis*
siou of some lengthy translations of unimportant Biblical passages, some little
used and obsolete words, vulgarisms aud rare scientific and technical terms.
In many cases space was saved by the suppression of compounds, the forma-
tion of which presented no difficulty and the component parts of which were
given under their separate headings, e. g. " butter-dish " Butterschale, " water-
melon" Wassermelone, etc. On the other hand, "butterfly" Schmetterling,
u waterlily " Wasserrose, had, of course, to be given, as well as words in which
one part of the compound is inflected in German, such as " sunflower " Son-
nenblume, "woman-hater" Frauenhasser, Weiberfeind, "goose-quill" Gtinse-
feder, etc. Thus, while compounds such as Apfelbaum, Buchmacher, Ollampe,
or " breadfruit tree," " house door, " " tiger-cat, " and many others could
safely be omitted, words such as SiindfliU, Maultier, Heerstrcuse, or " lady-
bird," " titmouse," " wormwood," and others are given. Accurate information
as to the best German pronunciation is given in the books by Vietor, Siebs,
Jobannson, and others (see p. iz.) which are cheap and easily accessible. The
appendix to the first edition, containing a synopsis of the changes introduced
into German orthography in 1880, has been omitted, as it is now quite out of
date. Students should consult the little official Prussian spelling-book, and
the handy and cheap works by Duden and Sarrazin, the full titles of which are
given below. For fuller information on all these works, and for a synopsis
of the chief difficulties of German pronunciation, students may refer to my
book on the " Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages " (Cambridge : Uni-
versity Press. Third edition, 1906). In dividing up words the combination
ft is now considered inseparable, hence ne'fteln, tro'flen, etc. In case of doubt
concerning the best spelling of certain English words I have often been guided
by the " Rules for Compositors and Readers," at the University Press, Oxford,
by H. Hart, London and Oxford, 1907.

The very full indexes of names (including the chief colloquial forms of
proper names) and abbreviations, and the lists of strong and irregular verbs
in both parts, are for the most part new, and will, it is hoped, greatly add to
the usefulness of the book. The insertion and explanation of some important
German " kenningar, " such as der grosse Schweiger, der rote Prinz, die rote
Erde, der eiserne Kanzler, der alte Fritz, or terms such as Erlkonig, Riibezahl,
Konigsteutnant, Schildbiirger, Buxtehude, etc., will probably be welcome addi-
tions. In this way, although in the briefest possible manner, some common
German and English realia could be explained.

In conclusion, there remains for me the pleasant duty to render my hearti-
est thanks to many old pupils and kind friends who, by sending me contribu-
tions, or in some other way, have assisted me in my work. Among my friends
and colleagues my thanks are due to Professors Fiedler, Her ford, Napier,
Marshall Ward, and to Messrs. Chas. Elsden, G. Morier-Hinde, Tule Oldham,
S. Ruhemann, O. Siepmann, Francis Storr, Josiah Walker. Of former pupils
I gratefully mention the names of the Misses G. M. Parry, H. Sollas, aud J.

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Burne, and of Messrs. H. Brown, E. C. Quiggin, Thomas Rea, and F. J2L
Sandbach. I am particularly indebted to my friends and former pupils Mr.
E. Bullough, and, above all, to Miss Minna Steele Smith, Head Lecturer in
Modern Languages at Newnham College, who have with the greatest care
assisted me in the revision of part of the proofs. Much that is good in the
book is due to the assistance received from these various kind helpers, while
I must alone be responsible for its shortcomings. My thanks are also due to
the great pains bestowed on its production by the printers of Cambridge,
U. S. A., and the care and resourcefulness of their able press reader. I now
dismiss my book from the quiet study into the bustling world and its mani-
fold claims on it with the parting words of the good old Sir Richard Ros :

•• Goo, title book, God aende the good passage ...
And specially lete this be thi prayere
Vnto hem all that the wil rede or here,
Wber thou art wrong, after ther helpe to calla,
The to correct* in eny parte or alle. "

K. B.


10, Crammer Road,
August, 1906.

A large number of minor corrections and improvements have been made in
this reprint, and all the misprints noticed have been corrected. I shall be
grateful to any users of this book who will kindly either point out to me
actual mistakes, or call my attention to important omissions (for a book of
this size) in order to enable me to introduce further improvements into subse-
quent editions. My thanks are due to Professor Walter Rippmann, M. A.,
Mr. Francis E. Sandbach, M. A., Ph. D., Mr. E. C. Quiggin, M. A., Ph. D.,
Mr. Thomas Rea, M. A., Mr. G. Morier-Hinde, M. A., Mr. A. Henry, M. A. f
Mr. E. Barry, M. A., and Mr. G. W. Bullen, for kindly sending me correc-
tions and suggestions.

K. B.


10, C rammer Road,
Easier, 1909.

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OronUff <

I of Words etymologically related and having an initial syllable or sylla-
"~ bles in common are grouped under this initial syllable or syllables. The
completion of each word (the suffixes and second components), being
printed in full-faced type, readily catches the eye, thus obviating any
difficulty which the breaking up of the words might otherwise present. Words
formed by terminations (derivative words) come first in each group in alphabet-
ical order, the compounds following in the same order, but separated from them by
the abbreviation Comp. (for Compound). 1 No attempt has been made to distinguish
between primary derivatives (such as ftmtft, Btamc, $tmnse() and secondary (as tratftur,
©Sitter, firMift), such distinctions being deemed beyond the province of a work like
the present.

Use of When a prefix, suffix, or component of a word is enclosed in brackets it

Brackets. is to be understood as signifying that the unbracketed word is a synonym
by itself, and when taken with the bracketed word or syllable forms
another synonym, which may be used in the same sense as that in which the un-
bracketed word is used . thus (9(nt>)Kbcr signifies that ttber and 8(ntober are both equi-
valents in a certain sense of the English word * vein ' ; in the same way, (ein)taud)cn, to
dip; (er)lif(id), venial; electric(al), elefrrtfd) ; orook(ed)-backed, sufteftg, etc., etc.
But if a word or phrase enclosed in brackets in one language be followed by a word
or phrase enclosed in brackets in the other language, the contents of the one bracket
are to be understood as translating the contents of the other : for example — to do
good (evil), <9utt§ (©9fe#) tint — where 93fe6 is the translation of the bracketed ' evil/
and the phrase 9ofed ten of the phrase ' to do evil.' When a German word or words
enclosed in brackets is followed by no bracketed word or words in English, the con-
tents of the bracket are for the purpose of showing the case required by the German
verb it accompanies, or for some other grammatical purpose; thus, when * to court* is
to be rendered by (finer * erf on) sen $of madjen, (eincr $erfon) is inserted for the pur-
pose of informing the student that, although the English verb governs the accusative
case, the German requires the dative ; in the same way, * to court ' is further defined
as ftdi (*« cine &.) setoersen, in order to exhibit the fact that in this sense of * court '
the German equivalent is followed by the accusative with urn. In the German-
English division (e btent etl»a£) is employed as a short way of saying that the verb to
vhich it is joined governs the dative of the person and the accusative of the thing.

When several synonyms are given, all answering to one sense of a word,
they are separated by commas, whilst those representing different
i are separated by semicolons ; thus — &*U, decay, ruin, downfall; case {Gram.)
— * decay,' * ruin,* ' downfall,' being all synonyms of &att in one sense, are only sepa-
rated from one another by commas, but they are separated from * case,' which repre-
sents a wholly different sense, by a semicolon. A phrase, on the other hand, even
when exhibited in wholly different senses, has the different renderings divided only
by commas; before each new sense, however, in the English-German part, an explana-
tory word or phrase is inserted in parentheses * as — to break down, int Hsncsmen fcitt
{at a p.'s health), burdrfadm (at an examination), wntoerfen (as a carriage) — or — to
come round (recover), fid) erftolrn, (change one's opinion) fdjttmnfen, fid} bebenfen, fin)
saber* sdtnncn, (return, as an anniversary) ttieberfefjren, (return, as a term) fftttig
versta, (change, as the wind) fid* breftcn, etc.

i BngUih words given under Comp. are not always written at compounds.

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BngllsftSyn- In Part II., or the English-German division of the work, every new
^^"'SSa " Ben8e "* wn * cn a word is taken is either preceded by an English syno-
Sherman nvm * m ^ oman fc yP e m parentheses, as — to doom (sentence) oerurteUen;
words. (destine) beftimmcn — or followed by some explanatory word or phrase

in italics in parentheses, as — to do, er We if en (kindness) — or — to drivel,
geifern (as infants) — . In place of a synonym, a word is occasionally preceded by an
explanatory clause in italics, as — to drink (of beasts) fattf en — which denotes that
1 drink/ when expressing the action of a beast, is translated by funfen and not by
trinfen, which is the word employed in the case of human beings. 2

Gender of The gender of German substantives in this part, too, is shown by

SjEJJJu the accompanying article ber, bie, bad ; but when an adjective is given

Syacoompj^ 1 w * tn tne substantive the article is usually omitted and the gender

nylngAruole shown by the termination of the adjective, as — dry measure, trotfened

or Adjective, maf ; dry cough, rrotfener $uftot.

The term The term part, (for particle) has been employed throughout to de-
'Partlole.' no te a class of words, so numerous in the German language, which,
while possessing a certain force, have no precise syntactical relation to
the other words in a sentence. This is the only particular in which the ordinary
terminology of English grammarians has been departed from.

Similarly Words differing in meaning and origin, but spelt alike, are num-
spelt words bored, so that no difficulty can arise owing to their separation for ety-
JJJJjJ 111 " mological reasons under different heads

For an explanation of abbreviations, see Abbreviations (p. xiv.).

1 These words are, of course, only approximately synonymous.

* It is, of course, to be understood that where a synonym of, say, an adjective is explained, the
substantive, etc.. corresponding to this adjective, and included in the samo article, is not in general
separately explained : as — Pleasant, adj., freunbftb (as a room); (lively) munter, etc. —nets, «.,
bie $reunbttafeit; bit SRuntertcit.

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I Larger Gkrmax-Englibh and English-German Gbubbal Dictionaries.

1. Muret - Sanders. Encyklopadisches Englisch - Deutsches und Deutsch -

Englisohes Worterhuch. Four Tola. Berlin. 1891-1002. Abridged
Edition. Two vols. Berlin, London. 1900. Revised Edition. 1908.

2. Felix Flugel. Allgemeines Englisch -Dentsches nnd Deutsch -Englisches

Worterbnch. Three vols. Braunschweig*. 1891.

3. Fl'ugel - Schmidt - Tanger. A Dictionary of the English and German Lan-

?iages for Home and School. Two vols. Braunschweig. London. New
ork. 1896.

4. Grieb-Schrder. Englisch -Deutsches und Deutsch -Englisches Worterhuch.

Two vols. Stuttgart. 1894-1902.

5. Thieme-Kellner. Neues und vollstandiges Handworterbuch der Englischen

nnd Deutschen Sprache. Two vols. Braunschweig. 1902-1905.
IL Special Dictionaries (English and German).

6. F. W. Eitxen. Worterbuch der Handelssprache. Two vols. Leipzig.


7. Gustav Eger. Technologisches Worterbuch in englischer und deutscher

Sprache. Two vols. Braunschweig. 1882-1884.

III. German-German Dictionaries, ETC.t

8. Moriz Heyne. Deutsches Worterbuch. Three vols. Leipzig. 1890-1896.

(There is also an abridged edition of this work in one volume. 1896.)

9. Herm. Patd. Deutsches Worterbuch. One vol. Halle. 1897. a 1908.

10. Friedr. KLuge. Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache.

Strassburg. «1899.|

11. Albert Heinize. Deutscher Sprachhort. Ein Stil- Worterbuch. Leipzig.


12. Otto Sarrazin. Verdeutschungs- Worterbuch. Berlin. 8 1906.

13. Giinther A. Saalfeld, Fremd- und Verdeutschungs-Worterbuch. Berlin.


14. Herein fur die deutsche Rechtschreibung nebst Worterverzeichnis.

Neue Bearbeitung. Berlin. 1902.

15. Konrad Duden. Orthographisches Worterbuoh der deutschen Sprache.

Leipzig. U902.

16. Otto SwrazifL Worterbuch fur eine deutsche Einheitsschreibung. Berlin.


17. Eberhard-Lyon. Synonymisches Handworterbuch der deutschen Sprache.

Leipzig. 16 1896.

18. Otto Ladendorf. Historisches Schlagworterbuch. Strassburg and Berlin.


19. Borchardt-Wustmann. Die sprichwortlichen Redensarten im deutschen

Volksmunde nach Sinn und Urspmng erlautert. Leipzig. 6 1895.

20. Arnold Genthe. Deutsches Slang. Eine Sammlung familiarer Ausdrucke

und Redensarten. Strassburg. 1892.

21. Gtorg Biichmann. Gefliigelte Worte. Der Citatenschatz des deutschen

Volkes gesammelt und erlautert. Berlin. 16 1889. (There are later

IV. Pbonunciation.

22. W. Vi'etor. Die Aussprache des Schriftdentschen. Leipzig. 6 1901.

23. Theod. Siebs. Grundzuge der Biihnenanssprache. Berlin, etc. 2 1904.

24. Theod. Siebs. Deutsche Biihnenanssprache. Berlin, etc. 2 1901. (A fuller

treatise than No. 23.)

25. Arwid Johannson. Phonetics of the New High German Language.

Manchester, Leipzig. 1906.

• The English and American dictionaries consulted for the present book, e.g. the New English
Dictionary, Cassell, Webster's Internationa], Century, Standard, Annandale, Chambers, Skeat, and

i are too well known to require the full titles to be given in this place.

t for older and larger books, e.g. the still unfinished dictionary of the brothers Grimm and

Online LibraryKarl BreulA NEW GERMAN AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY → online text (page 1 of 232)