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as to slant it from the ground upward from the frog;
but jou must be careful not to make the ground-
surface of the web at the heels narrower in so doiui^^.
fig. 1 shows the foot surface, and fig. 2, plate 21, the
ground surface of a near fore-shoe.

In fig. 1 ^ is the clip at the toe. B 1 the outer
quarter. B 2 the inner quarter. C 1 the outer heel.
C 2 the inner heel. D the seating. E the flat sur-
face for the crust to bear uj)on. F the heels bevelled
off away from the frog.

In fig. 2 ^ is the toe, turned up out of the line
of wear. B 1 the outer, and B 2 tlie inner quarter.
(71 tlie outer, and 6^2 the inner heel. D the ground
surface of the web, as wide at the heels as it is at
the toe. E the fuller, carried all round the shoe. F
the inner quarter, and heel slightly bevelled from
the foot to the ground.

l^ails.
A few words must be said about the nails, before
we come to nailing on the shoe, because the nails in



110 SYSTEM FOE TEAINING CAVALRY HORSES.

common nse are as badly formed as tliej can well
be ; their short, wedge-shaped heads, wide at the top
and narrow at the bottom, wdth shanks springing
suddenly from the head without any shoulder, and
ending in a long, narrow point, are most unsafe to
trust a shoe to. The head of such a nail can never
perfectly fill a hole in the shoe, for the wide top gets
tied either in the fuller, or the upper part of the
hole, before the lower part has reached the bottom ;
and when the shoe is half worn out, the head of the
nail is gone, and the shank alone is left in the hole to
keep the shoe on. ]^ow the nails should have heads
which are straight-sided at the upper part, and grad-
ually die away into the shank at the lower part, so
as to form a shoulder which will block the ojDening
made in "back-holing" the shoe, and keep the shoe
firmly in its place, until it is quite worn out.

If you compare the two nails (vide plate 22), you
will at once see which promises the firmer hold.

Your nails should be made of the very best nail-
rods you can get, and they should not be cooled too
quickly, but be left spread about to cool by degrees ;
the longer, in reason, they are cooling the tougher
they will become.

Nailing on the Shoe,

If the nails are of the proper shape, the holes
straight through the shoe, and the shoe fits the foot,
it requires very little skill to nail it on ; only put the



ri. 22




HOESE-SHOEINQ. Ill

point of tlie nail in the middle of the hole, keep the
nail upright, and drive it straight, it must come out
in the riglit place, low down in the crust, without
the possibility of w^ounding the sensitive parts of the
foot. The shank of the nail will pass through the
substance of the crust, and gain a good, firm hold of
it, leaving you the strongest part from which to form
a clench. The clenches should be short and broad,
and not thinned by rasping away any of their sub-
stance, but hammered at once into a notch made in
the hoof under each, and the rasp should never be
allowed to go over them, after they have been ham-
mered down. You will do good by rasping below
the clenches, because you will thereby remove the
broken horn that the former nails have destroyed;
but on no account ever use the rasp above the
clenches ; if you do, you will tear off the thin outer
covering of the hoof, which is placed there to prevent
the escape of the natural moisture and to keep the
horn tough, and if you rasp it away you will expose
the horn to the air, and it will soon become dry and
brittle, and make the hoof difficult to nail to.

Plate 22 shows the ground surface of a near fore-
foot, with the shoe nailed on by five nails, and how
the shoe should look in its place on the foot.

The Hind-Shoe.

The hind shoe, like the fore-shoe, should be brought
in at the heels, and be made to follow the exact shape



112 SYSTEM FOK TRAINING CAVALRY HORSES.

of , the hoof; hut as the weight of the horse falh
differently on the hind-feet to what it does on the
fore-feet, and as the rider often obliges the horse tc
stop suddenly and without warning, when he is leasl
prepared to do so, it becomes necessary to guarc
against strains of the hock and back sinews by raising
the heels of the shoe, but this should be done in sucl
a manner as will give both heels an even bearing or
the ground. Calkins may be useful to heavy draught
horses, but they are objectionable for riding horses
and turning down the outside heel alone should nevei
be done.

The best plan is to have the last inch and a hal
toward the heel forged thicker than any other par
of the shoe ; the heels are then made redhot, anc
the shoe is put in the vice with the redhot heels pro
jecting, which are beaten down with a hammer, unti
they are about an inch long, and then the sides ar(
made even, and the foot and ground surfaces level or
the anvil.

The toe of the hind-shoe is exposed to great Avear
and should be made stout, and thick, and rather point-
ed, with a small clip in the middle to prevent the shot
from being driven backward ; and the back edge of tht
web should be rounded off, to guard against " over-
reach." The toe should rest fairly on the ground, tc
enable the horse to get a good purchase for throw-
ing his weight forward. It is a bad plan to make the
toe broad, and to place clips at the side of it.



/V . 23




HORSK-SHOEING. 113

The liind-foot expands less tliau the fore-foot ; still
jou should place the nail-holes so as not to confine
the foot. Three nails on each side are generally
found sufficient to hold a hind-shoe firmly to the foot.
The holes on the inside should be stamped closer
together than those on the outside, and they should
be placed forward toward the toe, so as to leave the
inside quarter and heel free to expand. A small foot
may be shod with three nails on the ontside and two
on the inside ; but no foot can ever require more than
seven altogether.

Figs. 1 and 2, plate 23, show a near hind-shoe,
when the foot is so large as to require seven nail-
holes.

Removing. •

The time at which a horse's shoes should be re-
moved must depend very much upon circumstances.
If a horse wears his shoes out in less than a month,
they had better not be removed ; and horses with
thin, weak horn, which grows slowly, are likewise
better left alone between each shoeing, unless their
shoes last six or seven weeks, in which case they should
be removed once within the time : but horses with
strong feet and plenty of horn, that wear their shoes
a full month, should have them removed at the end
of the first fortnight ; and when horses are doing so
little work, or wear their shoes so lightly that they
last two months, they should be removed every fort-



114 SYSTEM FOR TKAINING CAVALRY HORSES.

night, and at the second removal the shoes should be
put in the fire and refitted, or the feet will outgrow
the shoes, as the horn grows much quicker when a
liorse is idle than it does when he is in full work.

Having gone carefully through all the circum-
stances necessary to good shoeing, a recapitulation of
the few things which are to be done will be made in
tlie proper order :

Raise the clenches with the bufier.

Have only one foot bare at a time.

Pare out the foot, but leave the frog alone.

Cut ofl" the heels of the shoe, as directed.

Open the nail-holes straight through the slice.

Form a clip at the toe, and turn up the toe of the
shoe.

Heat the shoe and apply it to the foot, to see that
it fits properly.

Cool the shoe, ".back-hole" it, and file it up.

Nail it on with five nails, coming out low in the
crust.

Hammer down the clenches without rasping them,
and only rasp the hoof below them.



THE END.



lIMTill AM iil&l



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" I have carefully examined the ' Manual for Staff Officers in the Field.' It
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Chief of General Halleck's Staff,
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v. Van JSTostraiicPs Publications.



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revised edition. By Mnj. Joseph Roberts, U. S. A. 1 vol.

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6 D. Yan Nostrand^s Publications.

Evolutions of Field Batteries of
Artillery.

Translated from the French, and arranged for the Army and MiUtia
of the United States. By Gen. Robert Anderson, U. S. Army.
Pubhshed by order of the War Department. 1 vol. cloth, 32

plates. $1.

T7ak Department, Kov. 2d, 1S59.
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published for the information and government of the army.

All Evolutions of Field Batteries not embraced in this system are prohibited,
and those herein prescribed will be strictlv observed.

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D. Yan NostraniVs Publications. 7

The Political and Military Hiftory
of the Campaign of Waterloo.

Translated from the French of General Bakon dr Jomini. By
Capt. S. V. Benet, U. S. Ordnance. 1 vol. 12mo, cloth, second
edition. 75 cents.

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liighest military authorities in Europe, and were rewarded in a conspicuous
manner by the greatest military power in Christendom, lla learned the art of
war in the school of experience, the best and only finishing school of the soldier.
He served with distinction in nearly all the campaigns of Napoleon, and it was
mainly from the gigantic military operations of this matchless master of tho
art that he was enabled to discover its true principles, and to ascertain the best
means of their application in the infinity of combinations which actual war pre-
sents. Jomini criticizes the details of Waterloo with great science, and j-et in a
manner that interests the general reader as well as the professional.''" — New
York World.

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ing, and especially so at a time when military affairs are uppermost in the public
mind." — Philadelphia North American.



A Treatife on the Camp and March.


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Online LibraryKenner GarrardNolan's system for training cavalry horses → online text (page 7 of 8)