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Kti'iag, Sojpo^tviag, irapavoi-twv, Trapairpia^nag. Wachsmuth, Antiq.
ii, 1. p, 299, sqq., coll. 255—287.

7) On the limitations of the right of prosecuting for homicide, see above,
^. 104. n. 5 ; Platner, ii. p. 4, rightly remarks, that there were several other
public suits which it is very doubtful whether any third party might insti-
tute ; of some it is however certain, as foi instance, the (iKai KaKw-
ffiwg, and the like ; compare Demosth. adv. Timocr. p. 733 ; adv. IMacart.
p. 1068 ; Poll. viii. 35 ; also the ciKat vlSpeug, see Demosth, adv. Mid. c.
14, where a distinction is clearly made between such a suit instituted by
an individual in his own name (the ypatpr) i^ia) and one in the name of a
third party; it is certainly surprising to find the fiKai r/Sptwe 'n <"• 9- o(
the same oration reckoned among the ^iKai l^iat, in contradistinction to the



270 POLITICAL ANTIQUITIES [chap. vi.

ypa<pi) cifff^iiaq (not the irpo^oKi), as asserted by Boeckh, Publ. CEcon.
ii. p. 102). Compare the divisions made by Hippodamus, in Aristot.
Polit. ii. 5. 2, namely, into jSXafSi}, vfipiQ, <p6voQ. 'I'he distinction made
by Otto, ]. c. i. p. 40, into SiKai, ypa(pai, and tyKXry/iara, has been suffi-
ciently refuted by Meier.

8) See Demosth. ibid. c. 9, extr., p. 523, 24.

9) Hence there was sometimes choice to be made between two modes of
proceeding ; whether, for instance, by the ypcap)) vlSpsojg or by the Sikt]
ciliciaQ, compare Herald. Obss. ad .T. A. et K. ii. c. 9 — 12, and in parti-
cular, p. 129, sq. There is also an interesting passage on this point in
Demosth. adv. Androt. p. 601, with which compare adv. Timocr. p. 736.

§. 136. There were other forms of public indict-
ment^ besides the ypafrj and da-ayyeXla just noticed, and
differing from them either in the summary process by
which they were followed, as the ev^e^^t^, airayuyvj, and
i(p'^yrj<Tiq, or in the circumstance that part of the penalty
went as a reward to the accuser^. Of the latter kind
was the fa.<rii, which, although it assumed, in course of
time, the exact form of the yfo-ipy], with the exception
of this single circumstance ^ , appears to have been
originally nothing more than a simple information
against offenders'*. Most of the cases in which it was
had recourse to, were connected with the financial in-
terests ^ ; such as breaches of commercial ^ laws, or of
those respecting the mines 7, contraband trade ^, em-
bezzlement, and illegal possession of any kind of pub-
lic property, an inventory of which occasionally oc-
curs as a set form of accusation^. Recourse was also
had to the <pd<Tt<; against sycophants, and unfaithful
guardians. The penalty, which was generally a fine,
lay at the discretion of the judges ^^ ; these several
cases went before different courts ^^.

1) Pollux, viii. 41, reckons among the ypct(pai, taking the word in its
wider acceptation, the SoKif-iaeria, tvBvvr], TrpofioXt), (j)aaiQ, 'ivSei'^ic, aTra-
yoiy)), ffrjyHrrGai, dvSpoXti^piov, thayysXia, which Wachsmuth, ii. 1. p.
293, following Heffter, p. 127, calls not specific, in contradistinction to the
specific. Schomann's criticism of Pollux, de Com. p. 179, is perhaps not
quite correct. Of the (loni/iafrirt and fi/0(i)/»;, we shall speak more accu-
rately in part iv. of this chapter; concerning the dv?po\)]^piov, see above,
§. 104. n. 7.



SECT. 137.] OF GREECE. 271

2) See Demosth. adv. Theocr. p. 1325. 29, also adv. Macart. p. 1074.
26; and comp. Boeckh. ad C. Inscr. i. p. 895. Pollux, viii. 48, gives a
different account : to Tinr}6kv tyiyvtTO twv ddiKovfikvuv, li Kai dWog
vnip airwv (j)yvtuv.

3) Compare Schomann, de Com. p. 177, sq.; Otto, 1. c. i. p. 24 — 27 ;
Heffter, p. 186—191 ; Meier att. Proc. p. 247—252 ; Plainer, ii. p. 9—
17.

4) Pollux, viii. 47 : koivoiq Se (pdaiig tKaXovvTO Trdirai a'l /xrjvvaug twv
\av9av6vTwv dhKrjfiaTwv : comp, Sluiteri Lectt. Andoc, p. 185.

5) Ibid.: ^iiffiQ li rjv to (paivtiv tovq vepl Ta /x'tTaWa ctSiKovvrag q
irepi TO tfiTTopiov KaKovpyovvTag, r) Trepi to. rtXr;, i] twv dtjfioaiwv Ti
vt.vo(T<pLafJLivovQ, 7) avico<pavTovvTag rj rrepi tovq opfavovg t^afiapTO.-
vovTaq.

6) See Demosth. adv. Lacrit. p. 941. 15 ; adv. Theocr. p. 1324, with
Baumstarck de Curat. Erapor. p. 52, sqq., who, 1 must remark, very erro-
neously contradicts the statements in the Attische Process, p. 87. See
below, f 138. n. 3.

7) See Boeckh in the Abhh. d. Berl. Acad. v. 1815, p. 130.

8) Compare Petiti Legg. v. 5. p. 511, sqq. ; Boeckh's Publ. (Econ. i.
p. 110, sqq.; also Demosth. adv. Phorm. p. 918. 5, li tiq oikwv 'AOfjvymv
aWodi TToi ffiTtjyrjffiiev r) tiQ to 'Attikov tjxTropiov, with which com-
pare Boeckh. Publ. (Econ. i. p. 77, and the commentt. on Lycurg. adv.
Leocr. c. 9. p. 156, Reisk.

9) Meier de bonis, p. 214; comp. p. 201, sqq.; att. Proc. p. 255;
Platner's Beitr. p. 215, and Pr. u. Kl. ii. p. 13, coll. p. 122, sqq.

10) Phot. p. 641. Pors. : oTi yap (.tr/ iKiiKjQwaauv oi iTriTpoiToi tov
oIkov twv iiriTpoTrevofiivwv, i<paivtv avTov 6 (iovXo/jiivog vpbg tov dp-
Xovra, 'iva jxiaOwOij, t(pnivtv Sk Kcil li iXaTTOfog i] Kara t))v dS,iav pe-
fxiaOwTO : compare Meier u. Schomann, §. 294, sqq. In Ileffter's opinion
(p. 252) it was only during minority ; afterwards only the Sikt] tTrtrpoTrjJt,-
was had recourse to.

11) Meier de Bonis, p. 156.

12) In this latter case alone the archon had full powers ; Matthiae de
Jud. Ath. p. 243.

§. 137. The summary process \ in the cases alluded
to, consisted in the immediate apprehension of the ac-
cused, after information had been laid in the proper
court, and his imprisonment^, if further proceedings
were requisite, till the close of the prosecution, unless
he could procure three securities, as mentioned in
§. 126. This mode of proceeding was however seldom
had recourse to, except in cases so notorious and
heinous, that it might be presumed that no doubt



272 POLITICAL ANTIQUITIES [chap. vr.

could be entertained respecting them. The airayuyri
in particular took place when an oiFender was taken
in the fact^; and differed from the icp-^yw^';, in the cir-
cumstance that the culprit was dragged before the
court, whereas in the latter, the judges were sum-
moned to seize the oifender on the spot where the
crime had just been committed*. The ev8e<|*? again,
took place in cases not so much of positive crime, as
of pretensions to and assumption of civil rights,
which, it was notorious, did not belong to the of-
fender ^ In most of these cases the penalty was fixed
by law •*, and consequently might be inflicted by the
court'' on the confession or conviction^ of the ac-
cused, without the formality of a public decree — an
instance, this, of the original union of the executive
and judicial powers^, of which no other traces re-
mained but the power the judges possessed of inflict-
ing fines, eTci^oXci^^, and the proceedings which con-
stituted the ■fjyef/.ovia liKaa-Tfipluv.

1) Compare Pollux, viii. 49, 50, and more in Herald. Obss. ad J. A. et
R. iv, c. 7—9. p. 310—321 ; Otto, 1. c. i. p. 17—24 ; Hefi'ter, p. 195—
213 ; Meier u. Schumann, p. 224 — 247 ; Platner's Proc. u. Klag. i. p.
257—288.

2) Demosth. adv. Timocr. p. 746. 3 : tov d' ivSiixOevra ri dTraxOivra
^riaavTiov oV'EvSiKa iv rip i,v\<^ : comp. Antiph. de csed. Herod, c. 17 ;
Isaeus de Nicostr. c. 28; ^schin. adv. Timarch, c. 19. See Meier and
Schomann, p. 583, sqq., and below, §. 139.

3) Lysias adv. Agorat. c. 85 : on stt' avTO(pu)p({) ry ccTrayuyy tTriyk-
ypuTTTai : conf. Demosth. de Falso Legat. p. 431. 7: tTTdSi) o ofnoXo-
yoiiaii', inruytiv SrjTTuv Trpo<yT]Kt, and more in Meier de bonis, p. 42.

4) Demosth. adv. Androt. p. 601. 20: . . olov ttiq kXottii^' tppuxrai
Kal aavTtp TnariviiQ; UTrays, iv ^^iXi'aic S' 6 KtvSvvog' ctaOiviffTtpog ii ;
Toig (ipxovaiv i<pt]yov' rovTo TTou'jffovaiv iKiit'oi. Also iTrayaytiv rovg
cipxovTag, Lysias do olea, c. 22. — What was the real distinction between
i(l>i)yr}(nQ and vf^yifrnQ (Pekk. Anecdd. p. 312, extr., S'iki] iiaayop.kvri
Kara rdv vnoSi'^apivuiv tov tipyofiti'ov inrb tu>v voficov iTTifSaivtiv rifg
X'jJpuQ, olov <pvyuea fj dviipo(p62>ov' »/ orcw rwv l'i]p.oai(i)v ri Karixnv
SoKiJ TIC Kpv<l)ii), which Meier (de bonis, p. 214 ; comp. att. Proc. p. 2b0)
asserts to have been different ; but Plainer (Proc. u. Kl. ii. p. 131) and
others, consider identical ! Compare also Giittling, in the Hermes, xxiii. p.
140.



SECT. 138.] OF GREECE. 273

5) Pollux : Ivctt^iQ ft ijv Trpoc rbv iipxovTa ofioXoyoi'iiivov dciKr)i.ia-
roQ, oil Kpicreoiij, aWd nixwpiac Seofiivov .... fiaXifrra Is tovq 6(pii-
Xovrag rtjJ £t]f.iocr'i<i> iveSiiKwaav, f) roi'c Kariovrac, ottoi fi>) i^fJTiv, r)
TOVQ dvCpo<l>6i'ovQ: comp. Harpocr. p. 102 : . . v(>> i]v tovq tK tuiv v6-
fiixiv iipjo\.i'fi'OVQ Tivojv r] Toirtav ?; irpu^iMV, il fit) cnrtxoivro avriov,
inriiyor, and more in Sluiter Lectt. Andoc. p. 102 ; Platner's Beitr. p.
211—214; also Boeckh, Publ. (Econ. ii. p. 100—126.

6) 'ATifiij-OQ 6 uyioy, Meier u. Schom. p. 192, comp. Plainer, i. p.
287.

7) Generally the tv^iKa, comp. the Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1108, and
below, $. 139 ; the ivcti^iQ however frequently took place (compare J'itt-
mann, p. 229 ; Bernard, de Archont. p. 63), and sometimes also the cnva-
ywyrj, before the Archons, both the chief Archon (^Eschin. adv. Timarch.
c. 64) and the Thesmotheta?, Demosth. adv. Aristocr. p. 630. 16 ; Lycurg.
adv. Leocr. c. 30). On the part the senate of 500 had in these proceed-
ings, see above, §. 127. n. 11 ; Matthije, de Jud. p. 235, denies that it
was at all concerned in those oi ivcii%iQ.

8) ^Eschin. adv. Timarch. c. 37 : ot ^itv tv' avTocpwpif) uKovTiQ, iav
fiii' ojUoXoywci, TiapaxpT)fia Oavdrii) Zr]niovvTai, ot di XaOoi'reg Kcil i^ap-
voi yiiw^iEPoi Kph'ovTai tv toIq ciica<TTi]pioig. Demosth. adv. Timocr. p.
721. 18 : Tail' KUKOvpyovvTMV tovq ofioXoyovi'Tag (ivii' Kpifftiog KoXct^Etv
KtXtvovmi' 01 vofiot : compare p. 764. 26, and, as regards the archons in
particular, Poll. viii. 86 : koivij f-iiv t\ovaiv t^ovciai' Gavarov, iuv Tig
Ka-iy, oTTov fir) 'i^trrTiv. Did the senate of 500 also possess this power?
see Lysias, de Dardan, c. 2.

9) See above, §. 53, and §. 107, extr. j and compare de jure magg.
p. 66, sqq.; Tittmann, p. 237 ; Wachsm. ii. 1. p. 305, sq.

10) iEschin. adv. Ctesiph. c. 7; compare Demosth. adv. Macart. p.
1076.20 : Kvpiog tffToj tTrifidXXtiv kutci to TtXog, Lav ce [j.(iZo7>og 'Crji-iiag
dKioQ doKy th'ai .... iiaayaykrui tig r/)v 'HXiai'av, and more on the sub-
ject at large, in the Scholiast, Aristoph. Vesp. 769 ; Taylor ad Lysiam,
p. 220, Rsk. ; Meier de bonis, p. 236 ; Heffter, p. 415—420 ; Meier u.
Schomann, pp. 34, and 565; Platner, i. p. 309 — 314.

§. 138. We have seen that it wholly depended on
lot who should be the judges in any case, but the au-
thorities^ who first received accusations, drew up the
indictment, brought the case before a court, and con-
ducted the prosecution, who attended in fact to all
which was understood in Athenian law by the ^yc/Aov/a
TtS (iiKtxa-rvjptov^, Were defined and distinct, differing in
different cases. This iiye[A.ovlci toS ZtKaa-rtiftov, was pos-
sessed by all the public authorities in virtue of their
office, being exercised by every public officer in his
own department ^, nor does it appear to have been the
main business of any of the public bodies, unless per-
haps of the Archons and the Eleven : the former may

N n



274 POLITICAL ANTIQUITIES [chap. vi.

certainly be considered as regular and permanent
ejo-aywye^ *. The first, wlio was called the Archon by
pre-eminence, and Eponymus, because the year was
named after him^, took cognizance in particular of
disputes concerning inheritance, and all suits between
members of the same family*'; the second, the ^ao-iKevi;,
attended to whatever was connected with the religion
of the state and public worship, and conseqviently to all
the cases which ultimately came before the Areopagus
or the Ephetae'^. The third Archon, the TcoXeiAapxoi^,
attended to the personal and family interests of the
metics, and foreigners in generaP; any other cases,
public or private, which did not come under the cogni-
zance of some of the other authorities of the state,
were examined by the six remaining Archons, the
Thesmothetae '", who seem ^^ in fact to have formed a
board (" Collegium ") expressly for this purpose. Each
of the three first Archons named two assistants of his
own choice, subject to the approbation of the state ^^ ;
we meet also with a-viAJBovXoi of the Thesmothetae. Con-
sistently with what has been here advanced, it is to
be remarked, that the nine Archons seldom appear to
have exercised any general authority as such ^^.

1) Compare Dem. adv. Lacrlt. p. 940; adv. Pantjen. p. 976; Isocr.
TT. dvTiS. p. 109, Orell.; Bekk. Anecdd. p. 310; Sigonius de Rep. Ath.
iv. 3 ; Matthiae de Jud. p. 243—250 ; Titlmann, p. 228—235 ; Heffter,
p. 19—31 ; Meier u. Schbm. p. 33—122 ; Wachsm. ii. 1. p. 307—311.

2) Harpocratio, p. 136: clWai. TrpoQ aWovg dpxovTag tXayx^dvoiTo
S'lKai' rag Sk a7r£j'£%0£('(TO£ at dpxo-' kcitu tov avrbv tKcicfTr) vojxov liarj-
yov t'lQ hKa(TTi)pwv, >)yoy/(f)'>j kcu irpoirrTwaa, comp. Heffter, p. 16;
Meier u. Schomann, p. 25 — 38. — J'he law however, as given by Uemosth.
adv. Aristocr. p. 629. 24, enacted : fia<ptpeiv 5k tovq dp^ovrag, (bi/ iKa<T-
TOi diKUffTai tiai, T(p j3ovXojU€v^, rijv Sk 'RXiaiav SiayiyvwffKuv.

3) yEschin. adv. Ctesiph. c. 4 ; for instance, the eTriardrai twv ^r]f.io-
ffiujv ipyiop, the tTri/iiXj/rai tov tfiiropiov, see above, §. 136. n. 6 ; the
Strategi, Logista?, etc. ; see below, part iv. of this chapter. — According to
Baumstarck, de Curat. Empor., particularly p. 47, sqq. and 57, sqq., most
of these magistrates had no I'lyijiovia of liieir own, being only tTraytoyttf,
not ttirayojytTc ; but see my Dissertatio de jure magg. p. 40, sqq.

4) Concerning the Archons, see Poll. viii. 85, sqq.; Meursius de Ar-
chont. i. 9 ; Bernard de Archontibus (in Ann. Acad. Lov. 1823—24), p.
67, sqq.; Hiillmann's Staatsr. p. 271 — 280, and, on their extra judicial



SECT. 138.] OF GREECE. 275

duties in particular, Tittm. p. 257 — 265. — It must not be imagined that
the t'KTciyiDyiic (Poll. viii. 93) and tTraywyiic (ibid. 101) were themselves
distinct classes of magistrates. See Hudtwalcker's Dia;tetiE, p. 70 ; Meier
u. Schiimann, p. 67.

5) Hence called i-n-djvvfiog, see Corsini, Fast. Att. Diss. ix. et sqq. ;
though this did not form part of their official title. See Meier u. Schom.
p. 41, sq. — Concerning the Archons who have been called Pseudeponymi,
consult Dodwell, de Cyclis Diss. iii. §. 40, sq.; Corsini, F. A. Diss. vii.
and viii. ; Schbmann, de Com. p. 137 — 145. — Dodwell considers them the
same with the iwidTciTai TrpvTavewi' ; Corsini is of opinion that the Epis-
tates was one of the Archons (comp. Palmer. Exercitt. in Auct. Gr. p.
135) ; Schiimann holds that they were Ai-chontes suffecti, in which notion
he is however opposed by Boeckh, ad C, Inscr. i. p. 153, and before him
Biag., de Decret. Athen. p. 38, had said : Qunt Consules Boma: eponymis
Consulibus suffecti fitere ; atlamen qvi primi electi sunt Consules, nnni epo-
nymi eistitere ; (comp. Clinton's F. H. ii. p. xiv.) Spengel, in his work,
iiber d.sogenannten Pseudeponymi, in Demosth. Rede fiir Ktesiphon.in the
Rhein. Mus. ii. p. 401, pronounces them all to be interpolations. Boeckh,
again, recognises in them the ypafifiartiQ Kara TrpvTaviiav ; see §. 127.
n. 17, and compare Winiewski, 1. 1. p. 340, sqq.

6) See Heffter, p. 96, and the other authorities cited above in notes 1
and 4.

7) See the same, and Hiillmann's Anfiinge, p. 256 — 258 ; Matthiae, de
Jud. p. 159, sq. ; Schubert, de ^^Ldil, p. 32 — 38 ; comp. above, §. 103. n.
2. — On the oron /^amXtoif, see the commentt. on Plat. Euthyphr. init.,
and Leake, p. 95.

8) The latest trace of the military character of this office occurs in He-
rodot. vi. 109; comp. de jure magg. p. 19.

9) Harpocratio : oaa ro7^ TroXiVatf 6 apxo^v, Tolg f^iEToiicoig 6 ttoXe-
fiapxog. Compare Neumann ad Aristot. Fragm. p. 93. — Forum rei, Dem.
adv. Steph, p. 1136. 7. — Kareyyvdv Trpvg rov TroXkfiapxov, Demosth.
adv. Zenoth. p. 890. 10; adv. Neaer. p. 1358. 19 ; compare Schom. att.
Proc. p. 580.

10) May we venture, with Tittmann, p. 262, sqq., and Bernard, 1. 1. p.
88, to infer from the Scholiast on Aristoph. Plut. 277, that there were two
classes of ThesmothetaB ? See ]\leier u. Schbmann, p. 60, and, on that
passage of the Scholiast more particularly, Matthias de .Tudd. p. 255. n.
37; Fhilol. Bliitter (Bresl. 1817), i. p. 102; Schbmann de sortil. Judd.
p. 12, according to whom indeed, the very existence of ten Thesmothetae
has no other foundation than the confusion respecting the Archons, noticed
above, §. 109. n. 2 ; these with the ypafiuarevg (see ^. 134. n. 4, and
compare de jure magg. p. 51) making exactly the number.

11) See Ileffter, p. 26, against liiillmann, Staatsr. p. 279. — As a sepa-
rate court they would seem to have constituted a board of police (Demosth.
c. Mid. c. 11) ; see Schubert, 1. 1. p. 78.

12) Poll. viii. 92:.'ndpeSpoi (V ovofidZovrai, ovg a'tpovvrai ap'^iov
Koi j3aai\(vg Kai Tro\ffiap\og, ^vo eKaffTog, ovg fiovXtTai. AoKtuaaOrivai
d' txpiji' avToi'g ti' rolg Trti'TciKoaioig, ilr' iv f ((caor/jpiy. In Harpocra-
tio (see Neumann, 1. 1. p. 91) the (iaffiXtvg is omitted ; but there is posi-
tive testimony for him in Demosth. adv. Nener. pp. 1369.20; 1373.21.
Compare at large, Th. Sell de Assessoribus Archontum apud Athenienses
(ace. Spec. Obss. Misc., L. B. 1719) ; Bernard, 1. 1. p. 98 ; Schubert, 1. 1.
p. 42, and de jure magg. p. 27, sqq.



276 POLITICAL ANTIQUITIES Qchap. vi.

13) Demosth. adv. Theocr. p. 1330. 15; compare Meier u. Schom. p.
68.

14) Diogen. Laert. i. 58., certainly says, speaking of Solon; irpiiiToc
Trjv cfvvaywyqv tCjv ivvia dpxovTwv iTroirjatv tig to avvinrtiv : conip.
Suidas and Bekk. Anecdd. s. v. apxov'iQ o'l ivvka (p. 449. 17) : rrpb twv
26/\(i»)'oe v6j.Lti)V ovK i^f]i> avroTf ajxa SiKaZtiv, dXX' 6 jxiv jSacriKivg KaOfj-
aro Tvapd nii Ka\nvi.i(v(iJ (3ovKo\ti({) — to ft »)]» 7c\i](Tiov tov TfpvTavi'iov —
(Poll. viii. Ill), 6 ■Ko\ij.iapxoQ iv Aj^/cfiV^i, (Meurs. Ath. Att. ii. 3, Leake,
p. 211), 6 upx<^v rrapd Toixj iiziovv^iovQ (§. 111. n. 2), oi Osff/xoOsrat
TTffpa TO 9t(THoOk(7iov Kvpioi Pi J)aav louTt tciq Sikuq avTOTsXtig Ttotrjaai'
vcTtpov ct SoXwj'OC ovlitv ertpov avTolg riXtlTai, i) fiovov vnoKpivovai
Toi'c dvTiSiKovc. But see, Poll. viii. 86, 87, and compare Bernard, p. 60.
They were concerned in all cases of Epichirotonia, Ostracism, and elec-
tions by nomination ; and perhaps in those of ypa<f>i) TTapavofiMv, see
Meier und Schomann, p. 41.

§, 139. The Eleven 1 were annually chosen by lot,
being probably one from each phyle, and a secretary - ;
they constituted one of the highest authorities in the
state, and were charged with the execution of all legal
sentences ^. Hence we find them take an active part
in confiscations, which they made over to the tcuayitm
for public sale ^ ; but the public prison was the chief
object of their official care^, not only as a place of pu-
nishment in general ^, but also of execution ^ ; they had
accordingly under them, jailors, executioners, and
torturers 5. The cases consequently, in which these
magistrates possessed a ^yeiAovta ^tKua-r-riptov, ^ can have
been only such as arose from the execution of a sen-
tence already passed, not those in which it was to be
obtained, chiefly those of aTraywyvj and i<p-^yria-ii;^'^, some-
times too of €vSe<l'?^i, and, so far, connnon malefactors
and gross disturbers of the public peace ^^, were objects
of the jurisdiction of the Eleven ^^ For as in these
instances of summary proceeding the fact was indis-
putable, and the punishment already defined by law,
whatever difficulties and questions might arise con-
cerning them, were nothing else than hindrances to
the execution of the law, and could be submitted to
the judicial power by none others than those charged
with that execution. As regards the Eleven who
formed part of the government in the time of the



SECT. 139.] OF GREECE. 277

Thirty, they were totally distinct from those we have
been here considering ^*.

1) Compare on this subject at large, Sigonius de Rep. Alh. iv. 3. p.
548 ; Fivclier ad Plat. Apol. Socr. c. 27. n. 10 ; Sluiteri Lectt. Andoc. p.
25G — QKI ; Fr. \V. Ullrich, liber die Eilfiniinner zu Athen, appended to
his translatioQ of four of the Platonic Dialogues, (Berlin, 1821.) p. 2"23 —
273., with Meier's criticism of the same, in the att. Proc. p. 68 — 77 ;
Schubert de ^i:dil. p. 93—96.

2) Poll. viii. 132. — Perhaps from the time of Aristides ; Heracl. Pout.
c. i. §. 10 ; comp. Ullrich, p. 254, and Meier ubi sup.

3) Platner's Pr. u. Kl. i. p. 429, sqq.— Schbra. att. Proc. p. 740 ; " the
power which the Archons are said to have possessed of inflicting death
on certain offenders," (see above, §. 137. n. 8.) " means only, that they
might hand them over to the Eleven for execution." Comp. Dinarch,
adv. Aristog. c. 13 : tvctixOtic Kai Trapadodilg Tolg ipdtKa Kara Tovg v6-
fiovg. See at large Ullrich, p. 230.

4) Etymol. M. p. 338. 36 : ihiiyov Ce Kai ra airoypcKpofisva, x^P'^^ >
oiKiag, Kai rd li]fi6(na tlvai So^avra Trapiciccui' Toig TrioXi/rnig. Conf.
Meier de bonis damn. p. 209. — Aristotle indeed says, Pol. vi. 5. 7 . ttoX-
\axov Si StgpijTai Kai ?) (pvXdrTovffa (dpx'l) vpbg ti)v irpa-Toiiivriv olov
A6f]vym rwp"EvCiKa KaXoi'ixkuwv, but he meant probably the TrpuKropeg.

5) Bekk. Anecdd. p. 250, 5: Trpo'iardj.ui'oi tov hrTfuorripiov, hence
called ciffj^o(pvXaKec by the Scholiast on Aristoph. Vesp. 1108, or Qeafio-
ipvXaKtg, i. e. vofiocpvXaKtgl Compare Ullrich, p. 260, sqq. , Meier Att.
Proc. p. 72, and above, j. 129, n. 15. — On the prison at Athens, see the
commentt. on Plat. Phxd. c. 1 — 3, where, however, the oiKaaTt)piov in
the vicinity of which the prison lay, has been wrongly understood to mean
the (TToo jSainXiojg. It was in the Agora ; comp. Plat, de Legg. x. p.
908, A ; on the question whether there was only one prison at Athens, or
several, see Ullrich, p. 231, sq.

6) Comp. Wachsm. ii. 1. p. 250. But it was seldom a mere place af
confinement, (comp. Plat. Apol. Socr. p. 37. C), serving generally forexecu-
tions and punishments ; thus Demosth. adv. Timocr. p. 733. 8 : dtckcrdai
S' h' Ti~i TTocoKc'cKij TOV TToCa TTtvB' I'uxipag Kai vvKTag iffac, idv Trpoari-
Hi'iaij j) 'llXiaia' — // ct TroSoKUKt] avri], adds Lysias adv. Theomnest. c.
16, fffTiv vvv KoXilrai tv ni) ^vXi^j StStadai. See Petiti Legg. p. 461.
On the imprisonment of debtors, see Hudtwalcker, p. 153, and Schumann,
p. 745. Hence the phrase KaTaStlv rfiv iiri Qavdn^, Herod, v. 72.

7) Chiefly by hemlock juice, Kwi'ttov, comp. S. F. Dresig de cicuta
Athenis poena publica, (Lips. 1733.) J. J. Bosii Diss, dum de potionibus
mortiferis, (Lips. 1736 — 37.) Strangling (arpayyaX;/, /Spoxof. Plut. V^it.
Agid. 20,) was not common in Athens ; Plut. Them. c. 22, is an autho-
rity only for later usage : — Common malefactors suffered by dn-ori^/cra-
vKTfiog and the f-idpa9poi', see \\'achsm. ii. 1. p. 254.

8) "O Twv evdiKa inr-qptTijc (Plat. Phaed. p, 116. B ; Xenoph. Hell. ii.
3. 54) ; ol TrapaardTai (Bekk. Anecdd. p, 296. 32 ; comp. the commentt.
on Aristoph. Plut. 326., p. 175, Beck.) ; 6 hmoKoivog (Antiph. de Ve-
nef. c. 20), cin^uiaiog (/Kschin. F. L. c. 35), or o/j/iitoc (he was itTi^iog,
comp. Strabo, vi. p. 397. A), also called 6 in' 6pi'y;iari, (iVIeurs. Lectt.
.\tt. i. 25 ; Hauptmann de Andocide c. 9 ; t. viii. p. 611, Rsk.) ; comp.
at large, Ilerodian., post Phrynich. Lobeck. p. 474 ; Ullrich, p. 233.



278 POLITICAL ANTIQUITIES [chap. vi.

9) Aristoph. Vesp. 1147 ; tv irapal3var({)l Meurs. Lectt. Att. ii. 9;
Taylor, ad Demosth. Timocr. t. iv. p. 204, Schajferi ; Meier de bonis p.
3; Schbniann de sort. judd. p. 28 ; Ullrich, p. 252.

10) See above, §. 137, n. 7 ; comp. Demosth. Timocr. p. 735, sq., and
more in Ulrich, p. 244, sqq.

11) Ullrich, p. 249. Probably when the accused person had been im-
prisoned, see (§. 137. n. 2.) as in the case of ilaayytXia mentioned in De-
mosth. 1. 1. p. 720. 20.

12) Antipho de caede Herod, c. 9 : irpCJTOv jxiv yap KOKOvpyog ivSt-
Stiy^ivos (povov SiKijv (pivyio, o ouSeiq ttiottot' eiraBev tv ry yy ravry. —
Yltpi yap tS)v kKcittCjv Kai \Mivodi>Twv 6 vof^ioQ Kslrai. Compare at large
Herald. Obss. ad J. A. et R. iii. 16. p. 261—264; Ullrich, p. 246; Meier



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