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Katherine Golden Bitting.

The effect of certain agents on the development of some moulds online

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The lead acetate produced an impoverished development and enlargement.
The sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite produced swelling and dis-
organization, with coarsely granular protoplasm. The stannous com-
pounds when in amounts close to the inhibiting point ]3roduced impoverish-
ment. In the lesser amounts there was no apparent effect on the hyphae.
The Penicillium was more susceptible to their action than were the other
organisms, which was contrary to the results with the other agents, as the
Penicillium was, in general, the most resistive. The Alternaria and Oidium
grew freely in the 5 per cent stannous oxide, and as that was so much
larger an amount than would ever be present in a food, no larger amounts
were tested. These organisms also developed freely and without retarda-
tion in the 1 per cent stannous phosphate solutions. The stannous pro-
tochloride and stannous sulphate which are more or less hydrolyzed by
water^ were the strongest in checking growth. In their work on food
adulterants, McElroy and Bigelow- state that "of the possible metallic
contaminations, that caused by tin is, next to that of lead, probably the
worst." They state further that, "Tin poisoning resulting from the use
of canned foods is not often recorded, although it is probable that minor
disturbances to health frequently occur from this cause." They do not
state what basis they have for arriving at this conclusion, but quote the
work of others^ in which tin compounds have caused the death of a guinea
pig, frogs, rabbits, and dogs.

SIXTH GROUP

The mineral acids — hydrochloric, nitric, and sul^jhuric — are corrosive in
their action, and when concentrated destroy organic matter. They were
tested in these exj^eriments in order to compare their action on the structure
of the moulds with that of the organic acids.

The alkalis are also local corrosives, the corrosive action being due
to their property of dissolving protein, saponifying fat, and extracting water
from the tissues. Since the moulds usually develop normally in acid solu-
tions, the alkalis were used to test their adaptability in readjusting the
metabolic processes to an evidently antagonistic environment, so as to
obtain as radical changes as possible in structure for comparison with the
changes induced by the preservatives.



1 Alexander Smith: Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry: 693, 1910.

2Loc. cit.; 1040-2, 1164-6.

3 0. Hehner: Analyst, 1880, 5, 218; Cliem. Centrbl., 1883, 810.

33



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34



Histological Features



Agents



Kind



Penicilliiim
Hydrochloric acid .



Nitric acid

Sulphuric acid .



Potassium hydrate.



Sodium hydrate .



Per cent



0.5



Allernaria
Hydrochloric acid .

Nitric acid

Sulphuric acid ....
Potassium hydrate.

Sodium hydrate . . .

Oiditim
Hydrochloric acid .

Nitric acid

Sulphuric acid . . . .

Potassium hydrate

Sodium hydrate . . .



0.5
0.1



0.5
0.2

0.5
0.2
0.1
0.5

0,2

0.5

0.2
0.1

0.5

0.5



Size of

germinated

conidia

in M



7.6
15.2



7.6
11.4



5.7
7.6



Characteristics of development



Hyphae distorted, very irregular, thin-
ning and swelling at intervals in some,
branching irregular, ends attenuated;
protoplasm yellow, finely granular,
no vacuoles, has disorganized appear-
ance.

Hyphae short, many septa, protoplasm
shrunken, forming solid mass sepa-
rated from walls.

Hyphae large, regular, many septa,
"others small, distorted, many
branches, extending in various direc-
tions; fruiting heads irregular, small,
few branches at various angles;
protoplasm granular in large hyphae,
homogeneous in small ones. Sonie
hyphae develop large, necklace-Hke
cells close to germinated spore.

Hyphae have blunt tips and finely
granulated protoplasm, disorganized
appearance, break easily.

Hyphae make short curves, clear; proto-
plasm appears normal, walls and
protoplasm break easily.



Hyphae distorted, septation increased;
protoplasm transparent.

Hyphae distorted, knotted, septation
increased; protoplasm attenuated.

Hyphae badly distorted, knotted; proto-
plasm has coagulated appearance.

Submerged hyphae enlarged, surface
ones attenuated; protoplasm reduced,
strongly vacuolated, some coarse.

Submerged hyphae enlarged; proto-
plasm thin, transparent.

Hyphae closely matted, irregular, re-
duced in size; protoplasm coagulated
in appearance.

Normal appearance.

Hyphae closely matted, distorted, sep-
tation reduced.

Hyphae swollen, twisted, septation;
protoplasm badly disorganized.

Hyphae normal size; protoplasm at-
tenuated.



35



The 0.5 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid had a peculiar effect
on the devclo])nient of the Penicillium. Twenty-four days were required
for germination, and after that the development was slow, consisting of
small, brown, submerged colonies and some wet looking lumps on the
surface of the solution, which bore no resemblance to the ordinary surface
colonies. The svirface lum]3s increased gradually in size for forty-six days,
then droi^ped to the bottom of the liquid, after which a few normal appear-
ing colonies developed on the surface. In the 0.2 per cent nitric acid solu-
tion, the growth was retarded, but appeared normal. In the 0.5 per cent
solution some of the conidia formed short hyphae, others became merely
swollen, and all had a disorganized appearance. In the 0.1 per cent
sulphuric acid .solution the development appeared normal, but the micro-
scope showed the hyphae to be swollen, and to have a ragged disorganized
appearance. In the 0.2 per cent solution, a few small colonies, consisting
of attenuated hyphae were developed in 20 days, but no further develop-
ment was apparent.

The Alternaria formed matted, distorted, knobby hyphae, the 0.5
hydrochloric, the 0.2 nitric, and the 0.1 sulphuric acids giving practically
the same results, with the exception that the hyphae in the sulphuric acid
solution were more shrunken.

The acids had the same general effect on the Oidium as on the two other
moulds, causing a gnarled appearance in the hyphae, with an appearance
of coagulation of the protoplasm.

The sodium hydroxid was stronger in its action than the potassium
hydroxid. The Penicillium developed in a practically normal manner in
the 0.2 per cent solution, but in the 0.5 per cent solution development pro-
ceeded slowly in the potassium hydroxid solution, forming a few surface
colonies which required 18 days to become green; in the sodium hydroxid
solution a few tiny colonies were developed in 10 days, which was the extent
of the development. In both solutions the hyphae were attenuated and
clear, and broke down easily. Tlie effect of the 0.2 per cent solution of
sodium hydroxid was about equal to that of the 0.5 per cent potassium
hydroxid, judging from the microscopic appearance. This was also true
of the Alternaria, the 0.2 per cent sodium hydroxid and the 0.5 per cent
potassium hydroxid producing an impoverished and strongly vacuolated
protoplasm and weakened cell walls.

For the Oidium a similar effect to that of the Alternaria was produced
by 0.5 per cent solutions respectively of both alkalis.

See Plates 46-50.

SEVENTH GROUP

In this group are some alkaloids and poisons. The alkaloids were
atropin sulphate, cocain hydrochl orate, morphin sulphate, strychnin
nitrate, and quinin sulphate. Mercuric chlorid, carbolic and oxalic acids
were used for comparison with these. The first four alkaloids were obtained
in the form of tablets, the atropin and strychnin containing 0.01 (0.00065
gram) of a grain, the cocain and morphin 0.25 (0.01625 gram) of a grain.



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1 2 4 6 7

Online LibraryKatherine Golden BittingThe effect of certain agents on the development of some moulds → online text (page 4 of 7)