Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Charles Franks
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
THE BIRD-WOMAN OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION
A SUPPLEMENTARY READER FOR
FIRST AND SECOND GRADES
BY KATHERINE CHANDLER
"Habits of California Plants" and "In the Reign of Coyote: Folk-Lore
from the Pacific"
To my friend
GENEVRA SISSON SNEDDEN
whose interest in this little book has encouraged its completion
Because children invariably ask for "more" of the stories they find
interesting, this little book of continuous narrative has been written.
Every incident is found in the Lewis and Clark Journals, so that the
child's frequent question, "Is it true?" can be answered in the
The vocabulary consists of fewer than 700 words. Over half of these are
found in popular primers. Therefore, the child should have no difficulty
in reading this historical story after completing a first reader.
The illustrations on pages 13, 15, 29, 64, and the last one on page 79,
are redrawn from Catlin's "Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs,
and Conditions of the North-American Indians."
My acknowledgments are due Miss Lilian Bridgman, of San Francisco, for
help in arranging the vocabulary.
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.
July 1, 1905.
WHO THE WHITE MEN WERE
WHY SACAJAWEA WENT WEST
AT FORT MANDAN
THE BLACK MAN
MAKING FRIENDS WITH THE INDIANS
SACAJAWEA SAVES THE CAPTAINS' GOODS
THE FIRST SIGHT OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS
SACAJAWEA IS ILL
HOW THE INDIANS HUNTED BUFFALO
THE FALLS OF THE MISSOURI
THE CACHE NEAR THE FALLS OF THE MISSOURI
HOW SACAJAWEA CURED RATTLESNAKE BITES
GOING AROUND THE FALLS
AT THE TOP OF THE FALLS
AT THE SOURCE OF THE MISSOURI
SACAJAWEA FINDS ROOTS AND SEED
SACAJAWEA'S PEOPLE WILL SHOW THE WAY
THE INDIANS TRY TO LEAVE THE WHITES
CROSSING THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS
AT THE COLUMBIA RIVER
HOW THE INDIANS DRIED SALMON
TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN
THE PACIFIC OCEAN
SACAJAWEA ON THE OCEAN BEACH
AT FORT CLATSOP
THE START HOME
AT CAMP CHOPUNNISH
OVER THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS GOING HOME
EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS AGAIN
SACAJAWEA SAYS GOOD-BYE TO THE SOLDIERS
[Illustration: THE STATUE OF SACAJAWEA, THE BIRD WOMAN, UNVEILED AT THE
LEWIS AND CLARK CENTENNIAL, IN PORTLAND, OREGON, IN 1905]
a go hun dred Sa ca ja we a years
The Bird-Woman was an Indian.
She showed the white men the way into the West.
There were no roads to the West then.
That was one hundred years ago.
This Indian woman took the white men across streams.
She took them over hills.
She took them through bushes.
She seemed to find her way as a bird does.
The white men said, "She goes like a bird.
We will call her the Bird-Woman."
Her Indian name was Sacajawea.
Clark A mer i can Lew is
met cap tains part
sol diers twen ty nine peo pie
Mis sou ri Riv er
WHO THE WHITE MEN WERE.
The white men Sacajawea went with were soldiers.
There were twenty-nine soldiers.
There were two captains.
The name of one captain was Lewis.
The name of the other captain was Clark.
They were American soldiers.
[Illustration: CAPTAIN CLARK.]
[Illustration: CAPTAIN LEWIS.]
They carried the American flag into the West.
No white men knew about that part of the West then.
The captains wished to learn all about the West.
They wished to tell the people in the East about it.
They had been going West a long time before they met Sacajawea.
They had rowed up the Missouri River.
They had come to many little streams.
They did not know what the Indians called these streams.
So they gave them new names for the white men.
camp Fourth of Ju ly Man dan
cheered French man rest ed
ice In de pend ence creek
hus band Kan sas snow
On Fourth of July they named one stream Fourth of July Creek.
They named another Independence Creek.
We still call this stream by that name.
You can find it on the map of Kansas.
On Fourth of July the men rested.
The soldier who woke first fired a gun.
Then they all woke up and cheered for the Fourth of July.
At night they fired another gun.
Then the soldiers danced around the camp fire.
After a time the ice and snow would not let them go on.
They made a winter camp near the Mandan Indians.
Here they met Sacajawea and her husband.
Her husband was a Frenchman who knew a little about the West.
Sacajawea was the only one there who had been to the far West.
Lewis and Clark told the Frenchman they would pay him to go with them.
He said he would go.
Then he and Sacajawea came to live at the soldiers' camp.
be longed roots tribe
mar ried Snake twelve
Rocky Mountains thought war
WHY SACAJAWEA WENT WEST.
Sacajawea belonged in the West.
Her tribe was called the Snake Indians.
They lived in the Rocky Mountains.
Sacajawea lived in the Mountains until she was twelve years old.
Then her tribe went to war with the Mandans from the East.
One day Sacajawea and some other girls were getting roots.
They were down by a stream.
Some Mandans came upon them.
The girls ran fast to get away.
[Illustration: MANDAN DRAWING ON A BUFFALO ROBE]
Sacajawea ran into the stream.
An Indian caught her.
He took her up on his horse.
He carried her away to the East, to the country of the Mandans.
There she married the Frenchman.
There the Americans found her.
She was glad when her husband said he would go West with Lewis and
She thought she would see her own tribe again.
an i mals coun try friends
med i cine read y chiefs
froz en plants wrote
fort sweat house
AT FORT MANDAN.
The soldiers called their winter camp Fort Mandan. They had a hard
It was so cold that many men were ill.
They had no time to be ill.
They had to work to be ready to go West when Spring opened.
The captains wrote in their books about the Indians and animals and
plants they had seen.
They made maps of the country they had come through.
They had long talks with the Indian chiefs.
They made friends with the Indians by giving them medicine.
An Indian boy had his feet frozen near the soldiers' camp.
The captains kept him until his feet were well again.
His people all came and thanked the captains.
[Illustration: AN INDIAN SWEAT-HOUSE]
The Indians told each other about the white men's medicine.
They said, "The white men's medicine is better than our sweat-house."
So they came for miles to the white camp to get the medicine.
They gave the captains food.
They wanted to be friends with them.
ar rows din ner hunt ed
mon ey beads fid dle
knives pie ces blan kets
gal lons med als stove
The soldiers hunted animals for food and for their skins.
One soldier cut an old stove into pieces.
The Indians wanted these pieces to make arrows and knives.
They would give eight gallons of corn for one piece.
The Indians did not know what money was.
The captains did not carry money with them.
They took flags and medals, knives and blankets, looking-glasses and
beads, and many other things.
With these they could get food from the Indians.
On Christmas Day, 1804, the soldiers put the American flag up over the
They told the Indians not to come to see them on that day.
They said it was the best day of their year.
It was a cold day, with much ice and snow.
They had a good dinner and after dinner the soldiers danced.
On New Year's Day, 1805, they fired off all their guns.
The captains let the soldiers go to the Mandan camp.
They took their fiddle and danced for the Indians.
One soldier danced on his hands with his head down.
The Indians liked this dancing very much.
They gave the soldiers some corn and some skins.
sur prised hair paint ed stran ger
fin ger wa ter helped York
THE BLACK MAN.
Captain Clark had his black man, York, with him.
The Indians were always surprised to see the black man.
They thought he was stranger than the white men.
One Mandan chief said, "This is a white man painted black."
He wet his finger and tried to wash the black off York's skin.
The black would not come off.
Then York took off his hat.
The chief had not seen such hair before.
Then the chief said, "You are not like a white man.
You are a black man."
The Indians told each other of this black man.
They came from far to see him.
York helped make them friends with the whites.
The captains named a river for York.
The river had only a little water in it.
They named it York's Dry River.
bas ket laugh weeks
born su gar
At Fort Mandan, Sacajawea's baby boy was born.
He was only eight weeks old when the white men began to go to the far
Sacajawea made a basket of skins for her baby.
She put it on her back.
The baby could sleep in the basket as Sacajawea walked.
The soldiers liked the baby.
They gave it sugar.
They made it playthings of wood.
They danced to make it laugh.
Indian babies do not laugh much and they do not cry much.
Once in the West the baby was ill.
Then the soldiers camped for some days.
They were very still.
Captain Lewis gave the baby medicine.
This made the baby well again.
Then the men laughed.
They said, "Let us sing and dance for the baby."
The baby laughed as it looked at the men.
A pril par ty shot
broke shoot warm
The warm April sun broke up the ice in the Missouri River.
Then the party got into their boats and rowed on up the river.
From this time on, Sacajawea and her baby were a help to the soldiers.
When the Indians saw a woman and a baby with the men, they knew it was
not a war party.
Indians would not take a woman and baby to war.
Only men go to war.
The Indians did not shoot at the men.
They came up to see what they wanted.
If Sacajawea had not been there, they would have shot the white men.
The Indians thought that all strangers wanted war.
They thought this until the strangers showed that they were friends.
bare foot ed cov ered prick ly
threw cor ners pears
same moc ca sins true
MAKING FRIENDS WITH THE INDIANS.
Sacajawea showed the captains how to make friends with the Indians.
The Indians on the upper Missouri River and in the Rocky Mountains
showed that they wanted to be friends in the same way.
When they saw strangers, they stood still and talked to each other.
If they wished to be friends, the chief walked out ahead of his people.
He took off his blanket.
He took hold of it by two corners.
He threw it up high.
Then he put it on the ground.
This showed that he was putting down a skin for a friend to sit on.
He did this three times.
Then the strangers came up to him.
They sat down together.
They took off their moccasins.
This showed that they wished to be true friends.
If they were not true friends, they would go barefooted all their days.
They thought it hard to go barefooted.
The ground was covered with prickly pears.
The prickly pears would hurt their feet.
great pres ents smoked
pipes send Wash ing ton
When the strangers had their moccasins off, they smoked some pipes
Then they gave each other presents.
Then they told each other why they had come together.
Captain Lewis and Captain Clark always told the Indians:
"We have come from the Great Father in Washington.
He sends you these presents.
He wants you to be friends with the white men.
He wants you to be friends with the other Indians.
When you all are friends, the men can get many animals and the women can
get many roots.
The Great Father will send you out the white men's goods when you are
The Indians always said to Lewis and Clark:
"We are glad to hear from the Great Father in Washington.
We like his presents.
We shall be glad to get the white men's goods.
We will be friends with all men with Indians and with white men."
a fraid com pass canoe
straight ened turned hit
SACAJAWEA SAVES THE CAPTAINS' GOODS.
Going up the Missouri, the compass, the books, and the maps were in one
The captains had the compass to find the West.
One day a big wind hit this canoe and turned it nearly over.
Sacajawea's husband was at the rudder.
He was afraid and let go. The water came into the canoe.
The maps and books came up to the top of the water.
Sacajawea saw them going out into the river.
She took the compass into her lap.
She caught the books.
She called to her husband.
He took the rudder again.
He straightened the boat again.
Then Sacajawea caught the maps that were on top of the river.
Crook ed Mon ta na wide
hand some saved yards
As the maps and books were wet, the soldiers had to camp two days.
They put the maps and the books and the compass in the sun.
When these were dry, they went on again.
Ten days after, they came to a river that no white man had seen before.
Captain Lewis wrote in his book, "It is a handsome river about 50 yards
They did not know the Indian name for it.
The captains were so glad Sacajawea had saved their things that they
named it for her.
They said, "We will call it the Sacajawea or Bird-Woman's River."
This river is still running.
Look on a map of Montana.
Do you see a stream named "Crooked Creek?"
That is the stream Lewis and Clark named Sacajawea's River.
Which do you think is the prettier name?
Which do you think we should call it?
blew elk pleas ure
cross plains steep
buf fa lo mos qui toes sight
THE FIRST SIGHT OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
Going up the Missouri, the party had to drink the river water.
It was not good and it made them ill.
The sand blew in their eyes.
The mosquitoes bit them all the time.
But still the soldiers were happy.
They carried their goods in boats.
They walked when they wished to.
They hunted buffalo and elk on the plains near the river.
They had all they wanted to eat.
One day in May, Captain Lewis was out hunting.
He went up a little hill.
Then far off to the West he saw the Rocky Mountains high and steep.
Captain Lewis was the first white man to see these mountains.
He wrote in his book that he felt a great pleasure on first seeing them.
He knew they would be very hard to cross.
They were all white with snow.
But he was ready to go on so as to get to the West.
He went back to the boats and told the others about the mountains.
The men were happy and worked harder to get near them.
grew fell hot sul phur worse
SACAJAWEA IS ILL.
Going up the Missouri, Sacajawea fell ill.
She could not eat.
She grew worse each day.
Captain Clark gave her some medicine.
It did not make her well.
The soldiers had to camp until she could go on.
They could not go on without her.
They wanted her with them to make friends with her tribe.
One day the soldiers found a hot sulphur spring.
They carried Sacajawea to this spring.
The water made her well.
In a week she could go on.
bank killed hole to ward
HOW THE INDIANS HUNTED BUFFALO.
On the plains of the Missouri there were many buffaloes.
Sacajawea told the soldiers how the Indians hunted them.
An Indian put on a buffalo skin.
The buffalo's head was over his head.
He walked out to where the buffaloes were eating.
He stood between them and a high bank of the river.
The other Indians went behind the buffaloes.
The buffaloes ran toward the man in the buffalo skin.
He ran fast toward the river.
Then the buffaloes ran fast toward the river.
At the high bank the man ran down and hid in a hole.
The buffaloes came so fast that they could not stop at the bank.
They fell over the bank on to the rocks near the river.
Many were killed.
Then the Indians came around the bank.
They skinned the buffaloes.
They dried the meat.
They dried the skins to make blankets and houses.
June won der ful draw
pic ture spray write cache
THE FALLS OF THE MISSOURI.
One June day Captain Lewis was walking ahead of the boats.
He heard a great noise up the River.
He pushed on fast.
After walking seven miles, he came to the great Falls of the Missouri.
He was the first white man to see these Falls.
He sat down on a rock and watched the water dash and spray.
He tried to draw a picture of the Falls.
He tried to write about it in his book.
But he said it was so wonderful that he could not draw it well nor
picture it in words.
When the men came up, they could not take their boats near the Falls.
The Falls are very, very high.
The highest fall is eighty-seven feet high, and the water comes down
with a great rush.
So the soldiers had to go around the Falls.
That was a long, long way.
It would be hard to carry all their things around the Falls.
The captains said, "We will make a cache here.
"We will put in the skins and plants and maps.
"We can get them all again when we are coming home."
The soldiers made two caches.
In these they hid all the things they could do without.
Without so much to carry, it would not be so hard to go around the
dried dug ring sod
bot tom branch es earth sides
THE CACHE NEAR THE FALLS OF THE MISSOURI.
To make a cache, the soldiers made a ring on the ground.
They took up the sod inside the ring.
They dug straight down for a foot.
They put dried branches on the bottom and at the sides of this hole.
They put dried skins over the branches.
Then they put their goods into the hole, or cache.
They put dried skins over the goods.
Then they put the earth in.
Then they put the sod on.
The ring did not look as if it had been dug up.
The Indians would not think to look there for goods.
bite fresh rat tle snakes
cure morn ing sev en teen
HOW SACAJAWEA CURED RATTLESNAKE BITES.
Near the Falls of the Missouri, the party met many rattlesnakes.
The snakes liked to lie in the sun on the river banks.
Some times they went up trees and lay on the branches.
One night Captain Lewis was sleeping under a tree.
In the morning he looked up through the tree.
He saw a big rattlesnake on a branch.
It was going to spring at him.
He caught his gun and killed it.
It had seventeen rattles.
Sometimes the soldiers had to go barefooted.
The snakes bit their bare feet.
Sacajawea knew how to cure the bite.
She took a root she called the rattlesnake root.
She beat it hard.
She opened the snake bite.
She tied the root on it.
She put fresh root on two times a day.
It cured the snake bite.
The root would kill a man if he should eat it, but it will cure a snake
ax les even hail tongues
bears e nough knocked wheels
griz zly cot ton wood mast wil low
GOING AROUND THE FALLS.
The party had to go up a high hill to get around the Falls.
It would take too long to carry the canoes on their backs.
They could see only one big tree on the plains.
It was a cottonwood.
The soldiers cut it down.
They cut wheels and tongues from it.
The cottonwood is not hard enough for axles.
The soldiers cut up the mast of their big boat for axles.
They began to go up the hill.
In a little time the axles broke.
They put in willow axles.
Then the cottonwood tongues broke.
Then the men had to carry the goods on their backs.
It was very hot.
The mosquitoes and blow-flies bit them all the time.
The prickly pear hurt their feet.
It hurt them even through their moccasins.
If they drank water, they were ill.
One day it hailed hard.
The hail knocked some of the men down.
At night the grizzly bears took their food.
load point ed large safe
mouth roared fierce waist
After many hard days, they got all the goods to the top of the Falls.
The party saw many grizzly bears near the Falls.
They were the first white men to see the grizzly bear.
They found it a very large and very fierce bear.
One day Captain Lewis was out hunting.
He had killed a buffalo for dinner.
He turned around to load his gun again.
He saw a big bear coming after him.
It was only twenty feet away.
He did not have time to load his gun.
There was no tree near.
There was no rock near.
The river bank was not high.
Captain Lewis ran to the river.
The bear ran after him with open mouth.
It nearly caught him.
Captain Lewis ran into the river.
He turned around when the water was up to his waist.
He pointed his gun at the bear.
It stopped still.
Then it roared and ran away.
Captain Lewis did not know why the bear roared and ran, but he was glad
to be safe.
body de feat ed shoul der
brave ly ing angry
One day six of the soldiers saw a big bear lying on a little hill near
The six soldiers came near him.
They were all good shots.
Four shot at him.
Four balls went into his body.
He jumped up.
He ran at them with open mouth.
Then the two other men fired.
Their balls went into his body, too.
One ball broke his shoulder.
Still he ran at them.
The men ran to the river.
Two jumped into their canoe.
The others hid in the willows.
They loaded their guns as fast as they could.
They shot him again.
The shots only made him angry.
He came very near two of the men.
They threw away their guns and jumped down twenty feet into the river.
The bear jumped in after them.
He nearly caught the last one.
Then one soldier in the willows shot the bear in the head.
This shot killed him.
The soldiers pulled the bear out of the river.
They found eight balls in him.
They took his skin to show the captains.
They said he was a brave old bear.
They named a creek near-by for him.
They called it "The Brown-Bear-Defeated Creek."
be cause fright ened
climb kicked wait
One day a grizzly bear ran after a soldier.
The soldier tried to shoot the bear.
His gun would not go off.
The gun was wet because he had been in the river all day.
He ran to a tree.
He got to the tree just in time.
As the soldier climbed, he kicked the bear.
The grizzly bear can not climb a tree.
This grizzly sat at the foot of the tree to wait until the soldier would
The soldier called out loud.
Two other soldiers heard him.
They came running to help him.
They saw the man in the tree.
They saw the bear at the foot of the tree.
They shot off their guns and made a big noise.
The grizzly grew frightened.
It ran away.
Then the soldier came down from the tree.
He was glad that his friends had come to his help.
a ble beans su et
ba con dump lings played
a mused them selves shake
AT THE TOP OF THE FALLS.
After the men had carried all the goods to the top of the Falls, they
made canoes to take them up the river.
They were camping at the top of the Falls on the Fourth of July, 1805.
Captain Lewis wrote that they had a good dinner that day.
He said they had as good as if they were at home.
They had "bacon, beans, buffalo meat, and suet dumplings."
After dinner a soldier played the fiddle.
Captain Lewis wrote: "Such as were able to shake a foot amused
themselves in dancing on the green."
burst fif teen ra vine
cloud clothes wave
One day Captain Clark took Sacajawea and her husband with him to look
over the top of the Falls.
Sacajawea's baby was in his basket on her back.
Captain Clark saw a black cloud.
He said, "It will rain soon.
Let us go into that ravine."
They sat under some big rocks.
Sacajawea took off the baby's basket and put it at her feet.
All the baby's clothes were in the basket.
Sacajawea took the baby in her lap.
It began to rain a little.
The rain did not get to them.
It rained harder.
Then the cloud burst just over the ravine.
The rain and hail made a big wave in the little ravine.
Captain Clark saw the wave coming.
He jumped up and caught his gun in his left hand.
With his right hand he pushed Sacajawea up the bank.
The wave was up to their waists.
They ran faster and got to the top of the bank.
Then the wave was fifteen feet high.
It made a big noise as it ran down the ravine.
Soon it would have caught them and carried them over the Falls.
It did carry away the baby's basket and his clothes, and Captain Clark's
The next day a soldier found the compass in the mud.
a live be stride min er als be gin ning
ra pid nar row source Co lum bia
AT THE SOURCE OF THE MISSOURI.
When the canoes were ready, the party started up the river above the
As they reached the mountains, the river grew narrow.