Karl Georg Wieseler.

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Richmond, Va.— Edgar Allen. Jr.

Rochester, N. Y.— Joseph A. Crane.

St. Joseph, Mo.— l^aurence O. Weakley.

St. Louis, Mo.— Thomas J. Aklna.

St. I auL Minn.— Edward Yanlsh.

Salt Lake City. Utah— A. L. Thomas.

San Antonio. Tex.— John J. Stevens.

San Francisco. Cal.— .\. G. Fisk.

Seattle, Wash.- George F. Russell.

Springfield. Ill.-L. E. Wheeler.

Springfield. Mass.— Louis C. Hyde.

Toledo. O.— W. H. Tucker.

Trenton, N. J.-t\. C. Yard.

Troy. N. Y.— A. E. Bonesteel.

Washington, D. O.— Norman A. Merritt.

interstate commerce. On a demurrer by the hat-
ters' union, tlie Circuit court decided that the
Slierman law was inapplicable and dismissed the
case. Th*» Court of Appeals, however, certified the
suit to the United States Supreme court, and that
tribunal. Feb. 3, 1908. reversed the decision of the
Circuit court, deciding, without a dissenting voice,
that boycotting, where it affected Interstate com-
merce, was in violation of the Sherman antitrust

The case then went back to the Circuit court, and
after a trial lasting eleven weeks resulted Feb. 4,
1910, In a verdict fdr $74,000 damages for the plain-
tiff. An appeal was taken and the case was sent
to the United States District court with the result
stated above. The plaintiffs were backed by the
Antiboycott society and the defendants by the
American Federation of Labor.


James Schoolcraft Sherman, vice-president of the
United States, died at his home In Utica, N. Y..
at 9:42 p. m. Oct. 30. 1912. Ilo had l.rpn 111 from
Brlsrht's disease for several months and had been
confined to his house most of the time after Aug.
21, when he was officially notified of his renomlna-
tlon at the republican convention in Chicago. Ac-
cording to a statement made by Dr. Fayette H.
Peck, his attending physician. Mr. Sherman died in
a urnpmic coma as a result of BrUht's dl8<»a«p. heart
disease and arteriosclerosis. He was born near
I'tlca. N. Y., Oct. 24. IS.'iB, and after his admission
to the bar In 1880 became active In repul)llcan poli-
tics. In 1887 he was elected to the 50th congress
and was afterward re-elected to serve In the 5lst.

C4th. 55th. 56th, 57th. R8th. 59th and 60tb congresses.
In the house he attained prominence as a debater
and also as a parliamentarian. He was noailnate«^
for the vice-presidency by the republican conven-
tion in 190S and elected.

.Mr. Sherman was the seventh vice-president of
the United States to die in office, the list being as

April 20, 1812— George Clinton.

Nov. 23. 1S14— El bridge Gerry.

April 18. 18.S3— William R. Sing.

Nov. 22. 1S7S— Henry Wilson.

-Nov. 25. iss.=i— Thomas A. Hendricks.

.Nov. 2. 1S99— Oarret A. Hobart.

Oct. 30, 1912— James S. Sherman.

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Bulgaria. Montenegro and Greece; existence of
a military understanding between Bulgaria, Serria.
Greece and Montenegro directed against Turkey
becomes apparent.

Oct. 1— Turlilsh cabinet orders mobilisation of army;
transportation of ammunition consigned to Servia
stopped; Servian trooi)8 proceeding to TurliUti

Oct. 3— Naslm Pasha appointed supreme commander
of Turlclsh forces; collective note prepared by
BaUan states demands that Turlcey grant au-
tonomy for Albania. Macedonia and old Servia.

Oct. 8— Austria and Russia, as mandatories of pow-
ers, present collective note to allies declaring
that the powers would energetically reprove all
measures tending to bring about a rupture of the
peace; that the powers would talce In hand the
realization of the reforms In the administration of
Turkey in Europe. It being understood that these
reforms would not infringe on the territorial In-
tegrity of Turkey, and that should war oeverthe-
ifss break out the powers would not permit at
the end of the conflict any modification of the
status (|uo In Kuronean Turkey.

Oct. 8— Montenegrin charge d'aflTaires, M. Plamenatz,
handfl note from his government to Turkish au-
thorities announcing the cessation of all rela-
tions with Turkey; note accepted as declaration
of war: Montenegrin troops cross the frontier.

Oct. 9— Montonegrln army begins war by attacking
^^lrklsh position opposite Poilgorltaa; Prince Peter
fires first phot; Turks retire.

Oct. 10— Montenegrins capture Detchltch mountain
after lone bnttle; total casualties placed at 1,000.

Oct. 14 — Turkish government refuses to allow pow-
ers to Intervene In the question of Macedonian
reforms; Greece demands release within twenty-
four hours of Greek vessels seised by Turkey.

Oct. 15 — Prince Peter of Montenegro announces an-
other victory over Turks: way toward Scutari
cleared: Rerana surrendered by Turks.

Oct. 17— nostllitles l>egnn by Turks on Bulgarian
and Servian frontiers; Servia formally declarcf*

war against Turkey and the latter officially de-
Clares war against Servia and Bulgaria.

Oct. 18— Csar Ferdinand of Bulgaria laaoes procla-
mation declaring war against Turkey; Bulgarians
occupy Kourtkala; Greece declares war against

Oct. l»— Montenegrins capture town of Plava; Greeks
under Crown Prince Gonstantlne drive Turks from
Klassona; Servians capture Rulva heights; Bul-
garian forces advance toward Adrlanople. driving
Turks before them.

Oct. 21— Battle between Balgarlana and Turks in
progress at Kirk Kllesseb.

Oct. 22— Greeks take Lemnos island; Servians enter
Pristlna; battle at Kirk Kllesseh continues:
Servians occupy parts of Novlpazar and the Kuma-
nova district.

Oct. 24— Turks routed by Bulgarians at Kirk Klles-
seh, many being taken prisoners ; Gen. DimltrlefT
leads the main attack; Bulgarian casualties placed
at 8.000; several forts taken at point of bayonet.

Oct. 26— Servian army takes Uskup; Bulgarian lines
around Adrlanople drawn closer.

Oct. 28 — Bulgarian troops occupy Bunarblsaar; Ser-
vians take many guns from Turks near Uskup;
Montenegrins take town of Plevlle.

Oct. 29— Klamil Pasha becomes grand visier of
Turkey; great battle in progress between Bnl-
garlans and Turks at Lule Burgas.

Oct. 31— Turkish battle ship Fethl-Bniend snnk In
Gulf of Salonlkl by Greek torpedo boat.

Oct. 31— Battle at Lule Bnrgas ends in complete

. triumph of Bulgarians; Turkish army of 250.000
men under Nasim Pasha routed by Gen. SavofT's
forces numbering 150.000: losses heavy on both
sides; Greek flag raised In Islands of Tbasos
and Sobros.

Nov. 1-2— Bulgarians drive the Turks toward the
outer defenses of Constantinople at Tcbatalja.

Nov. 3— Turkey applies to the powers for Interven-

Nov. 6— Turks defeated In severe engagement with
Bulgarians between Serai and Tchorlo.

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Nor. 8— Gre«k ATvar ander Crown Prince Con«t«n-
tlne captures SalooUci; Sbelk-al-Ulam prodalms
a holy war.

Nov. 13— Manacre of «,000 women and children by
Torks near Janina reported.

Not. 14— TorkeT'a reqaeat for mediation presented
to alUes: reply delayed; relations between Serrla
and Austria becoming strained over occupation bf
former of Alesaio and the port of San Giovanni
dl Medua.

Nov. 15— Turkish request for an armistice discussed
by Bulgarian council of ministers; allies 8ald to
have submitted terms of peace to the Turks based
OQ the surrender of Adrianople. Scutari, Monaatir
and Janina; the surrender of conquered territory,
the payment of a war indemnity, the intematlon-
alizatlon of Constantinople, the oitenlng of the
Dardanelles and the establishment of Salonlki as
a free port.

Not. 18— Turkish fortress of Monastir with 60,000
men and three generals surrendered to the Ser-
vians after a battle lasting two days.

Nov. 19— Bulgaria's conditiuns for the conclusion of
peace transmitted to Constantinople; plenlpoten-
tlaries apuolnted to arrange for an armistice.

Nov. 20— Bulgarisn troops operating before TchataIJa
fortifications ordered to ceu8e fighting; cbolera
raging in lYirkish trenches; mosque of St. Sophia
turned into a great hospital.

Nov. 21— Terms offered by allies for arrangement of
an armistice declared unacceptable by I'urkey;
Nazlm Pasha ordered to continue military opera-

Dec. 3— Protocol arranging an armistice for the con-
sideration of peace terms signed by delegates
repr(^sentlng Turkey, Bulgaria, Montenegro and
Servla; Greece refused to sign. Peace plenipo-
tentiaries representing all combatants, including
Greece, to meet In London Dec 13.


Fortr amendments to the state constitution of
Ohio were submitted to the* voters of that common-
wealth for approval or rejection at a special elec-
tion held Sept. 3, 1912. Eight of the proposed
changes were defeated. These included woman
auffrage, bond issues for good roads, prohibition of
outdoor advertising, regulation of labor injunctions,
abolition of the death nenalty, use of voting ma-
chines, appointment ox women to certain offices
and the elimination of the word "white" from the
constitution. Among the more important amend-
ments which were approved were tne following:

Permitting laws to be passed authorizing tlie
rendering of vcrClcts In civil esses by the con-
currence of not less than three-fourths of a jury.

Enabling the assembly to pass bills over the
referendum to propose amendments to the constitu-
tion, to propose laws to the general assembly for
enactment and also to enable the electors to re-

gulre that any law passed by the general assembly
e snbmitte<l to a popular vote.

Enabling the assembly to pass bills over the
governor's veto by a three-fifths vote of all the
members elected to each house. Measures which
br the constitution require a two-thirds vote on
tnelr original passage are excepted.

Permitting the passage of laws to Improve the
conditions of employment of men. women and chil-

Permitting legislation to establish a fund from
compulsory coutributlon.s by the imiustrles of tbe
state for the compensation of workmen in case of
accidents or occupational dlHeuHes and of their de-
pendent relatives in case of death.

Making mandatory tlie pasHn^e of laws for the
remoral from otttee of public otlicera for misconduct
involving moral turpitude. It Is an addition to the
uaual initH-aelinjent proceedings.

Abolishing jirlson contract labor.

Simplifying the Judicial system ao as to shorten
proceedings and lessen the expense of litigation.

Making maiulatorv the pasnuue of lawa placing.
as far as practicable, all ap|>olntivc otticers in the
service of the state and the counties and cities
under civil service regulation.

Giving cities ami villages the right to frame their
own charters, own and regulate their own public
utilities and to adopt by ordinance such local po-
lice, sanitary and other similar regulations, not
in conflict with general laws, as they may deem
necessary. To the genernl assembly is reserved the
authority to limit the power of cities to levy taxea
and Incur debts for local purposes, to control elec-
tions, and, by general laws, to make such pro-
visions for police and sanitary regulations and
other similar matters as may be for the general
welfare of the state.

Keglon. Farms. Acres. Cost.

Arid states and ter*8... 152,000 9,700.000 |125,000.000

Seraiarid states and ter-
ritories 7.800 425,000 6.800.000

Rice states 7.400 875.000 17.600.000

Total 1C7.200 11.000.000 148.200,000

NoTB— The above figures are for 1907.


Location and nnme Acres. Cost.*

Arisona— Salt river 230.000 $9,500,000

Arizona and Cnlirornla— Yuma — 131.000 4,620.000

California— Or land 14,000 628.000

Colorado— Grand valley B3.000 90,000

Uncompahgre 140.000 4,591.000

Idaho— Minidoka 124.000 8,966.000

Payette- Bol}»e 243.000 6,640.000

Kansas-Garden City 10.677 380.000

Montana— Hnnt'ey 32.405 868.000

St. Mary-MUk 215.000 951.000

Bun river 322,000 844,000


Location and name. Acres.
Montana and North Dakota —

Lower Yellowstone 60,116

Nebraska and Wyoming-
North Platte 129.270

Nevada— Truckee-Carson 206. ooo

New Mexico— Carlsbad 20.267

Hondo 10,000

New Mexico and Texas —

Ulo Grande 160.000

North Dakota— Missouri pumping. 23.314

Oregon— rmatlHa 25,000

Oregon and California- Klamath.. 72,000

South Dakota— Belle Fourche lOO.oOO

Utah— Strawberry valley 60.000

Washington— Okanogan 10.051

Yakima 133.128

Wyoming— Shoshone 164.122

Total 2,688,450

•Expended to Jan. 1, 1912.







1. 603.000



The largest of the United State:i arsenals are
located at Rock Island. III., and Springfield. Mass.
Others are at Pittsburg. Pa.: Augusta. Ga.;
Benlda. Cal.; Columbia. Tenn.: Port Monroe. Va.;
Philadelphia^ Pa.: Indianapolis. Ind.: Governor's
islAnd» M. X.; Jefferson tmrracks. Mo.; Sandy

Hook. N. J.: San Antonio. Tex.; Dover. N. J.*
WfitertGwn. Mass.. and Waterviiet. N. Y. Some of
the above are merely powder depots, tLe princ'pal
manufacturing plants being at Rock Island, Spring-
field and Waterviiet. The navy yards are also

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The oTerthrow of the Manchn dynasty In China
was completed in 1912 and a republic established
on a more or less firm basis. The reTolutlon, which
began in September. 1911, was practically at an
end by the middle of December of that year. The
terms of peace were arranged by representatives of
Yuan Shin-lcal, then premier of the empire, and of
the reyolntionary leaders. Those taking a leading
part in the negotiations, which took place in Shang-
Eai. included Tang Shao-yi, a friend of Yuan Shlh-
kai; Wa Ting-fang, former minister to United States
and a naember of the revolutionary cabinet, and five
delegates representing each side. The revolntion-
ists from the first demanded the abolition of the
Manchn dynasty and the establishment of a re-
pnbllc and, while there was considerable opposi-
tion, not only on the part of the dowager empress
and the imperial princes, but also on the part of
Yuan Shih-kai, whose position was one of great
difficulty, these demands were finally complied with.
Dr. Sun Yat Sen was elected president by the rev-
olutionists in Nanking Dec. 29. Only the south of
China was then included in the republic, and his
authority was nominal rather than actual, but by
exercising good Judgment and tact he succeeded in
making tne new state a reality.

It was not until Feb. 4. 1912, that the empress
dowager finally made up ncr mind to accept the
eitoation. She then issued an edict instructing
Yuan Shib-kal to establish a republic in co-opera-
tion with the southern republicans. Feb. 12 the
throne was formally abdicated in favor of a repre-
sentative form of government in a dcree of which
the following Is a translation:

"We, the emperor of China, have respectfully re-
ceived to-day the following edict from the hands
of her majesty, the empress dowager:

•• 'In consequence of the uprising of the repub-
lican army, to which the provinces of China have
responded, the empire was seething like a boiling
ealdron. and the people were plunged into misery.
Yuan Shih-kal was therefore commanded to dis-
patch commissioners to confer with the republicans
with a view to the calling of a natlonsl assembly
to decide on the future form of government. Months
have elapsed and no settlement Is now evident.
The majority of the people are In favor of a re-

?ablic. From the preferences of the people's hearts
he will of heaven is discernible. How could we
oppose the desires of millions for the glory of one

•• 'Therefore we, the dowager empress and the
emperor, hereby vest the sovereignty of the Chi-
nese empire in the people. Let Yuan Shih-kal or-
ganise to the full the powers of the provisional re-
publican government and confer with the republic-
ans as to the methods of union assuring peace In
the emnire and forming a great republic with the
union or Manchus, Chinese, Mongols, Mohammedans
and Tilwtans. We. the empress dowager and the
emperor, will thus be enabled to live in retirement,
free from responsibilities and enjoying without in-
terruption the nation's courteous treatment.' "

The republicans in return for the atnllcation made
pledges that the emperor should retain his title
and be respected as a foreign monarch; that he
should receive an annnal grant of 4,000,000 taels
until the currency Is reformed, after which he shall
receive $4,000,000 Mexican; that he should have hia
temporsry residence in the Forbidden City and
later In the summer palace outside of Pekin and
that his property should be protected by the re-
public. Pledges were also made that the imperial
kinsmen having hereditary titles should retain
them; that the nobility should have the rights of
ordinary citizens and that their private property
ahonld be respected.

The terms of the abdication were accepted by
the national assembly in Nanking and Feb. 16 Ynan
Shih-kal was elected provisional president of the
repnbllc. Dr. Sun Yat Sen resigning the position
on the same day. Yuan was offlclally notified of
bis election Feb. 27 and he was formally inaugu-
rated March 10, In Pekin, as he gave satisfactory
reasons for not going to Nanking as requested.
The presidential seal was handed over to bis rep-
resentative. Premier Tang Shao-yl. March 29, and

on April 1 the public ceremony connected with Dt.
Sun Yat Sen's retirement from office look place
In the hall of the national assembly in Nanking.

Serious disturbances In various parts of China
marked the first weeks of President Yuan Shih-
kai's adminlBtration. These were caused chlefiy by
mutinous soldiers, revolutionary as well as Im-
perial, who were disaffected because they had not
been paid. In Pekin the president's own soldiers
led in the rioting and pillage, which lasted for
several days, causing the loss of 6,900 lives and
$15,000,000 in property. Similar scenes, though on a
smaller scale, were enacted In Tientsin. Canton
and elsewhere. Foreigners as a rule were not mo-

Lack of sufficient funds with which to carry on
the administration, inexperience on the part of cab-
inet officers and legislators, plotting by political
prtles and difficulties with Japan and Russia over
Manchuria and Mongolia proved exceedingly embar-
rassing to Yuan Shih-kal in the course of the year
but he managed not only to keep the republic from
going to pieces but to strengthen It to some ex-
tent. The course of events from December, 1911.
to December. 1912. may be gathered from the fol-
lowing chronological summary:
Dec. 14. l9ll - Reyolutlonary leaders in conference

decide to establish republic.
Dec. 18— Peace conference between representatives
of the government and the revolutlonlsU begins
■n Bnangnai.
Dec. l9 - -Powers unite in urging the conclusion of

l>eaee In China.
Dec. 20— Tang Shao-yl, representing Yuan Shlh-kat
and government, agrees to formation of republic.
^^' S~J"*° Shlh^al refuses to accept repubUc
Dec. 22— Yuan Shih-kal ofifers limited monarchy.
Uee. 24— American warships arrive at ShanghaL
Dec. 26— Yuan Shih-kai Informed that revolutionists
demand abdication of emperor and the establish-
ment of a republic with a pensioned imperial

^^^.' l^iflmp^rial family willing to refer question
Of abdication to a representative assembly legally
elected from allparfs of China. ^

^k^MTP*"-, %?. ^'^i S®° «!«cted president of the
republic of China by revolutionists.

'*Ji*e^i!^~:'?»^''**' family gives Yuan Shlb-kai
$2,600,000 with which to fight the rebels.

Jan. 4— Ctovernment orders war resumed; W. J. Cal-
houn, American minister, asks Washington for
troops to protect railway to Pekin; battles re-
ported from Lanchow and Hankow.

Jan. 6— Troops of foreign powers guard railroad be-
tween Pekin and sea.

Jan. 16— Bomb thrown at Yuan Shib-kal; one soldier
and one civilian killed.

Jan. iS-Three of Yuan Shlh-kai's assailants

i"?- ^^rmistlce^ ended, but war Is not renewed.

'^^b. 4— Empress dowager orders Yuan Shih-kai to
set up republic In co-operation with southern re-

Feb. 12— Emperor abdicates and Manchn dmasty
comes to an end; establishment of republic for
the whole of China assured.

Feb. 14— National assembly caucus In Nanking de-
cides to elect Yuan Shih-kai president of the re-

Feb. 16 - Yuan Shih-kai elected provisional presi-
dent of the republic. ^

Feb. 27— New president formally notified of bis
election* accents office.

Feb. 28— Republican troops In revolt at Wuchang:
dissatisfaction caused by failure to receive their

^^\ ^hT"***. Shlh-kai's soldiers begin shooting
and looting in Pekin.

March 1— Great military mutiny In PeWn continues*
trouble also occurs In Tientsin.

***rp.^ 2— Paotingfu at mercy of mutineers; rioting
still in progress In Pekin. *

March 8— Allied troops restore order In Tientsin
and patrol legation quarter in Pekin.

March 4-6-Dlsturbance8 by mutinous soldiers grad-
ually decreasing in rlolence; government regains
control of situation. *

Digitized by viiOOQlC


March 10— Yuan Shih-kai formally Inangurated as
provlaional president.

March 29— Presidential seal turned OTer to .Yuan

April 1— Public ceremony In connection with Dr.
Sun Yat Sen's retirement from the presidency
takes place in hail of national assembly in
Nanking; Dr. Sun bids assembly a dlKuilled fare-

April 4— Belgian loan of $10,000,000 paid to authori-

April 2»— China's first republican legislative assora-
Dly, called the advisory council, opens in I'eklu.

Jnly 19— Yuan Shih-kai has trouble with the as-
sembly over cabinet appointments.

July 2«— Assembly approves President Ynan'a cab-
inet selections.

Aug. 1— Dr. George B. Morrison appointed political
adviser to the president.

Aug. S— Mongolia^ causing authorities trouble.

Aug. 16— Ocn., Chang Chen Wo and his aid. Feng
Wei, shot by order of President Yuan Snih-kai
as plotters.

Aug. 20-Pre8ldent bitterly criticised for execn-
tions; impeachment advocated.

Aug. 24— Ex-President Sun Yat Sen has triumphal
entry iu Peklu; calls on Yuan Shih-kai.

Sept. 3— Big battle at Tonanfu; Mongolians de-

Sept. 10— Executive order issued authorlzinit Dr.
Sun Yat Sen to plan big railway system for China.

Sept. 21— Cblua refuses loan offered by the six-
power banking group.

Sept. 23— Cbao Ping Chuen appointed premier.

Oct. 10— Independence day celebrated throughout
China for the first time.

Nov. 15— War sKainst Russia for «"■ Ung treaty
with outer Mongolia demanded.


Francisco I. Madero*a first year as president of
Mexico was full of trouble. At no time was the
country entirely free from disturbances of one kind
or another. Among the leaders of the disaffected
elements were Gen. Pascual Urozco, Emiliu Vasquex
Gomes and Gen. Geronimo Trevlno in the north and
Kmillano Zapata in the south. Gen. Felix Diaz,
nephew of the deposed president. Portirio Diaz,
started a revolution on his own account in Vera
Cruz but it was of short duration. The iusnrrec-
to0 in the north were generally known as Vas-
qnlstas and those in the south as Zapatistas. In-
tervention was threatened by the United States.
but was not found necessary. Following is a brief
chronology of the more Important occurrences of
tt>e year:

Feb. 23— Manifesto circulated proclaiming Gen. Ge-
ronimo Trevino president ad interim or Mexico.
March 2— President Taft issues proclamation warn-
ing American citir^ns to refrain from entering
Mexico and from taking any part in the disturb-
ances there.
March 6— Gen. Pascual Orotco proclaimed general-
issimo of rebel forces in Cbibunbua.
March 2S— Arms shipped for defense of American

residents of City of Mexico.
April 6— Forty rebels killed near Necaxa, state of

Online LibraryKarl Georg WieselerThe Chicago daily news almanac and year book for .. → online text (page 88 of 147)