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2 7 17



A HISTORY



OF



PIANOFORTE-PLAYING



AND



PIANOFORTE-LITERATURE



BY



C, F. WEITZMANN.



NEW YORK: G. SCHIRMER.
1897.



Copyright, 1893,
By G. SCHIRMER.



A HISTORY



OF



PIANOFORTE-PLAYING



PIANOFORTE-LITERATURE



C. F. WEiTZMANN,



WITH MUSICAL APPENDICES AND A SUPPLEMENT CONTAINING THE

HISTORY OF THE PIANOFORTE ACCORDING TO THE

LATEST RESEARCHES, AND SUITABLY

ILLUSTRATED.



WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR, AND NOTES,

BY

OTTO LESSMANN.



FROM THE SECOND AUGMENTED AND REVISED GERMAN EDITION,

BY

DR. TH. BAKER.



o^ NEW YORK: C SCHIRMER.

^ ■ 1897.



?^



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR.



By Otto Lessmann.

Carl Friedrich AVeitzmann departed this life soon after the ap-
pearance of the second edition of his principal work ; on Nov. T, 1880,
the keen eyes of the manful champion closed for ever, in the 73rd
year of his age. "Weitzmann was ])orn on Ang. !(>, 1808, at Berlin,
where he began, under the guidance of the violinist C. W. Henning
and the composer Bernhard Klein, his practical and thereotical studies,
which he finished in Cassel, from 1827 onward, under Ludwig Spohr
and Moritz Hauptmann. In 1832 he entered the tlieati-e orchestra
at Riga as violinist, being at the same time engaged as chorus-director.
Together with Heinrich Dorn, tlien Kapellmeister at Riga, Weitzmann
founded a Singing Society in that city, for which he composed a
number of pieces for vocal chorus. In 1834 he relinquished his po-
sition in Riga for that of Musikdirector in Reval, M'here some dramatic
compositions by himself — ''Rauberliel)c'\ ''Walpurgisnacht", and "Lor-
beerbaum und Bettelstab"— were brought out. Two years later Weitz-
mann joined the orchesti-a of the Imperial Opera at St. Petersburg
as first violinist, becoming at the same time Musikdirector in the
\ Church of St. Anne. Here, too, he founded a German Liedertafel,
/ which he conducted until, on the expiration of an eleven years' ser-
I vice as musician to the Russian Court, he left St. Petersburg, gene-
rously pensioned, first making a concert-tour througli Finland witli
the oboe virtuoso Henry Brod, and afterwards settling in Paris. Thei-e
' he applied himself assiduously to the study of the history and theory
i of music, which he continued successfully after removing to London
in 1847, where he was engaged as a violinist in the Italian Opera.
' During this same year he returned to Berlin, where he settled per-



— Yl —

mimentlv, enjoyiui;- u liigli reputation as a teacher of harmony and
counterpoint, at lirst in Stern's Conservatory, and later in Tausig's
"Schule des holieren Clavierspiels " (School for advanced Pianoforte-
playing), and also as a private instructor.

Armed with the panoply of the well-e(|uipped musical theoretician,
Weitzmann, as a champion of the artistic conceptions of Liszt and
Wagner, first entered the arena, in which was raging the battle waged
for and against the justification of progress pioneered in music both
in regard to harmony and form. In a number of writings he took
Ids stand decidedly on the side of these two masters, and his " Har-
moniesystem", to which a prize Avas awarded in 1860, established on
a firm logical basis the practical acquisitions which, in the works of
the "neo-German" school, were a stumbling-block to the theoreticians
of the old school. While earlier writings, such as " The Augmented
Triad " (1853), " The Diminished Chord of the Seventh " (1854) (publ.
by Th, Chr. Fr. Enslin — Richard Schoetz— , Berlin), and the " History
of the Ch. of the Seventh", had discovered Weitzmann's revolutionary
tendencies in the field of music, his " Ilarmoniesystem " won him for
good and all the reputation of being the thereotical henchman of the
musical radicals. Weitzmann showed this to be his unmistakable
wish in the sub-title of his " Ilarmoniesystem " by designating
the latter as "An explanatory disquisition on and musico-theoretical
justification of the transformation and evolution of Harmony through
the recent creations of Art". His opponents, the champions of the
musical " Zopf " (literally " pigtail", the obstinate prejudice of narrow-
minded pedantry), who fell upon the work to tear it to pieces accord-
ing to the rules of their worn-out musical grammar, were answered
by Weitzmann in a second paper, " The New Science of Harmony
versus the Old " (C. F. Kahnt, Leipzig, 1861). That he after all had
the last word in the hotly contested battle, is proved by the revolu-
tion of public opinion in regard to the masters Schumann, Liszt, and
Wagner.

His controversies concerning modern music did not hinder Weitz-
mann from attentively studying antiquity ; the fruits of this study he
garnered in a " History of Grecian Music " (Th. Chr. Fr. Enslin, Ber-
lin, 1855). In 1863 was issued, as Part III of the Lebert-Stark
Pianoforte School, the "History of Clavier-playing and Clavier-Lite-
rature", pnblished later as a separate work, in a second edition aug-
mented by a " History of tlie Pianoforte". — A number of meritorious
ai-ti'-lcs liave appeared in various musical journals, among them a



— YIl —

warm encomium of Carl Tausig, "■ the last of the virtuosi''. Weitz-
mann's contrapuntal skill was very considerable, as is sufficiently
attested in his "Studies in Counterpoint" (Schuberth & Co., Leipzig,)
"Musical Puzzles", Canons for 4 hands, 2 Books (same publ.) and his
"1800 Preludes and Modulations", Book 1, classic; Book 2, romantic
(Th. Chr. Fr. Enslin, Berlin); likewise an analytical treatise on the
2-part Fugue (autographed).

As a composer Weitzmann did little to attract public attention.
Besides the above mentioned dramatic compositions he published only
a few books of songs and vocal works, and some pianoforte pieces
for 2 and 4 hands, among the latter being a few " Yalses loobies "
(Bote & Bock, Berlin), which are simple and natural in feeling and
pleasing in effect.

Weitzmann's character was upright and frank, and before long
years of sickness had diminished his 2)owers he was animated by the
liveliest interest for everything which concerned his art and his calling
as a writer on art. His opinions, which he defended with circum-
spection, readiness and tenacity, were for him the sole guide in all
his actions ; for, as Tappert wrote after Weitzmann's death, " He need-
ed neither office nor preferment, sought neither honors nor renown".

May the memory of this able man live on as that of a well-
deserving champion in the triumphal progress of our sublime art.

Charlottenburg, October, 1887.

Otto Lessmann.



^^^^'



AUTHOR'S PREFACE and INTRODUCTION.



Every thinking pianist, who would avoid the appearance of color-
lessness and one-sidedness in his compositions and performances, will
perceive the necessity of attaining familiarity not merely with the
more important productions of the present day, but with the prom
inent works in the earlier literature of his art as well. Hitherto,
however, an orderly historical view, comprehending the entire field
of cjajier-literature, and at the same time calling to mind the names
of those masters to whose activity we owe the perfection and exten-
sion of our art, has been wanting. It is the purpose of the present
work to l)ridge over this sensible gap in writings devoted to the
history of music.

The author feels it incumbent upon him to give some explanation
concerning the arrangement and grouping of the contents of his work.
The earlier history of clavier-playing closes with the disappearance
of the older keyboard instruments — the Clavichord, the coyly tremu-
lous tone of which was produced by metallic pins or tangents,
striking and setting in vibration the sti'ings when the keys were de-
pressed ; and the sweejjing Harpsichord, the strings of which were
twanged by quills; the authoi' regarded it as most practical to trace
successively the earlier schools in Italy, England, France, and Ger-
many down to the above period. The modern history of clavier-
playing begins with the predominance of the Pianoforte, in which
hammers, striking the strings gently or powerfully, admitted of the
greatest variety in the shading of the tone, and gradually evolved
the most manifold effects in pla^^ng and means of expression. And
henceforward the creative masters follow each other at such short
intervals, that the author considered it needful to point out the in-
fiuence of each one, even down to his ])upils and imitators, before



— IX —

taking up any conteniporaiy eniinent in other ways, tliougli at the
same time never losing sight of monientons meetings between cele-
brated mnsicians and rivals in art.

The earliest history of clavier-j^laying goes hand in hand with
that of organ-playing ; not until the l)eginning of the 16th century do
the cla\aer performances of noted organists sometimes find special
mention. At that time the two chief species of claviers alluded to
above were already in existence ; their compass, with the chromatic
scale, embraced 3 octaves (A — a), and sometimes even 4 octaves (F — f),
the succession of white and black keys being the same as at present.*
In their tuning, the claviers were already tempered to ^iich an extent,
that the diatonic ecclesiastical keys predominant down to about the
17th century, to which a chromatic tone was seldom added, and
which also occurred transposed by a fifth lower (then in every case
with one flat in the signature), might be employed with tolerable
purity.** By the estal)lishment of the equal temperament, about ITOO,
Sebastian Bach and his contemporaries were enabled to write com-
positions in all the modern major and minor keys for the clavier;
the ecclesiastical modes then vanished entirely as far as their peculiar
and purely diatonic character is concerned, and the widest field was
thrown open to modulation.

In some manuscript specimens of counterpoint of the 13th century,
the oldest which have as yet been discovered, the notes of vocal
music for two or more parts are in some cases written one above
the other on a single staff of 8, 9, 10, or 12 lines. In various more
recent, though equally rare, specimens we find similar staves of 10
lines, the lowest of which is marked with a F (Gamma), the fourth
with the F-clef, the sixth with the C-clef, the eighth with the G-clef,
and the tenth with dd, the notes of the several parts thus standing
in conjunction. For greater distinctness, the notes of the several
parts ^vere sometimes distinguished by color or shape, the soprano
and bass having square red notes, the alto triangular green notes,
and the tenor round black notes. In still later similar attempts,
music for the organ and clavier was written on 6 lines intended for
the right hand and 8 for the left. Strange to say, besides these



*See "Musica getutsclit iind aussgezogen diirch Sebastianum Yirduni,^",
Basel, 1511.

**See Toscanella in musica di niesser Piero Aron, Venice, l.")20, Bivisione
del Monarcliordo per tuoni e semituoni, cap. XXXX ; and also De la partiei-
patione et modo de accordare I'instrumento, cap. XLI.



— X —

and similar attempts made only by isolated composers, not a single
actual score, either written or printed, of any vocal or instrumental
composition in several parts of tlie loth, Ittth, 15th, or even of the
tirst half of the 16tli century has been found, so that it almost looks
as if the contrapuntists of that time wrote out all their compositions
immediately in separate parts, without sketching them at first in
score. Further, as the har did not appear until the second half of
the 10th century, together with the score, it is evident, that previous
to that time only the most skilful and thoroughly trained singers or
players could successfully undertake the performance of a new com-
position, especially when the composer himself was not present at
rehearsals. Still greater difficulties were to be overcome by the or-
ganist who either could or would not at all times follow simply the
dictates of his own fancy. For as organ music, like all instrumental
music of the period, was merely an echo of the vocal music, the
organist was obliged, before attempting to play a piece intended for
voices, to study the several parts, which were either printed sepa-
rately or at best on opposite pages of the music-book in such wise,
that the upper half of the left-hand page bore the highest part, the
lower half the lowest part, while the two middle parts were similarly
ordered on the right-hand page. Until toward the end of the 16th
century it was the duty of church-organists in Italy to introduce the
regular a cappella compositions by preludes and intonations, to con-
nect the various divisions of the vocal mass by interludes, to answer
certain vocal strains on the organ, and at times to perform the verses
of hymns on the organ in alternation with the singers. The choir
was but seldom supported by the organ, in the psalm tunes and cho-
rales. The papal choir at Kome has retained pure vocal music ex-
clusively down to the present day in full simplicity ; but about the
year 1600, so important in the annals of music, there w^as initiated
the so-called "seconda pratica di musica", the singers being thence-
forward continually supported or accompanied by the organ or other
instruments. Vocal music pure and simple thus disappeared entirely
from the church, and the difliculties of the organist accompanying
the various vocal and instrumental parts continually increased, till
at length he was furnished with a continuous bass part to his accom-
paniment, over the notes of wdiicli the harmonies of the other parts
co-operating were indicated by figures. Such a bass part, supporting
the whole harmonic structure, w^as styled a hasso continuo^ hasso per
Vorgano, hasso princijpale^ or hasso generate.



— xr —

In Germany, on the other liand, where, as in otlier coniitries,
tlie singers liad sung from notes since the appearance of tiie tirst
contrapuntists, the instrumentalists employed from the very beginning
of the 16tli century a kind of notation with letters, which Yii-dung
mentions as early as 1511, with i-eference to which Martin Agricola,
in his Musica instrumentalis (1529), gives instructions "for playing on
the organ, harp, lute, violin, and all instruments and stringed instru-
ments, according to the rightly established tabulature". In this German
Tabulature, in accordance with a usage handed down to our time,
the tones of the lowest octave were indicated by capital letters, those
of the next octave by small letters, and the others in succession by
small letters with lines drawn above them, being called the once-
lined, twice-lined, thrice-lined octave, etc.

CDEFGAH(B) cdefgah (b) c d e f g a li (b) c etc.
and set one above the other in two, three, four, or more rows as
required, in movements having several parts to be executed by the
organist. The relative length of the tones was indicated by dots,
hooks, or cross-lines over the letters in question, the rests being marked
by other special signs. This organ tabulature, immediately after its
invention, was also used for comi3ositions for the clavier, and down
to 1650 was exclusively employed in Germany for keyboard instru-
ments. The organists in Italy, on the contrary, never took to the
alphabetic tabulature ; in that country, as said before, various kinds
of note tabulatures were tried for giving the player a convenient
view of the several parts of a composition, until finally he was pro-
vided with a full score for the execution of pieces in several parts,
such as obtains to-day. But the compression of all the parts of a
movement in more than 2 parts on only two staves is not found, even
in Italy, until after the appearance of the hcbsso continue or thorough-
bass, i. e. not until the first half of the ITth century. The setting of
separate parts of a composition on an ecpial number of staves one
above the other was also brought into use in Germany about the
middle of the 17th century, and there styled the '' Italian Tabulature"
(intavolatura), or " Partitur" (partitura, score), though the German al-
phabetic tabulature still found adherents and defenders down to the
beginning of the 18th century.

^^^^^



TABLE OF CONTENTS,



Page.
Biographical Sketch of the Author V

Author's Preface and Introduction VIII

Clavichord, Harpsichord, and Pianoforte. Organ-playing and Clavier
playing. Compass and Tuning of the earlier Claviers. Temperament.
Oldest specimens of Counterpoint. Scores. Thorough-bass. German and
Italian Tabulature.

Table of Contents XIII

Errata XIX

EARLIER HISTORY.

THE CLAVICHORD.

I. The strict contrapuntal Organ-style and the freer Clavier-style.

The Earlier Italian School of Clavier-playing 3

Venice. Celebrated organ-players from the 14th century on. Francesco
Landini, Francesco da P6saro, Bernado di Stefanino Murer, — Adrian Willaert
(1527) founder of the Venetian School of Music. Development of the Instru
mental style. Jachet de Buus. Girolamo Parabosco. Instrumenti da penna.
Spinet, Virginal, Monacord. — Chromatic music. Nicolo Vicentino, Cipriano
de Rore, Gioseffo Zarlino. — Fantasia, Ricercare, Contrapunto. — Emancipa-
tion of vocal music from the shackles of diatonics. — Claudio Merulo da
Correggio (see Musical Appendix), Annibale Padovano, Andrea and Giovanni
Gabrieli. — Toccata, Canzona, Sonata ; Fugue, Canon, Ricercata. Folk-
songs. Canzoni villanesche. Gagliarda, Corrente, Ciacona, Giga. —
Josquin's Theory of Counterpoint and Harmony. Organ and Clavier School
of Girolamo Diruta (1593). Method of Fingering (1656). — Florence. Basso
continue, Thorough-bass. Ludovico Viadana. — Rome. Girolamo Fresco-
baldi (see Mus. App.) and his pupil J. J. Froberger. Bernardo Pasquini
(see Mus. App.) and his pupil F. Gasparini. — Temperament of the clavier.
The modern Major and Minor Scales. — Naples. Alessandro Scarlatti and
his pupil Francesco Durante (see Mus. App.). The swifter and freer clavier-
style of Scarlatti. The Sonata is one movement, with the fundamental
outlines of its modern form. — Clavier-sonatas in two movements. Diverti-
menti. Albertinian Bass. The two-part clavier-style. F. Durante, D.

-^ Alberti, P. D. Paradies (see Mus. App.).

The Earlier English School of Clavier-playing 24

John Dunstable. Thomas Tallis (see Mus. App.) and his pupil William
Bird, 1575 (see Mus. App.) — Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. — Giles,
Farnaby, Dr. Bull. — Fantasia, Pavane, Galliarde, and Variations. — Orlando
Gibbons (see Mus. App.) Henry Purcell, 1683 (see Mus. App.) Clavier-
sonatas.



-_ XIV —

The Earlier French School of Clavier-playing 26

Development of a more elegant, rhythmically defined, and richly embel-
lished clavier style. Andre Champion de Chambonnieres (1650) and his
pupils, William Hardelle, J. H. d'Aiiglebert (see Mus. App.). The Couperin
Family. Fran9ois Couperin le Grand (see Mus. App.). Harpsichord Method
(L'art de toucher du Clavecin). Agrements (see Mus. App.), L. Marchand
(see Mus. App.). Marchand and J. Seb. Bach. Marchand and Rameau. L.
C. Daquin. Extension of the resources and effects of the Clavier.

The Earlier German School of Clavier-playing. . . , 31

Celebrated organists from the 15th century on. Bernhard Murer (1445),
Conrad Paulmann. Arnold Schlick, Paul Hofhaimer. German style of
Composition. H. L. Hassler (1600), Ch. Erbach, H. Praetorius, A. Gumpeltz-
haimer, M. Franck, S. Scheidt. The first German Clavier-virtuoso, S. J.
Froberger (see Mus. App.) — Kerl, Pachelbel, Georg and Gottlieb Mufiat (see
Mus App.). The French "Agrements" and Graces come to Germany. —
Keys of the "New Music." Matthai, Werckmeister, Mattheson, Theoreti-
cians. — Music-trade in the 17th Century.— Brilliant epoch of the earlier
German Organ and Clavier-school. Buxtehude (1670), Zachau, Handel,
Mattheson. — Clavier Suites and Free Variations. — Modern Editions of earlier
Clavier Works. — ^Johann Sebastian Bach, the Perfecter of the Art of Counter-
point. Reinken and Bruhn. J. .S. Bach's Sons: W^ilhelm Friedemann, Karl
Philipp Emanuel, Johann Christoph Friedrich, and Johann Christian Bach.
Frederick the Great and the Musikalisches Opfer. — The Fortepianos made
by Silbermann and Friederici. All Major and Minor Keys employed for the
first time in the "Well -tempered Clavichord." Bach's Works for Clavier.
The Fugue as perfected. Bach's Fingering.

^"11. The Clavier Style resulting from the new System of Harmony.

Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach and his Predecessors 48

Theory of Accompaniment, or System of Thorough-bass. J. P. Rameau.
A more pleasing secular style replaces the severe and serious organ-style.
Sonatas by J. Kuhnau and J. Mattheson, embracing from one up to eight
movements. — Musical weekly and monthly Periodicals. — Forms of Art in
the l8th century : Dances, Suites, Variations, Salon-music, Sonatas, and
Fugues. — Two-part form of the clavier-works. — G. H. Stolzel's Enharmonic
Clavier-sonata (see Mus. App.) — G. Benda. — Clavier-sonatas for 4 hands
(1783 and 1784) by Ch. H. Muller and E. W. Wolf.— Reform in Clavier-
playing and Clavier-compositions through K. Ph. E. Bach (see Mus. App.).
Establishment of the Sonata-form in 3 movements. The Rondo as an inde-
pendent composition. — Clavier-players in Berlin : Ch. Nichelmann (1745),
Carl Fasch, F. W. Marpurg, J. P. Kirnberger, W. Friedemann Bach, and K.
Ph. E. Bach. Clavier-works of the last-named. His School of Playing :
Position of the hands. Fingering, Agr6ments, Rendering, Theory of Accom-
paniment, and Free Fantasia. — Earlier German Clavier Methods by Maichel
beck (1738), Marpurg, K. Ph. E. Bach, Lohlein, J. S. Petri, G. F. Wolf, Turk,
and A. E. Muller (1804). — Duetto for 2 Claviers or 2 Fortepianos by J. G.
Miithel (1771). — The Clavichord and the newer Forteoiano (1787). K. Ph. E.
Bach's pupils : J. W. Hassler, N. J. Hullmandel (see Mus. App.), and Johann
Christian Bach. First and Second Themes in the Sonatas of the last-named.
Sonatas in 2 and 3 movements. — ^J. J. Fux, Gottlieb MuflFat, (see Mus. App ,1,
G. Ch. Wagenseil, and J. Wanhal in Vienna. J- F Reichardt.



— XV —

The Earlier Dance-forms 65

Suite, Partita, Sonata da camera. — Allemande, Corrente, Sarabande, and
Gigue. — Minuet, Alternativo, Trio, Double. — Entree. Marcji. — Loure,
Gavotte, Bourree, Rigaudon, Passepied, Rondo, Branle, Canarie. — Pastorale,
Villanella, Musette, Tambourin. — Ciacona (basso ostinato), Passacaglia. —
Pa vane or Paduane, Gagliarda, Romanesca. Volta. Passamezzo, Furia. —
Siciliano, Forlana. Saltarello, Tarantella. — Moresca. La Morisque. —
Polonaise. — Murky, Murky-bass. — Schreit- and Schleiftiinze ; Sprin^iinze or
Reihen. Waltz, Cosa rara (see Mozart, Don Giovanno, 2nd Finale, 2nd
Tempo). — German Dances of the i6th century. Allemande (1551).

MODERN HISTORY.

THE FORTEPIANO.

III. The Lyrical Clavier Style.

Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 75

Testimony concerning K. Ph. E. Bach. — Vienna. Joseph Haydn and his
pupil Ignaz Pleyel. The fancifully humorous style. The Minuet, The
euphonic clavier-style. Mozart adopts the Fortepiano for the performance
of his compositions (1777). Schobert (see Mus. App.), J- G. Eckart, and G.
A. Stein. J. von Beecke and Ch. F. D. Schubart. Abb6 Vogler, Abb6
Sterkel, and Abb6 Gelinek. L. Kozeluch and J. W. Hassler. Variations.
Improvisation. Mozart's Sonatas with first and second themes. Mozart
the creator of the modern Pianoforte Concerto. Sonatas for 4 hands by

« Mozart, Onslow, Hummel, and Moscheles. Sonatas for Pianoforte and
Violin. Mozart's rivalry with Hassler and Clementi. Bolder harmonies and
modulations. Viennese School of Playing.

Muzio Clementi 93

Extension of the resources of the virtuoso. J. Field, A. Klengel, and L.
Berger. Clementi's Studies for the Pianoforte : Gradus ad Parnassum, con-
taining Canons and Fugues in freer style.

Contemporaries of Em. Bach, Haydn, Mozart, and Clementi 96

Parasites. D. Steibelt. Tone-paintings, Battle-pieces, Bacchanales. The
Fantasia with variations. — ^J. L. Dussek and Prince Louis Ferdinand of
Prussia. Richer and fuller pianoforte setting. The Sonata in 4 move-
ments : Allegro, Adagio, Scherzo, and Finale. — Joseph Wolfl. The Virtuoso
period. — A. E. Miiller ; his Method for Clavichord and Fortepiano, and
Instruction-books. — Wanhal, Kozeluch, Marie Therese Paradies, and A.
Eberl of Vienna. — F. Kuhlau of Copenhagen.

Clementi's Pupils 104

J. B. Cramer. Studies. Selection by H. von Biilow. Course of study
from Beginner to Virtuoso. — Ludwig Berger and his pupils C. W. Greulich,



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