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Katherine Golden Bitting.

The effect of certain agents on the development of some moulds online

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moh'ze tht; cell, accumulating in the space between the cell wall and the
protoplasm. This can be seen readily if colored solutions are used, as with
sugar, salt, or potassium nitrate colored with aniline blue or beetroot
jtiice. All normal cells arc in a state of turgor, which is maintained by
substances in solution within the cells which are incapable of diosmosis.
These substances are such as to cause the limiting layer of the protoplast
to press with sufficient force against the cell wall to stretch it to some extent.
When the cell is ]jlasmolyzcd, the protoplast contracts until the osmotic
solutions become equalized, which may take place rapidh- in the case of the
absorption of the plasmolyzing agent. In order to be absorbed by the
plasma the siibstancc must not only pass through the cell wall, but also
through the limiting membranes of the plasma. It has been detemiined
by Pfeffer that all substances, useful, unnecessary, or even poisonous, which
pass through the limiting membranes penetrate the protoplast. Among the
substances which it has been demonstrated enter the protoplast are free
acids, carbon dioxid, the caustic alkaHs, iodin, and mercuric chlorid,^
the first if used for a short time and in dilute solution, being harmless,
whereas, the iodin and mercuric chlorid are decidedly injurious. Some
substances cause a precipitate to form in the cells, while still others are
accunuilatcd to such an extent as to change the characteristic properties
of the cells. Where the absorbed substances cause a chemical action to
take place within the cells, the equihbrium between the internal and
external solutions is constantly changing with a consequent continuity
of absorption, so that the plant may absorb a relatively large quantity of a
substance from a dilute solution, or in the case of a mixtiu-e of substances,
one mav be absorbed in much larger amounts than the other. These
facts might explain some of the peculiar phenomena obtained in the tests
in w^hich a very small amount of the chemical used produced results com-
mensurate with those obtained from tests in which much larger amounts
were employed, and also some of the results obtained in the tests with
mixtures. The limiting membranes also may be modified so as to exercise
a regulatory function in regard to the substances absorbed, absorption
being greater at one time than another, as shown in the more pronotuiced
effect of a substance on some parts of the plant than on others and also at
different periods.



1 Pfeffer, loc. cit., p. 86.

2 Pfeffer, loc. cit., p. 98,



52



LITERATURE

C. L. Alsberg and O. F. Black: "Contributions to the study of maize deteriorations."
Bui. 270, B. P. I., Dept. of Agr.

F. M. Bachmann: "The inhibiting action of certain spices on the growth of micro-
organisms." Jour. Ind. Chem., Vol. 8 (1916), No. 7:620-623.

C. Brooks: "Temperature and toxic action." Bot. Gaz., 42:359-375, 1906.

C. M. Buchanan: "Antisepsis and Antiseptics." 1895.

J. F. Clark: "On the toxic effect of deleterious agents on the germination and
development of certain filamentous fungi." Bot. Gaz., 28:289, 375, 1899.

B. M. Duggar: "Fungous diseases of plants." New York, 1909.
Dugardin-Beaumetz and Audige: "Experimental researches on the toxic power of

the alcohols." Paris, 1879.

N. Gamaleia: "The Bacterial Poisons." Trans, by E. P. Hurd, 1893.

C. H. Gill: "British Manufacturing Industries." 1876.

K. E. Golden: "Salt as a deterrent in yeast fermentation." Proc. A. A. A. S.^, 1898.

H. Hasselbring: "The carbon assimilation of Pcnicilhum." Bot. Gaz., 45:176-193,
1908.

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PLATE IV

Sail (sodium chloride).

1. PeniciUium, showing development in 5 per cent solution, hyphae
swollen.

2. Alternaria, showing development in 5 per cent solution, germinated
conidium and hyphae swollen.

3. Oidium, showing development in 5 per cent solution, slight swelling,
also showing the clearing effect to better advantage than in the pre-
vious pictures, but which was noticeable in all.



60



PLATE V



Sugar.



1. Penicillium, show-ing development in 6673 per cent solution, showing
stunting and distortion. In smaller amounts the hyphae were vacuol-
ated as in the Altemaria.

2. Altemaria, showing development in 50 per cent solution, the hyphae
having vacuoles at fairly regular intervals.

3. Oidium, showing development in 50 per cent solution. In smaller
amounts the hyphae were vacuolated as in the Altemaria, and not
swollen.



62







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PLATE VI
Saltpeter (potassium nitrate).

1. Penicillium, showing development in 25 per cent solution, crystals of
the salt separated out of the solution.

2. Altemaria, showing development in 20 per cent.

3. Oidium, developed in 20 per cent solution, showing some swelling and
distortion.



64







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PLATE VII

Saltpeter (potassium nitrate).

1. Penicillium, growth in 10 per cent solution.

2. Altemaria, growth in 10 per cent solution.

3. Oidium, growth in 10 per cent solution.

In the smaller amounts of the salt, the development of the three
organisms was more nearly uniform.



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PLATE VIII
Allspice.

1. Pcnicillium, showing development in 2 per cent solution.

2. Alternaria, showing development in 5 per cent solution.

3. Oidium, showing development in 10 per cent solution.



68



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PLATE IX

Allspice.

1. Penicillium grown in 1 per cent solution, showing stunted fruiting heads.
The Penicillium was more sensitive than the other organisms to the
action of the active principle of the allspice.



70



PLATE X
Ciiiinunon.

1. Penicillium, showing development in 10 per cent solution, the hyphae
swollen and protoplasm disorganized.

2. Alternaria, grown in 10 per cent solntion, showing disorganization.

3. Oidium, grown in 10 per cent solution, showing s^\elling and dis-
organization. A precipitate was formed in the solution \\hich shows
as a flocculence adhering to the hyphae.



72
















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PLATE XI
Cloves.

1. Penicillium, 10 per cent solution, showing disorganized protoplasm.

2. Altemaria, 10 per cent solution, showing coarsely granular protoplasm.

3. Oidium, 20 per cent solution, showing coarsely granular protoplasm.



74



PLATE XII
Mustard.

1. Penicillium, 3-'2 per cent solution, showing group of distorted fruiting
heads, developed from the primary hyphae

2. Alternaria, 1 per cent solution, showing hyphae with disorganized
protoplasm.

3. Oidium, 1 per cent solution, showing coarse granules in some hyphae
and oidia. The Oidium showed the least susceptibility to the action
of the mustard.



76




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PLATE XIII
Muslard.

1. Penicillium, grown in a solution containing 25 per cent whole white
mustard seed, showing characteristic effect.

2. Penicillium, grown in a solution containing 25 per cent whole black
mustard seed, also showing characteristic bunching and distortion.

3. Altemaria, grown in 1 per cent solution, showing effect on conidia.



78







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PLATE XIV
Acetic acid.

1. Penicillium, group of swollen and disorganized hyphae grown in 1 per
cent acetic acid.

2. Alternaria, disorganized hyphae grown in O.O-l per cent acetic acid.
The tips of the hyphae are ruptured, and the protoplasm flowing out.

3. Oidium, weakened and disorganized hyphae grown in 0.5 per cent
solution.



80






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PLATE XXII
Sodium henzoale.

1. Penicillium, mycelium grown in 0.1 per cent solution, showing similar
results to those resulting from the benzoic acid.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.01 per cent solution, showing swelling and
disorganization .

3. Oidivim, mycelium from 0.03 per cent solution, practically the same
result as produced by the 0.02 per cent acid solution.



96















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PLATE XXIII
Boric acid.

1. Penicillium, mycelium grown in 0.2 per cent solution, showing swelling
and disorganization of plasma.

2. Altemaria, mjxelium grown in 0.5 per cent solution, showing swelling
and disorganization.

3. Oidium, germinated oidia and hyphae from 0.2 per cent solution,
showing swelling and reduction of protoplasni.



98



PLATE XXIV
Borax.

1. Penicillium, mycelium grown in 0.5 per cent borax, showing swelling
and distortion.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing protoplasm
reduced and with coarse granules.

3. Oidium, mycelium and oidia from 0.5 per cent solution, showing hyphae
weakened with inter-growth in one.



100



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PLATE XXV

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.04 per cent solution, showing short
branches and increased number of septa. The colony was firm and
difficult to separate.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.02 per cent solution, showing stunting and
distortion. The colony had similar characteristics to the Penicillium.

3. Oidium, hyphae from 0.05 per cent solution, showing reduction of
protoplasm.



102



PLATE XXVI
Formaldehyde.

1. Penicillium, mycelium and fruiting heads from 0.1 per cent solution,
showing stunting and increased number of septa.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.02 per cent solution, showing only a slight
reduction, in this the colonies developed very slowly.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.1 per cent solution, showing marked attenu-
ation.



104








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PLATE XXVII
Foruialdehyde.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.01 per cent solution, showing swelling.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.03 per cent solution, showing some
enlargement.

3. Oidium, hyphae from 0.1 per cent solution, showing swelling.



106



PLATE XXVIII
FoDnic acid. . . '

1. Penicil'.ium, mycelium from 0.2 per cent solution, sho\\ing marked
disorganization and swelling.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution showing disorgani-
zation of the plasma.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.2 per cent solution, showing disorganization.



108



PLATE XXIX
Sodium formate.

1. Penicillium, mycelium grown in 0.2 per cent solution, showing dis-
organization, tips specially weak.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing disorgani-
zation.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing disorganization.



110




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PLATE XXX
Salicylic acid.

1. Penicillium, hyphae and conidia from 0.2 per cent solution, showing
excessive swelling and disorganization.

2. Altemaria, mycelium from 0.02 per cent solution, showing disorgani-
zation, tips ruptured.

3. Oidium, hyphae from O.OS per cent solution, showing some swelling and
disorganization.



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PLATE XXXV

Copper sulphate.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing swelling,
distortion, and disorganization.

2. Altcrnaria, mycelium from 0.1 per cent solution, showing enlargement
and disorganization. In some mounts the tips ruptured.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing swelling, dis-
tortion, and disorganization.



122



PLATE XXXVI
Copper sulphate.

1. Penicillium, liyphae from 1 per cent solution, showing marked stunting.

2. Oidium, hyphae and oidia, from 0.3 per cent solution, showing coagula-
tion of protoplasm and coarse granules.



124



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PLATE XXXVII

Ferrous siilpliute.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.05 solution, showing some enlargement
and coarse plasma.

2. Alternaria, mycelium frf)m 0.2 per cent solution, showing enlargement
of some parts, and coarse plasma. ■

3. Oidium, mycelium from 1 per cent solution, showing swelling and
disorganization.



126




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PLATE XLII

Staimoits phflspluite.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 2 per cent solution, showing swelling and
disorganization. Walls rupture, plasma flows out.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 1 per cent solution, showing attenuation of
hyphae.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 3 per cent solution, showing disorganization.



136





















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PLATE XLV
Zinc chloride.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.2 per cent solution, showing swelling and
disorganization.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.2 per cent solution, sho\\ing swelling and
disorganization, some liyphal tips ruptured.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing swelling and
disorganization.



142








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PLATE XL VI

Hydrochloric acid.

\. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing stunting
and distortion; note the variation in size of conidia in chain on fruiting
heads.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing stunting
and distortion.

3. Oidium, mj-celium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing stunting and
distortion.



144




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PLATE XLVII
Nitric acid.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0,5 per cent solution, showing stunting
and distortion.

2. Altemaria, mycelium from 0.2 per cent solution, showing stunting and
distortion.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.2 per cent solution, showing disorganization
in some hyphae.



146






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PLATE XLVIII
Sulphuric acid.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.1 per cent solution. The hyphae are
weak-looking and hazy with the plasma disorganized.

2. Altemaria, mycelium from 0.1 per cent solution, showing stunting and
distortion.

3. Oidium, mycelium from 0.1 per cent solution, showing distortion.



148





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PLATE XLIX

Potassium hydrate.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing stunting.

2. Alternaria, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, growth hastened,
evidenced by large size and number of vacuoles.

3. Oidium, hyphae from 0.5 per cent solution, have a weak appearance.



J50



PLATE L
Sodium hydrate.

1. Penicillium, mycelium from 0.5 per cent solution, showing hazj-, weak
appearance.

2. Alternaria, mj-celium from 0.2 per cent solution, showing hastened -


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Online LibraryKatherine Golden BittingThe effect of certain agents on the development of some moulds → online text (page 6 of 7)