Karl Georg Wieseler.

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Monday 10

Tuesday .... 11
Wednesday. 13
Thursday ....13

Friday 14

Saturday.... 15
8 UN DAY... 16

Monday 17

Tuesday — 18
Thursday... 30

tYlday 21

Saturday.... 22
SUNDAY ...28

Monday 24

Tuesday.... 26
Thursday ...27

Friday 28

Saturday.... 29
Monday 81


Monday 3

Tuesday — 8
Wednesday. 4
Thursday... 6


Saturday.... 7


Tuesday ... .10
Thursday ...18

Friday 18

Saturday.... 14
SUNDAY ...16

Monday 16

Tuesday.... IT
Thursday ...19

Friday 30

Saturday.... 31
SUNDAY ...33

Monday 38

Tuesday ....21
Wednesday .36
Thursday... 26

Friday 31

Saturday ...38
SUNDAY ...39

Monday 80

Tuesday.... 81

NoTB— Tb ascertain any day of the week first
look in the tahle for the year required and under
the nxmtha are figures which refer to the corre-
•poodinir figures at the head of the columsB of
days below. For example: To know on what
day of the week July 4 was in the /ear 1896, in the
toUa of years look tor 1896, and in a parallel

under July,

column 1. in which It will


is figure 1, which directs to

_ ii It wUl be aeen that July 4

fslls on llursday.

*1763 same as 1773 from Jan. 1 to Sept. 8. From
Sept. 14 to Dec. SI same at 1780 (Sept. S-IS were
omitted).— This Calendar is from whitaker's Xioo-
don Almanack, with some reTlsioDS.

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EXPLANATION— The chart of the h*»avens shows
«11 the brljjbt stars untl groups visible in the United
States, Canada. Mrxico, Cuba and Hawaii. Stars
of the third ma^cuitudo are sometimes showD in
order to complete a llpure.

If a bright uncharted body be seen near the
"ecliptic circle" it must be a planet. To locate the
phinets or moon refer to the tables "Position of
Planets" and ".Moon's Place" In the almanac pages,
find the proper sipns on the chart on the "ecliptic
circle" and an InsjK^ction of that part of the heav-
ens, comparing with the chartt will serve to Iden-
tify the planet and all the surrounding objects. Of
course there must be somewhat of distortion south
of the equator, but not sutflcient to be confusing or
to prevert the use of the pointer system. For In-
stance, an extension of the west side of the square
of Pegasus three times as far south will come close
to Fomalhaut.

Because of the earth's motion from west to east
(opposite to the direction of the arrow Id the chart),
the stars rise 4m. earlier each day or 30m. per
week, or 2h. a month. The chart shows the posi-
tion at i p. m. Then If the position for any other
hour he desired, as for 7 p. m., count back one
month, or ahead one month for 11 f. m., and so on
for any hour of the night.

A circle described from the zenith on the *'w»nlth
circle" for the desired latitude with a radius of
90° (see graduated meridian) will show about what
fitars are above the horizon. Thus Capella Is near
the overhead (zenith) point on latitude 40' north
Jan. 15. 9 p. m., as will be Al«enib in the handle
of the Big Dipper at 3 a. m. Then from Capella
or Algenlb all the surrounding visible groups can
lie Idontlfled. The "pointers," being 5° apart and
always in sight, may be used as a convenient milt
of measure; also when risible the Belt of Orion,

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3**. or the aides of the sauare of Pegasns. The ob- iH^arintr In mind that to the right i« weit when
serTer Is always sapposed to stand ander the over- facing south and east when looking north.
bead point and to face south and north alternately.

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Eve. given for the meridian passage. Those markeU

( ) In the last colamns are circnmpolar and do

not rise or set In the latltade named in the head
of that eoluzBB. Start having an asterisk (•) In the
last colamns are only to be seen in the far south and
then when near the meridian, as the vapors of the
horizon will prevent seeing them when they rise or
set. To tell bow high up from the nearest point of
the horiscm a star will be at iu meridian passage,
subtract the itar's declinatioo from M* and if the
result is less than the latitude of the place of
the observer that star wlU neither rise nor set,
but is clrcompolar. and the difference between that
result and the latitude shows the star's altitude
above the north point of the hortaon or below the
southern horizon. Or (90»— Dec.) — lat. «= alL or
elevation of the star above the nearest point of
the boriaon at meridian passage for stars of a
south, dec. Examples:
Sidereal noon, Oct. SO. 9:28 p. m.

Fomalbaut "In Merld.^' col.. 22:48
^ S2:16

Subtnct, 24:00

8:16 p.m. of the 3l8t.
time of merid*
ian passage.
Fomalbaot ris. and set. col. add 4:Q0

12:16 — 0:16 a. ra. of
Nov. 1. the time
of setting.
Or by snbtractiiig ^i 4:16 p. m. « rising.
Fomalhact dec. 80* s. 90* - ao», —M*— 40*. ■- 20*.
Altitude of Fomalhaut in latitude 40* at its me-
ridian passage. To measure celestial distances
with the eye keep in mind that one>third of the
distance from the aenlth to the horison is SO*.
For smalls measurements use the "pointers" in
the *'big dipper.-' which are nearly 6* apart— «
convenient celestial yardstick because always to
be seen. In the case of a star whoso dec.' Is sodh
as to bring it nearer to the lenlth than to a
horison at meridian passage, it will be more con-
venient to use its zenith distance as a means of
locating It. The difference between the latitude
and dec. Is this zenith distance. If the dec la
greater than the latitude then such difference is
to be counted northward, otherwise southward
'rom the zenith.


Kama I>Uin«Ur, IHMkOMftvia Pi»rio4of

^"°^°- MllM. MB. Milw. nT.t«7>.

Sun 866.400

Mercury 8.080 86.000.000 88

Venus 7.700 67.200,000 225

Earth 7,918 92,900,000 865

Mars 4.230 141.600.000 687

Jupiter 86,800 483,300.000 4.338

Saturn 73,000 886.000.000 10.759

Uranus 81.900 1.781.900.000 30,687

Neptune 84,800 2.791.600,000 60,181

The sun's surface is 12,000 and its volume
1.300,000 times that of the earth, but the mass
Is only 832.000 times as great and its density
about one-quarter that of the earth, i The force
of gravity at the surface of the sun is twenty-
seven times greater than that at the surface of
the earth. The sun rotates on its axis once In
25JS days at the equator, but the time is longer
at the higher latitudes, from which fact It is
presumed that the sun Is not solid, at least as
to Its surface.

__ Earth— The equatorial diameter of the earth is
7,026.5 miles and the polar diameter 7,809.5 miles;
equatorial circumference, 25,000. The linear ve>
locity oX the rotation of the earth on its axis
at the equator Is 24.840 miles a day. or 1,440
feet a second; lU velocity in its orbit around the
sun is approximately nineteen miles per second,
the length of the orbit being about 560.000.000
miles. The superllcial area ot the earth accord-
ing to Elncke. the astronomer. Is 107,108,580 square
miles, of which two-thirds is water and one-
third land. The planetary mass Is about 266,-
000.000 cubic miles.

Moon— The moon has a diameter of 2.162 mfles,
a circumference of about 6.800 miles and a sur-
face area of 14.686.0pO square miles. Her mean
distance from the earth Is 238.840 miles. The vol-
ume of the moon is about l-40th that of the earth
and the density about 3 2-5 that of water. The
time from new moon to new moon is 20 days 13
hours 44.05 minutes. The moon has no atmos*
phere and no water and is a dead world.

Light travels at the rate of 186.800 miles per
second. It requires 8 minutes and 8 seconds for
light to come from the sun to the earth.

(For use In connection with star table. See note under same. )

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(Copyright. 1909, by Berlin H. Wright, De Land, Fla.j"

ExPLANATOBT NoTB— The figure shows at a glance
when all of the major planets are briglitest and
whether east of the aun (evening atars) or west
of him and morning stare, at the time. It also
Bhowa the relative duration of visibility and bright-
ness as to the superior planets. Mars, Junlter and
Saturn. With Venus, the light shaded portion
simply la the aporoxlmate measure of duration
and place of visibility and not of brilliancy, while
of the others it (the light portion) shows both the
tluratlon and brilliancy. Thus, Jupiter will be
brightest the 6th of July, and then will shine
equally In the morning and evening; the last of
December he will decrease almost to invisibility.
It will t>e seen that Mars does not attain his max-
imum degree of brilliancy within the year. Venus,
being an Inferior planet, between the earth and

sun. can never be seen opposite the aun, aa in the
case of the others on the chart, nor is she at her
greatest brilliancy when farthest (In angular dis-
tance) from the sun, as shown.

From this It will be seen that the light portions
represent the comparative angular distance of the
planets from the aun. Then each of the twelve
spaces will be one hour spaces of 15° each, when
the day and night are equal, and more when the
night is more tnan twelve hours* duration.

Of course the chart can only show an approxi-
mation as to the boundaries of the light portloO'
It will, however, prove a valuable aid to toe aver-
age person who is not an astronomer In under-
standing the movements of the planets and defl-
iiltelv settling the question of what conatltntes
evening and morning stars.


MERCtJRT (e). when brightest as a morning
star. Jan. 1-3. will be in m with the bright red
Antares atwut 15° above or west of him and In d
with <f Jan. 9, <f being the one farthest south,
and Dec. 5-10 In « being at greatest angular
difitauce (21") west of o Dec. 10 and 1° 35'
north of 9 Doc. 2. When brightest as an evening
Ktiir. March 2-7, he will be near the prime meridian
erf the heavens and on the ecliptic circle or earth's
path and sun's apparent path, and pointed at 15°
north by the two briglit stars which form the east
side of the square of Pegasus, being at greatest
nngular distance (18°) east of O March 11, and
N<yv. 6-10 In HI about 10° north of Antares. The
most favorable time of the year for seeing hira
win be from Feb. 25 to March 10. Wlien brightest

he will rise about one hour fifteen mlnutea be-
fore the o when a morning star and set about one
hour and twenty minutes after the O when an
evening star. At such times he cannot easily be
mistaken for a star because of his heavy steady
red light. Mercury passes through all the phases of
the moon, the same as Venns. in the course of ai
revolution about the O but because of his nearness
to the o they cannot be well observeil as In the
case of 9. See figure under Venus. He will ap-
I>ear nearly as In the half-moon phase as at B or
F In the following figure.

VENUS (9) will be one of the most attractive
celestial objects throughout almost the entire year,
being at her very brightest a.spect the evenings or
the latter part of March and in the iDornlnga of

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BCar and Jane (see "Planets Brightest,'* etc., and
table of rising and setting of the planets, also
tb« chart ••ffilbUlty of the Planets^'). Both 9
and <f will cast a shadow when brightest in the
abaenee of the Moon. Those possessed of small
telescopes or good field glasses will find much
pleaaare in watching her as she passes throogh all
of the phases shown in the annexed cut, and In-
creases or decreases In apparent siie as she de-
creases or increases her distance from the earth,
•a aliown at A or B and D or H.

tiowardstlie SDH

As teen In the morning
west of Sun.

As seen in the erenlng
east of Son.

Explanation: .^

A— Aboat fifteen days before superior & wltb O
or latter part of December. 1913.

B— At greatest elongation west of O. July 3. 1913.

C—When brightest as a morning star. May 2S to
June S, 1918.

D— Just after inferior tf with the O or about
Hay 1. 1913. f

l^Aboot fifteen days after superior </ with O
or about February 23. 1914.

F— At greatest elongaUon east of O February
12, 1913.

O— When brightest as an evening star about
March 16-36, 1913.

H-Just before inferior <f with O April 15 to
20, 191S.

At the beginning of the year 9 will be in eastern
« (sign ■ ) as an evening star and nearly midway
between Fomalhaut 15* to the S. and the A in
• 15* north and about 15* west of the line joining
them. She passes the prime meridian of the
heavens in her eastward course past the stars
Feb. M, and at greatest elongation (46* 430
east of O Feb. 12. March 5-8 she will pass
the boundary line between the constellations ><
and T and will be Just south of the three brightest
stars of T in the Head of the Ram. She continues
to advance eastward but more and more slowly
until Feb. 8, when she becomes stationary In
T 38* west of the Pleiades and Hyades having
passed her point of maximum brilliancy March 19.
After remaining apparently stationary for a few
days she will begin to move slowly back westward
past the stars (Retrograde) with increasing speed.
passing tlie sun April 24, becoming a morning star,
until the middle of May, when she will again come
to a halt in T and then soon again assume her
forward eastward march past the stars, reaching
the vicinity of the Pleiades and Hyades the latter
part of June and the first of July when at greatest
angnlar distance west of the O. passing about
ooildway between those splendid asterlsms. and the
last of July she will be in V about midway between
Capella on the north and the Belt of Orion on the
south. The latter part of August she will be In
■ with the brilliant stars CJastcrr and Pollux north
of her and Procyon, in Ganls Maior south, with the
great sun Sirius still farther south. She will enter
the constellation • the flmt of September and pass
lust to the south of the great cluster of dim stars
Known as Praesepe, reaching the beautiful Regnlus
tn P St the end of the Handle of the Sickle about
the 25tli, and the boundary line between • and
a the last of September: crosses the equinoctial
colore at the point of intersection of the celestial
eqnator and elliptic Oct. 20. entering the con-
stellation HP, reaching Spica Virginia about Nov.
5* enters Hi about Nov. 8 when very close to

the bright star Beta Scorpli, the mldde star of
the three In the Head of the Scorpion; reaches a
point about 51 north of Antares the middle of
December and at the close of the year she will
be entering the constellation ^ and be very close
to the O.

The following are her conjunctions: With the
€, Jan. 11, Feb. 10, March 11 and April 8; with
the O, inferior. April 24. Then on the other side
of the sun, lo the morning May 4, June 1 and 30.
with b July 21, 9 being 1' 18' south; with the
3 again July 30, Aug. 28 and with V Aug. 29,
9 being 18' south of v; with the 5 Sept. 27,
Oct. 27, Nov, 26 and Dec. 26. Her & with
Dec. 2 was mentioned at the beginning of this

MARS (<*•> begins the year in east m ; advancing
past the stars, he passes Into v on the 10th and on
the 15th will be close to the star In the end of the
Handle of the Milkmaid's Dipper and passes Just
north of the bottom of the Bowl of said *"'

which is bottom up, Jan. 20-25. He enters « Feb.
20-25, when he will be about 5° south of the group
of three stars which mark the Head of the Goat,
and the only conspicuous stars in that constella-
tion. Still farther (25'^) north the observer will
quickly catch the neat diamond -shaped asteriara
known as Job's Coffin, in the Dolphin, and the
trio of bright stars of AquUa, the Eagle, witli
Altalr, the luclda. midway between, while far-
ther to the nortb Is Lyra, the Harp, which has
Vega as Its luclda or brightest star, and the Great
Cross with Deneb at Its head and its long arm In
the Milky Way. From the middle of April to
May 10 he will be passing 15° below or south of
the Great Square of Pegasus, crossing the prime
meridian of the heavens on the 7th of April and
entering the constellation K formerly sign T
enters the constellation T the middle of June;
reaches the Pleiades or 7-Stars July 20-25. passing
at)out 5** south of them, and toward the end of
July will be on a line joining Aldebaran in the
Hyades and the Pleiades. By the end of August
he will be about midway between Capella on the
north and the "Ell and Yard" or Orion's Belt, on
the south and In the midst of the most beautiful
stars of the heavens. He will cross the line be-
tween \f and » the middle of September and arrive
at western O Oct. 2. By the last of October he
will be between Castor and Pollux on the north
and Procyon, in the lesser dog (Canls Minor) on
the south, near which point he becomes stationary
the latter part of November, after which he retro-
grades or moves back westward up to the close
of the year, when he will be nearly at his brightest
and an "all-night" star. See chart.

His conjunctions will be as follows: With the
3 Jan. 5, Feb. 3, March 4, April 2, May 2 and 31,
June 29, July 28, Aug. 26, Sept. 23, Oct. 21, Nov.
18 and Dec. 15; with e Jan. 9. 16' south; a
Jan. 13, 47' south; d Feb. 25, 26' south: b Aug.
24, 1* 9' north; at west, a or 90* west of O Oct 2.

JUPITER(a)wlll be found on the boundary line
between m and y at the beginning of the year and
will be very dim because of the near by sun. The
middle of February he will be Just above (north)
of the bottom of the Mllkraaid's Dipper in ^.
His apparent motion among the stars is at no time
rapid enough to make It Interesting to follow his
course past them, but he reaches his stationary

ficflnt In his orbit where his direction of motion is
n line with our line of vision about the first of
May. having past his westorn D April 6. Then
he majestically swinj^s back almost to where he
was at the bcfflnnln;; of tho year by September,
and then advancos the balance of the year, being
then In line with Deneb at the he.id of the Groat
Northern Cross and Altalr the central star and
brightest of the three conspicuous stars In a line
in Aquilaj^the Eagle. His conjunctions will be as
follows: With the 3 Jan. 5, Feb. 2. March 2 and 29,
April 26, May 23. June 19. July IG. Aug. 12. Sept.
9. Oct. 6 and Nftv. 3 and .■JO. In all of which the
a will pass about 5° south of a; <P O July 15.
when he wIU be 180" from the O, rising at sunset.
SATURN (b) at the first of the year Is slcrwly
retrograding in T or that part of the constella-
tlonal figure W which represents the shoulder of

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the Ball, and which lies within the aBtrononoLical
limits of the cmistellation Aries, being about 5*
south of the Pleiades. About Feb. 1 he will begin
ia adrance and April 1 will be in on the line Joining
Aldebaran, in the Hyades, and Alcyone, the ludda
of the Pleiades, when he will be very aim because
of his nearness to the sun. being in <f with the
O May 29. and will be practically invisible for a
month before and after that date. When next
nicely Tislble he will be considerably to the east-
ward and by Sept. 10. when at western a he will
be almost in line between Elnath and Aldebaran
(see chart), and will vary but slightly from that
position during the remainder of the year.

His conjunctions will be as follows: With the
3 Jan. 18. Feb. 14, March 13, April 10 and May 7,
in all of which he will be about 6* south of the 3 ;
also July 1 and 29, Aug. 26, Sept 22, Oct. 19, Nor.
16 and Dec. 12, in all of which the 9 will pass
about 6* north of b. He will be at western D
Sept. 10 and <P Dec. 7, when be will set at sunrise
(see chart and table).

URANUS ( a ) may be found near the middle of
«. but witb DO bright star near by to aid in his
identification. He will be at <f to O, rising near
sunset and brightest in July and August. A south-
west diagonal through the square of Pegasus, pro-
duced somewhat more than twice as far again, will
serve to locate him approximately, where lie will
appear as a dim star, in the absence of any con-
siderable amount of moonlight.

NEPTUNE( V) may be found in X when tnightest
in Jauanry a little west of an extension of a line
Joining Castor and Pollux and about 10** south of
the latter, being near the center of a small square
of dim sUrs. Onlv in the entire absence of the
3 and with the aid of a good glass can this the
outermost of our system be seen.

All of these planets with oar sun. the earth,
satellites, asteroids (about 700} and comets, con-
stituting this system of worlds, have a common
orbital motion toward the constellation Lyra, near
Vega (see Chart of the Heavens), which point is
known as the "Apex of the Heaveoe."

















6 «

12 if


9 If

1« ^
28 \S

2 K
9 «

15 '
23 W


6 T

13 -
27 W

26 V


\ \

16 >
22 W

27 W


1? ?

24 V


14 »
21 #
28 W


.1 S

19 y
26 W


16 ;!•
28 W

7 »

14 X





9 at a

3 at tJ






























• Lowest of the year— 67* lower than when full in December. tHlghest of the year— 67o higher than when
fall in June.

Bxplanatlon of signs: T Aries. vTauraa x Gemini. eCancer. o Leo. v Virgo. « Libra. uSeorpio.
Bagittarins. « Caprioomus. • Aquarius. K Pisces. The place indicated for the planets is for the 1st, 2d,
8d. 4tn and 6th Sundays of each month, in the order of the planets. The other signs used are as follows: cf ,
oonjanotlon or near approach; <p opposition or 180^ from the Sun; D, quadrature or 90*^ from the Snn; o. Sun;
•, Karth:o, Meronry; o/iTenas; (f.Mars; a, Jupiter; b, Saturn; a,Uranas; v, Neptune; O, Ascending Node;

O, Descending Node; >, Moon, generally.


According to statistics gathered by the bureau of
the census there were in the United States in 1909
10,614 florist establishments reporting products val>
ned at I34.8T2.000. as compared with 8,797 establish-
ments and products valued at $18,759,000 in 1899.
In 1909 there were 5.582 nursery establishments
with producU aggregating In value 121.051.000. This
was an increase of 591 establishments and $10,927,000
in products over 1899. The ten leading states in
the value of florist products in 1909 were:

Ohio 2.386.000

California 1.389.000

Indiana 1.213,000

Michigan 1.144,000

. Iowa 657,000

The ten leading states in nursery products were:
pw Yorlt $2,751,000 Minnesota 8«8,000

New Yorlt $5,149,000

Pennnylvanla ... 3.803.000

Illinois 3.695.000

New Jersey 2.858.000

Massachusetts... 2,455.000

Now Yorlt $2,751,000

California 2,213.000

Texas 1,253.000

Kansas 948.000

Pennsylvania. ... 923,000

Ohio 860,000

Iowa 846.000

niinois 822.000

Oregon 783,000


Roman. Greek. Divinity Of.

Apollo ApoUon The sun.

Aurora .Eos » The da wn .

Eolns Bolos The winds.

Bacchus Dyonysns Wine.

Bellona Rnyo War.

Ores Demeter Harvest.

Cupid Krue Love.

Cybele Bhea Nature.

Diana Artemis « The chase.

Juno Hera Heaven.

Jupiter ^etM Heaven.

Mars Ares War.

Mercury Hermes Commerce.

Minerva Athena Wisdom.

Neptune Poeeidon Sea.

Pluto Hades - . . . .Lower world.

Batum Kronos Agriculture.

Venus Aphrodite Love.

Vesta Hestia Purity.

Vulcan Hephestus Fire.


Through the explosion of a cinematograph ma- I explosion «»»rlv every peraon In ^ awemblage
i!n«»^ a theater in Villareal. Spain. May 27, was either lailed or seriously hurt. Practically

Online LibraryKarl Georg WieselerThe Chicago daily news almanac and year book for .. → online text (page 6 of 147)