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A manual of the political antiquities of Greece, historically considered online

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u. Schcimann, p. 229; Platner's Pr. u. Kl.ii. p. 167 — 170. who reckons
among the KaKovpyoi, not only thieves, /cXtTrrai, but civSpaTroSiarai, pla-
giarii ; (see Lysias, adv. Theomn. c. 10.) XioirodvTai, grassatores, (the
term i/xfiTioicX£7rrai is not attic; comp. Victor. Var. Lectt. vii. 17; Tay-
lor ad Demosth. t. iv. p. 242, Schroferi), roixojpvxoi, parietum perfossores,
TVfifiwpvxoi, bttstirapi, sectores zonarii, (iaXavrioTonoi, and yoTjrai, jug-
glers, (see Sturz ad Empedocl. Fragm.p. 37 — 46.)

13) Hence fTrifitXrjTal tuiv KaKovpyav, Antiph. de caede Herod, c. 17.

14) Plat. Epist. vii. p, 342. C ; coll. Xenoph. Hell. ii. 4. 38 ; Andoc.
de Myster. c. 90 ; Meier de bonis, p. 187, sqq., although Ullrich, p. 258,
sqq., confounds one with the other.

§. 140. The proceedings both in public and private
actions, commonly began ^ by a summons of the ac-
cused by the accuser ^ in person, and attended by his
witnesses^; this took place in court. The indictments
was then given in to the proper authorities'* in writing,
and attested by the witnesses ; without this attesta-
tion ^ it could not be received^; against a false accu-
sation, the defendant had recourse to the ypaipvj \pevh-
KXvirdac,'^ . In private suits, the parties then proceeded
each to deposit forfeit-money, ■n^vrave'ia. ^. In a suit for
sums of from 100 to 1000 drachmas, three drachmas
fijwsis the amount to be paid for each party ; for sums
of from 1001 to 10,000 drachmas, thirty drachmas, and
so on progressively in that proportion^. The loser
refunded the expense the other thus incurred ^^. In
public suits, mention is only occasionally" made of a
■napda-rao-K;, paid in by the accuser at the commencement
of the proceedings, as his contribution to the expense
attending them^^. Different from both these was the

SECT. 140.] OF GREECE. 279

TtapaTa^oKri, a deposit made by parties who put in con-
flicting claims to possession or inheritance of pro-
perty ^^. In claims on property forfeited to the state,
one-fifth of the amount of the claim was deposited ^* ;
in private suits only a tenth '^. In cases of appeal,
the deposit was called irapajSoXov ^^.

1) For a brief account, see I\IaUhiaB, 1. 1. p. 257, sqq. ; Wacbsm. ii. 1.
p. 323, sqq.

2) KXr^fftf, TTpoaKXrjaig, see Schbm. att. Proc. p. 575 — 593 j Platner's
Proc. u. Kl. i. p. 114, sqq. ; Petiti Legg. iv. 2. p. 401, sqq.

3) K\r]rripsg, K\l]TopiQ, KXriTtvovrtc, cotnp. Aristoph. Nub. 1219. —
Were these the constant attendants in the courts, vvrjp'iTai twv SiKarrrwv,
(Lex. Rhetor, post Phot. Pors. p. 677) ? Salmas. Misc. Defens., p. 858 ;
Ast. ad Plat. Legg. p. 422, On the other hand, see Herald. Obs. ad .T.
A. et R. vi. 12. p. 473 ; Hudtwalcker's Diiit. p. 28 ; HefRer, p. 282, who,
however, is right in asserting that particular summonses were issued in
cases from beyond the seas. Comp. Aristoph. Av. 1422, and 'especially
147, kXtittjp' dyovff' tcnoQiv ■>) l.aXafiivia. — See further details in Plainer,
i. p. 116, and on the ^aXafiivia and IldpaXog, comp. Meurs. Lectt. Att.
ii. 7; and Petiti Miscell. iii. 5.

4) AtJ^ic 5(ic»/e, XayxawivTrpop ap^ovTa, nvi rivcc;, comp. Taylor ad
Lysiam, p. 596, Rsk. ; Ruhnk. ad Tim. p. 173 ; Schom. ubi sup. p. 595

5) 'A7rp6(TKX7]Tog Sik)], Demosth. Mid. c. 25. p. 544. 3.

6) Schbmann, p. 600, sqq. ; Platner, i. p. 123, sq. and on the phrase
Siaypaipuv in general, Ruhnk. ad Tim. p. 81, sq.

7) Demosth. adv. Nicostr. p. 1251. 20, and more in Boeckh in his
Ind. Lectt. hib. 1817—18 ; Platner, i. p. 417, sqq.

8) TTpuravtia, sacramentum, hence 7rp. 9iivai, to accuse, Aristoph.
Nubb. 1145. See Ileffter, p. 239, and on law expenses in general,
Boeckh, Publ. CEcon. ii. p. 64., sqq. Schomann, Att. Proc. p. 612 — 621 ;
Platner, i. p. 174, sqq.

9) " hi levihus autem causis sacramentum non deponehant, ecrque causm
aviv irpvTavtimv dicebantur, teste Hesychio," says Valesius ad Harpocrat.
p. 165.

10) Pollux, viii. 38 : ... 6 Si r'lTTtjQsig dinciSov to Trap' dj-Kporkptov
SoOiv, IXdfipavop Si avrb o'l liKaarai. Comp. also Valesius, 1. c. p. 325.

11) Ilarpocratio, p. 235 : 'ApiTTorkXjiQ S' iv ' AQrivaiwv ■KoXiTi'iq. inpi
BefffioOiTwi' <pT)<Jn> ovtioq' tlal It ypa(pai vpog auTot'f, u>v Trapdcrracng
TiOiTai, Kti'iag Kal SttipoKti'iag Kal \ptvceyypaiprjg Kat \l/ivcoKXt]aiag Kai
yj/lvCoKXi^ffiag Kal finvXtixTSiijg Kai dypacpiov Kai i.ioix(iag. Also in cases
of iiruiKucia ; see Andoc. de iMyster. c. 120. That it amounted only to
one drachma, has been concluded by Boeckh, from the single case of the
TraodaTaffig before the DiatetJE ; see below, J. 145. Comp. Ileffter
p. 129.

12) The following were exceptions: Isaeus de Pyrrh. c. 46 : ovTe irpv-
Taviia o'vTi Trapdaratng ovSefxia riOerai tCjv ilffayytXwv. Isocr. adv.


Lochit. init. : vripl jiovov (1) tovtov tojv ddiKTjfiaTwv (aiKiac and vfipsmg)
Kai f('(f«f Kai ypa^uQ a%'iv irapaKarafioKriQ sTrobjaav. On the Pliasis,
(§. 136.) see Boeckh, Publ. GJcon., ii p. 95, sq. and a different account
Schomann, Att. Proc. p. 614.

13) Ilarpocratio, p, 232 : ot a;u0tcr/3;;roC)'rfg %p)jjuorwv rivojv deSr]-
fiti'iikvLov irpoQTijv TTokiv, Koioi TTspi KXijpojv ri t—LK\!]pi>}v TrpoQ iSiwTag
aj'TiSiKovvreg apyvpiov rt KanriOnrai', kuI tovtov txp^v avTovg ffTept-
ffOai, ii Tt)v SiK7]v I'jTTijOiitv. See more in Boeckli's Publ. fficon.
ubi supra.

14) 'Ev£7rio-ic/'j7rr£(rflai, see Deraosth. adv. Timotli. 1197, sq.; Meier de
bonis damn. p. 220 — 225 ; ]31um, Prolegg. ad Demosth. Timocr., p. 25 ;
Heftier, p. 276 ; Plainer, Proc. und Klag, ii. p. 125, sqq. comp. his Beitr.
p. 215.

15) AiaSiK-acTiai, see above, §. 121. n. 7 ; and comp. Demosth. adv.
JNIacart. p. 1051. 22 : ktjpvttovtoq tov /o/pv/cof, t'i tlq ctfKpia^rjTuv j)
TrapciKaTufiaWtiv ^ovKiTai tov KXrjpov f) Kara ysvog i) Kara dutOifKag,
also Pollux, viii. 32; Harpocratio, p. 20; and more in Bunsen de jure
hered. p. 86—92 ; Otto, 1. 1. ii. p. 5, sqq.; Meier att. Proc. p. 368 ; Plai-
ner, ii. p. 17, sq.

16) Poll. viii. 63 : to Sk TrapaKaTa^aXKojiivov Itti tuiv i(peffi(i>v, OTTSp
ot vvv TrapafioXiov KaXovrri, irapdj3o\ov ' ApiffT0TeXi]g Xsyei. See more
below, §. 145.

§. 141. After this preliminary, the proceedings be-
fore the magistrate, properly speaking, began* by each
party attempting to make good his case"; to this end
they attested on oath^ the truth of their respective
assertions ; but if the defendant, instead of abiding
the result of the suit*, and thus giving evidence on it,
produced a counter plea^, the original case vi^as sus-
pended until judgment had been obtained, from a full
court of judges, on this counter plea^. If, however,
either party fully established his case before the magis-
trate^, the latter could give sentence at once and of his
own authority^, as very commonly happened in dis-
putes respecting inheritance ^ ; the party who was
cast had then no resource but by recurring to the
ZtK'/j ^ev^o[/.(xpTvpLSv against his adversary's witnesses'".
The proceedings before the magistrates, however,
seldom went farther than the receiving depositions
and evidence '*, which was sealed up in cases'^, and
kept till the day of trial. Besides the evidence of
documents and witnesses, the depositions of slaves on

SECT. 141.] OF GREECE. 281

the rack ^3 were also received, being, in fact, consi-
dered of more weight than the testimony of free-
men^*. These were taken by regular officers, whose
business it was to preside at the torture ^^. Any
one might offer his own slave to be thus examined,
or demand that of his opponent^^; if the latter re-
fused, the refusal aiForded a presumption against
him ; for which reason, this, and similar challenges,
(TtpoKK-^a-€i(;y'^ , were frequently resorted to, in order to
supply the deficiency of other evidence i^.

1) 'AmK-piffic, comp. Petiti Legg. iv. 3. p. 405, sqq. ; Heffter, p. 285,
sqq.; Schbmann, Att. Pr. p. 622, sqq. ; Plainer, i. p. 131, sqq. ; Bernard,
de Archoni. p. 61, sqq.

2) "AiTiypa^^, comp. Demosth. adv. Stephan. i. p. 1115, and particu-
larly Plat. Apol. Socr. p. 27. C, a passage which has been overlooked by
Schomann, p. 629. — Sometimes a counter plea was set up, orav rtg Kpivo-
fitvoQ avTLKaTt]yopy, Poll. viii. 58, see Schomann, p. 651 — 657.

3) Hence Siw fioaia, or avrufioffia, (caXarat £( ovtwq, says Harpocr.

p. 31, ITTSlS)) UVTiOflVVOV 01 dldjKOVTEQ Kul 01 <ptVyOVTtQ, 01 filv a.\r]Qi] Ka-

T7jyopfj(Tai, oi ci d\t]9rj airo\oyt}aa(j9ai. See more in Hudtwalcker
Diiitet. p. 75, sqq. ; Heffter, p. 299, and Plat, de Legg. xii. 4. p. 948,
who derives the practice from Rhadamanthus; compare Hock's Kreta,
ii. p. 198.

4) Y.vQvliK'ia, conf. Argum. Demosth. adv. Phorm. p. 906. 13 : ravra
yap icFTi rrjv evGvdiKiav ay(i)viZ,6nevov Kal toIq tTTKpeponevo'Q eyKXfifiaaiv
cnravTwvTOQ, dW ovk dvaipovvrog rbv irtpi avTOV ctyiova Kai Ttjv tia-
ayu}yi]v Trjq diKrjg. See p. 908. 8.

5) Pollu.v, viii. 57 : napaypa(pt), orav rtg fir) tlaaywyifiov tlvai Xsyy

TriV B'lKqV, f\ i}Q KtKpijXiVOQ, T) U)Q CKpilflkvOQ, f) WQ tUv XPOViJJV l^lJKOVTIlJV,

iv oIq iCfi KpivtrrOai . . . oluv oi/k tlaayytXiac, aWd irapavofnov, ov St]-
ftoaiq, dW lSi<f,' r) wf ov izapd tovtoiq KpiviaQai daov. See more in
Petit, iv. p. 429—432 ; Heffler, p. 289—298 ; Schom. p. 631—638 ; 644
— 650 ; Platner, i. p. 138 — 160. — The time within which it was requisite
that an action should be brought (TrpoQifffiia), was five years, at the latest,
see Demosth. adv. Phorm. p. 952. 19 ; adv. Nausim. p. 989. 17 ; 993. 4 ;
in cases of contracts only one (rag lyyvac tTrtniovg uimi, Demosth. adv.
Apatur. p. 901. 8.)

6) Pollux, viii. 58: Kai ■)) -jrapaypa^i) ce dvTiypa<p^ loim, Sib Kai
iTpoiimp\tTai. Compare the orations of Demosthenes against Zenothemis,
Apaturius, Phormio, Lacritus, Pantnenetus, Nausimachus, and Xenopithes,
and for Phormio. — The appellant then spoke first, comp. Demostli. adv.
Stephan. p. 1103. 10: irpoXaf^iov (k ^tov Mrrn irpoTtpog Xeyeiv, Cid to
■jrapaypa^i)i' elvai Kai fit) iliOvciKi^ elffiivai, and Hudtw. p. 153, sq.

7) Aiafiaprvpia, says Harp. p. 84, Tpoirog rtg t}v Trapaypatpijg ....
Sia<l>(pii Sk Ti^ Tt)v CiafiapTVpiav yivinQai ov juoj'ov i'itfo twi' ipevyovTtov
dXXd Kai viro twv Shokovtojv. Ilence also it is sometimes contrasted with
the ivQvciKia ; comp. Isseus de Philoctem. c. 3 and 43 ; de Apoilod. c. 3;
and more in Schiim. p. 6.39—644; Platner, i. p. 163 — 174.

o o


8) Demosth. adv. Leochar. p. 1098. 3: tri roivvv to toiv Sia^iapTV-
povvTwv /xspoQ ovTt ^iKa<TT))pia f]v hv, ovTt ayuypiQ lyiyvovTo' KU)\vii yap
irdvTa Taiira to twv lumapTvpmv ykvo(; Kai cnroKKtiii ilnayiDyriQ TtfQ
e'lQ to ^iKa<jT)]piov.^ Comp. Ileffter, p. 348 — 356. If, as often happened,
the suit "nevertheless' proceeded, it was because the (uo/ictprrpia was
directed only against particular counts and incidental paragraphs of the in-
dictment. Compare, for instance, Lysias adv. Pancleon. c. 14.

9) AiahKuoiai, comp. $. 121. n. 7 ; §. 140. n. 15.

10) Is£eus says, very pointedly, de Dicaeog. c. 16 : ihWovtmv S' >';/twv
avTofivvaOai Sni.iapTvpijffs Ktu)xctpr]Q ovrom fit) fTri^iKov ilvai tov KXiipov
fiiiiv. 'E7riffKi}Tpai.i£Viov S' 't'lfiioi', i) fih' \i}tiQ tov KXiipov Suypcupt], >'; Si
riov tpivSofiapTvpuov CiKt] darjii. Comp. also Harpocratio, 1. 1. and s. v.
avTO[in)(iii' , p. 57.

11) Aristot. Rhetor, i. 15.2: dal Si ttsite roi' apidfiov vofioi, fiap-
TVptQ, ffvifOtJKni, j-iafravog, opKog, comp., on this point at large, HefFter,
p. 301, sqq. ; Schoraann, p. 658, sqq. ; Platner, i. p. 213, sqq. ; Wachsm.
ii. 1. p. 329, sqq.

12) 'ExTi'oe, fiyyoc rt ^nX/cowi' rj Kai ik Kcpafiov, see Schol. Aristoph.
Vesp. 1436, and more in Hudtw. p. 128 ; Neumann ad Aristot. Fragm.
p. 74. Comp. especially, Demosth. adv. Boeot. de nom. p. 999. 17 :
ravTa ei fii) uecDjiiaffixivujv rjSrj avviji)] twv i-^ii/Mv, kolv y,apTvpaq vjxiv

13) 'RciffavoQ, comp., at large, Mich. Henr. Gribner Obss. de usu tor-
mentorum apud Athenienses, in his Opuscc. select. Juris publ. et priv.
(Hal. 1722), part v. p. 156 — 162; J. F. Reitemeier Comm. de origine et
ratione quaestionis per tormenta apud Graecos et Romanos, (Gott. 1783);
E. C. Wesphal, die Tortiir der Griechen, Romer, und Deutschen (Halle,
1785) ; and, for the different sorts of torture in use among the ancients,
(kXi'juo?, TpoxoQ, v<7Tpi%iQ, K. T. X., Aristoph. Ran. v. 630), Jo. Laurent,
de rebus publ., etc., c. vii., in Gron. Thes. t. vi. p, 3687 — 3710. — The
freeman was exempt from it by the decree of Scamandrius, Andoc. de
Myster. c. 43 ; comp. Meier de bonis, p. 53.

14) Anaxim. Rhetor, xvi. 1 : nKTToTtpov IrfTi ^daavog fiapTvptjv
Tolg fiiv yap /xcipTvoi ffVfKpipti -rroWaKig tptvffaffdar to~iq Si jSntTavtZofME-
voic XvtTiTiXtl Td\7]9>'] XsysLV. See the numerous quotations from the
orators, given by Hudtwalcker, p. 51, and, on the ease with which false
witnesses might be procured, Demosth. adv. Apatur. p. 904. 10 ; adv.
Callicl. p. 1273. 21 ; compare the expression, tpyaOTripia fioxQipwr civ-
9p(i)Tr(i)i>, which occurs, adv. Zenoth. p. 885. 2 ; adv. Pantajn. p. 978. 6 ;
adv. Bceot. p. 1010.24.

15) BaaavicTTai, Hudtwalcker, p. 170, sqq.

16) See Antipho de Choreuta, c. 23 ; Isaeus de Philoct. c. 16.

17) Demosth. adv. Steph. p. 1106. 6 : o'to^iai yap TravTOQ vfiuQ etSsvai,
'6ti, oira fit) SuvaTOV vpoQ iifidQ ayaytiv iffri tCjv TT(irpayp.(.vu)v, tovtwv
vpoKXijatii; ivpi9r)(Tav . , . oiov I'i ri TTiirpaKTai 'i'iuj ttov r*)e x'^puQ,
conf. adv. Zenoth. p. 887. 5: stti t7)v c'ipx>}v twv 'SvpaKoiKxiwv, and also,
tig opKov, j8a(Tal'ol^ (f^itpavwv KaTciaraaiv (Isaeus de Philoctem. c. 31),
K. T. X. See Salmas. Misc. Deff. p. 884 ; Herald. Obss. ad J. A. et R.
vi. 14. p. 479 — 487; Taylor ad Demosth. adv. Theocr. t. v. p. 477,
Schaeferi; especially Hudtwalcker, p. 41—58; and Ileffter, p. 316— 320;
Wachsm. ii. 1. p. 338.

18) Hence also they were stipulated for, generally in writing, or at least
by verbal agreement. Demosth. adv. Pantaen. p. 978.

SECT. 142.] OF GREECE. 283

§. 142. The proceedings before the covirt itself ^ were
simple ; each party, regularly, spoke twice^, sometimes
but once ; generally the senior first ^ ; the length of the
speeches depended on the number of clepsydrae*
which the magistrate had assigned that each should
have, according to the importance of the subject^.
The water was stopped only whilst quotations from
the laws, and other documents were being read^
The evidence^ appears to have been generally pre-
sented by each party in writing, and to have been
submitted to the witnesses in court to be confirmed by
them on oath ^. Any one who was evri[/.oq, and not
very nearly related to the other party, might be legally
compelled to give evidence^, unless he positively as-
serted on oath his ignorance of the matter'*'. Against
persons who failed in their promise to appear on evi-
dence, the party interested might have recourse to an
action for compensation of damages ^^ Both witnesses
and principals were obliged to appear in court in
person'-; it was only on extraordinary occasions that
the attestations of an absentee could be admitted or
received, on report from another party '^. As re-
garded the principals themselves, they were repre-
sented by their legal assistants, or counsel'*; on
whose pleadings, however, they seldom wholly rested
their case ^^ ; whence it became very common to pro-
cure speeches drawn up by professional orators'^.

1) See Heffier, p. 320—325; Schomaan, p. 704—728 ; Plainer, i. p.

2) Anaxim. Rhetor, xviii. 3 : rov fiiv vofioOeTTjv ir poor aim, H<o \6-
yovt; rwv uvriStKiov tKaaTiit uTTo^ovvai: comp. Antipli. de Choreuta, c.
14 ; Demosthenes indeed gives a different account, de F. L. p. 407. 17.

3) Argum. Deniosth. adv. Aristog. i. p. 769 ; adv. Androt. p. 592. 22 ;
comp. Herald. Obss. J. A. et R. vii. 16. p. 556; Plainer, i. 122; and
ylischin. F. L. c. 7. This, however, could take place only in public pro-
secutions, comp. Heffier, p. 243, 'S,vyKaTt]yopuv.

4) Aiafiiftfrpijiiivri r/fifpa, conf. ^schin. adv. Ctesiph. c. 63, and more
in Neumann ad Aristot. Ifragm. p. 72 ; Schbmann, p. 713 — 716 ; comp.
also Davis, ad Cic. Tuscul. ii. 26; and, on the name ArayKri (Plat,


Theaet. p. 172. E !) Maussac. ad Harpocr. p. 163, sq. The Clepsydra is
minutely described in Simplicius ad Aristot. de Coelo, fol. 127, b. Comp.
Peyron. de Emped. et Parmen. Fragm. (Lips. 1810), p. 5, sq., and
G. C. Burchardi de ratione temporis ad perorandura in judiciis publ. apud
Romanos (Kil. 1829.)

5) Comp. Demosth. adv. Macart. p. 1052. 20 : tl avayKtjg yap r]v ry
apxovTi, oju^opsa kKatXTqi iyx^M '■wv af.i<piffj3rirovvT(i}v Kal rpiig %odc t<^
v<jrip(jj Xoy(f) : yEschin. F. L. c. 35 : Ttpbg tvStKa yap aficpopiae tv ha'
ftifUTpriph'y ry r'lfiipq, Kpivof.iai. Only the ^iKai KaKiorrnoq were avtv
vdaroQ, comp. Harpocr. p. 161. — Hence the expressions, iv t<^ ifi<^ vSari
(Demosth. F. L. p. 359. 6 : i. q. tv ri^) e/xiJT Xoyifj, yEschin. F. L. c. 16),
7rapadi£<x)ni to odojp (Dinarch. adv. Demosth. extr.), i^kpa to vSwp,

K. T. \.

6) 'ETTtXajSt TO vdbjp, Isaeus de Menecl. c. 34 ; Lysias adv. Pancleon.
c. 4, etc. Comp. Goethe's Reise uach Italien, p. 156.

7) On the witnesses in general, see Petiti Legg. iv. 7. p. 440 — 451 ;
Salmas. Misc. DefF. c. 30, passim, with Herald. 1. c. vi. c. 9, sqq. ; Heffter,
p. 304— 310; Schijm. p. 665—678; Platner, i. p. 215— 237 ; Wachsm.
ii. I. p. 332.

8) iEschin. adv. Timarch. c. 28 ; Isasus de Astyphil. c. 19 ; Demosth.
adv. Aphob. p. 849. 15. But compare adv. Stephan. p. 1132. 10:
XtXtvKwixsvov ypaixfiaTilov and fiuXdr], with the remarks of Herald, p.
459, and Platner, i. p. 232, sq.; on fia\Qr], Poll. x. 58, with the doubts
expressed by Rlartorelli de Theca Calam, i. p. 71 — 76.

9) ^^schin. adv. Timarch. c. 20 ; compare Poll. viii. 37 : K\t]Tivia9ai
ioTi TO KaXfiffOai elt; [lapTvpiai', tKKXriTeveffOai Sk to Siktii' d(peiXiiv kirl
rtp TUQ x^Xiac KctTojiaXtiv, on which see Salmas, 1. c. p. 886 ; on the
other hand Heraldus, p. 487, defines KXr]TivHV as follows: ei qui non
aderat, quum ei denuntiatum erat, aut citatus non respondebat, pocnam
legitimam. ii-rogari postulare — ?

10) Compare Isaeus, de Astyphil. c. 18; Demosth. adv. Aphob. p.
850. 19, and particularly adv. Neaer. p. 1354 : tov S' "iTnrapxov iifiiv
KaXm Kai civayKCKTio fxapTvpsiv r) i'£,6iivv(j9ai kutu tov vofiov, ^ (cXjjrfu-
<Tw avrbv.

11) AfiTTojuaprupi'ou c^ik-jj, see Meier u. Schcimann. p. 387 — 392, coll.
673, where reference is rightly made to Demosth. adv. Zenoth. p. 890. 18,
in refutation of Herald, p. 488, who had identified it with KXrjTtvuv, and
limits the latter proceeding to public causes. Boeckh also seems to con-
found the two, Publ. (Econ. ii. p. 98. Compare Heffter, p. 307, who very
correctly describes the okij XenrofiapTvpiov as a SiKt] /3Xa/3j)c, from De-
mosth. adv. Timoth. p. 1190.

12) Platner, i. p. 94 ; Schdm. p. 707, sqq. There was no legal age,
(see §. 129. n. 5) ; compare Herald. 1. c. p. 471.

13) Demosth. adv. Stephan. p. 1130, sqq.: 8, av tu^y tiq Kai oIq civ
7rapayivr)rai yivofifvoiQ, TavTa fiapTvptiv KtXivovmi' iv ypanp.arf'ujt
yty panixtva, "iva jxIjt d<l>tXtXv i'iy pr]?h', filjTt TrpoaOHvai roTf ytypau-

fj^EVOKJ, ClKorjV S' oilK iCjCTl ^WVTOQ fiapTVptll', «XX(i TiGt'fCJTOC, TWV H c'lOV-

vc'iTwv KOI vTTipopiwi' tKfiapTvptav ytypap-ixivip' tv ypafifiarciii), k. t. X.
Compare Salmas. p. 824, sqq., and Herald, p. 461 — 463 ; and on the U-
fiaprvpia see also Isa5\is de Pyrrh. c. 20, 21.

14) UapaKXrjToi, Demosth. F. L. init.; ^^schin. F. L. extr., vapa-
koXm fit Et'jSovXoi' <rvvi)yopov, coll. adv. Ctesiph. c. 67; Demosth. 1. 1.

SECT. 143.] OF GREECE. 285

p. 434. 15; Andoc de Myster. extr. : Atvpo, "Avvre, Ki(j>a\s, tri Si Kai
01 (pvXfrai oi ypijjxii'oi jivi avi'SiKilv. Compare at large, Salinas. iMisc.
Deff. p. 854, sqq. ; Herald. 1. c. vi. c. 10, 12. p. 452, sqq. : 467, sqq. ;
Hefl'ter, p. 105. In course of time this became a trade ; see Plat, de Legg.
xi. extr.

15) Demosth. pro Phormione, init. : Tt'iv fifv c'lireipinv twv \6yu)v kuI
i)q a^vrdriog tx" 4>o|0/u'cui', avToi TravTiQ bpun. Still the party con-
cerned seems to have said a few words, at least by way of preface, see adv.
Nea;r. init,

16) Anaxim. Rhetor, xxxvi. §. 22 : lav di SiaftuWoxriv viiac, wg yt-
ypafiiiivovQ XoyovQ Xeyojitv . . . fj ojq tni iiiaQi^ Tivi (Jvvr]yopm'p.i.v . . .
(^, 24,) Kai iav Tig ijfiac liKu'CiaQai Xiyy ciSaaKiiv i] \6yovg SiKaviKOvg
avyypa<ptiv, k. t. X. Conf. Plat. Euthyd. p. 272. A.; 289. D.; 305. A. ;
Phaedr. p. 257. C, ibique Ast. (Ann. in Platon. Opp, i. p. 501) ; hence
XoyoTToioi, Xoyoypdcpoi i. q. ao(piaTai, Demosth, de F, L. p. 417, extr., and
moie in Pierson ad iMoer. p. 244,

§. 143. The judges gave their votes' as soon as the
pleadings ended, and without deliberation 2, by white
or black pebbles, or they used such as were solid or
perforated 3; an equality of votes was considered equi-
valent to an acquittal*. In case of conviction, the
next proceeding was an estimate of the penalty to be im-
posed^, not only in public, but in private suits ^, accord-
ing as they were civil or criminal. Hence all causes
were distinguished into two classes'^, aySve? t*/x»;tc), or
aT»ji*>jT6«, according as the law had fixed the penalty^ or
left it to the discretion of the judges^ to decide, after
again hearing the parties on this point also'", what
fine or punishment" they would inflict '^ There
were cases in which the law enacted that one of the
judges should propose an aggravation of the penalty '^
If the sentence decreed the payment of damages, or
of a fine, or stirrender of disputed property, a time
was fixed'*, within which, unless the condemned per-
son gave full security to the prosecutor'^, he became
subject to the SZ/cv? i^ovKrj,;^^', which entailed an equal
penalty to the state. In public suits, the convicted
party was at once declared aT»/>io«, as a state debtor,
and could then escape personal consti-aint only by
means of securities ; if the debt was not discharged


within the time appointecP^, it was doubled ; and in
case of still farther delay, the state might satisfy its
demand by the seizure of all the debtor's property ^^.

1) See Petiti Legg. p. 419, sqq.; Schomann, p. 720, sqq.; Platn. i. p.
188 ; particularly the ffKtvt] diKuffTiKci in Poll. viii. 16 (and x. 61): avfi-
PoXov, jiaKTripia, ttivcikiov, tth'c'ikiov Tijxr)TtKbv, jiaXOi], y KarifKinTO to
Tvivc'tKiov lyKtvrpiQ, ij ti\Kov Ttjv ■ypafij.iijv' naKpd Si tKoKeXro, yv Ka-
raSiKa'Covreg iIXkov (Aristoph. Vesp. 106, with the commentt.)* Krjfibg,
KaSiffKog, i)(lvoc, ■^r}(j)OQ, KXttpvopa, ^oipn'ttt, a'lTTip ijaav icoyxai GnXdr-
Tiai' av9tQ St Kai ^aXKcig i-Troiijcrm'TO Kara f^iijirfffiv, Knl trTrovSvXai,
K. T, X., and on the mode of proceeding, Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 1146;
Vesp. 987. The use of aTroxfiporoi'tlr for a7ro0>j^i^£ff0«i, which occurs in
Isaeus de Philoctem. c. 37, is uncommon ; comp. Schbm. de Com. p. 123.
The case which is mentioned by Isasus de DicsROg. c. 18 : avyxi^p<^vvTiov
»/^a>v Tip dpxovTi HTj avvapiOfxtlv aXXa cri/yxEai rag x^rjipovg, was pe-

2) Aristot. Polit. ii. 5. 8 : tv fxiv ry Siairy . . . KoivoXoyovvTai aXXri-
XoiQ TTEpl riiQ KplatuQ, tv St ToiQ SiKadTrjp'ioiQ OVK iffTiv, aXXci Kal TOV-
vavTiov TovT({) Twv vofioQtTwv 01 TToXXol Tcapa<JKtvaX,ovaiv , oirioq o\ Si-
Kaaral fit] KoivoXoyuvrai irpbg aXXi]XovQ.

3) 'H SiaTtTpvTnf)fi'tvr] iprj<pog, iEsch. adv. Tim. c. 33,

4) Eurip. Electr. 1270; Anaxim. Rhetor, xviii. 3; Strabo, ix. p. 617.
A., and the Dissertt. de calculo JNlinerva;, by Boeder (in the Diss, aca-
dem. (Argent. 1701.) t. i. p. 200-238) ; Gloeckner (Heidelb. 1676), and
A. C. Stockmann (Lips. 1796); Senec. Epist. 81 : Reus sententiis pari-
bus absolvitur et semper quidqtiid duhium est humanitas inclinat in melius.
Conf. Stanl. ad ^sch. Eumen. 738—756.

5) ^schin. adv. Ctesiph. c. 65 : tTrtiSdv ry irpiory \pri<p({> fifj \v9y
TO Tzapavoiiov, i'lSr] to rpirov vStop tyxilTai Ty Tifiijffit : comp. Demosth.
de F. L. p. 434. 15 : tnl fiii' Ttjg ■TrpiorriQ tpljtpov ovS' vvaKovaai kuXov^u-
voQ r]9'tXTj(7ag, ilg Se to Tifii]fia cn'a[3dg, k. t, X., and more in Heffter, p.
332, sqq. ; Schomann att. Proc. p. 724, sqq.

6) Herald. Obss. ad J. A. et R. iii. 1. p. 191, sqq. (opposing Salmas.
INIisc. Defens. p. 236, sqq.) denies this, except in the single case of the

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