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Timber: scrub oak, black oak, and black jack, generally of
small size. Undergrowth : small sumach, sassafras, &c. Yield
of such land is, of corn, eleven bushels ; of wheat, six ; of oats,
eleven bushels to the acre.
Dry soil of a grey-buff color.

No. 1554 "SuB-soiL of the preceding, taken from twelve to
twenty-six inches below the surface." Collected by C. S.
Schenk."

Dry soil of a lighter color and more yellowish than the pre-
ceding.

No. 1555 " NEW SOIL, Jive years in cultivation, from farm of

J. English. Collected by C. S. Schenk."

Sample taken to depth of eight inches, at a point two hund-
dred and seventy feet west of the six mile-post, on the Eliza-
bethtown and Paducah Railroad ; twenty-one hundred feet to
the left of the railroad, and at a level of ten feet above the
rail. Slope = 1:75. Timber: black, white, red, and post oak,
tiickory, chestnut, &c. Rotation of crops : two years in corn,
one each in oats, wheat, and corn. No manure. Yield of
corn, thirty ; of wheat, twelve ; and of oats, twenty bushels to
the acre.

Dried soil of a drab color.

VOL. l.-CHEM. 9. 121



J22 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1556 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
eight to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Dry sub-soil of a grey-buff color ; lighter and more yellowish

than preceding.

No. 1557 "SoiL from an old field, forty-Jive years in cultiva-
tion. Snider s farm. Collected by C. S. Sc/ienk."
Sample taken to the depth of eight inches, at a point thir-
teen hundred feet west of the six mile-post, on the Elizabeth-
town and Paducah Railroad, and twelve hundred and seventy
feet to the left, at a level of ten feet above the rail. Slope
1:35. Section of the hole where the soil was taken: soil,
eight inches ; yellow clay, twenty-two inches ; red clay, six
inches. (The red clay land is considered best in this part of
the State.) Roots penetrate to depth of eight feet, where
the rock is found. Rotation of crops : corn, wheat, oats. Has
been four years in pasture, and the last two years in grass.
Yield: corn, twenty-two; oats, fifteen to sixteen; wheat, eight;
potatoes, fifty-five ; rye, ten bushels, and tobacco, eight hund-
red pounds to the acre.
Dried soil of a drab color.

No. 1558 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
eight to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Dried sub-soil of a brownish-orange color.

No. 1559 "SoiL of an old field, forty years or more in culti-
vation." Collected by C. S. Schenk."

Sample taken to the depth of six inches, at a point two
hundred and fifty feet west of the nine mile-post (Long Grove
Station). Three hundred and fifty feet to the right of the
Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, at a level of twelve
feet above the rail. Slope = 1:19. Timber, much like that
in preceding soils of this county. Rotation of crops, for the
last nine years : four in corn, one in wheat, with three in
clover and one in wheat. No manure. Yield : corn, twenty-
two ; wheat, eight; oats, fifteen bushels to the acre.
Dried soil of a yellowish umber-grey color.



CHEMICAL REPORT. 123

No. 1560 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at from six to
thirty-six inches from the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Dried sub-soil of a dark grey-buff color.

No. 1561 "SoiL of an old field, farm of E. Hansborough.

Collected by C. S. Schenk"

Sample taken to the depth of five inches, at a point one
thousand three hundred and twenty-seven feet west of the
three mile-post ; eight and a quarter miles from Elizabethtown,
on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad ; one thousand
three hundred and fifty feet to the left of that road, and level
with the rail. Slope = 1:24. Timber much like that on the
preceding soils. Substratum limestone, at depth of forty-five
inches. Rotation of crops : corn, wheat, oats, clover. No
manure. Yield: corn, thirty; wheat, eighteen; oats, thirty;
potatoes, forty bushels ; tobacco, eight hundred to one thou-
sand two hundred pounds to the acre. One of the best farms
in this locality. Land kept in good order.

Dried soil darker than the next preceding, of a brownish-
umber dark grey color.

No. 1562 SUB-SOIL of the preceding. Sample taken from five
to forty-five inches below the surface. Collected by C. S.
Schenk."

Dried sub-soil of a light brick-red color. Somewhat adhe-
sive.

No. 1563 " SOIL of an old field, forty years in cultivation,

without manure. Collected by C. S. Schenk"

Sample taken to the depth of ten inches, at a point two
hundred feet to the right- of the seven mile-post, Elizabeth-
town and Paducah Railroad ; level five feet above the rail.
Substratum limestone. Slope = 1:50. Rotation of crops:
corn, wheat, oats, clover. Land kept in good order. Yield
of corn, twenty-five ; of wheat, twelve ; of oats, twenty bushels
to the acre.

Dried soil of a yellowish-umber color.

123



124 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. '1564 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
fen to thirty-eight inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Dried sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color. Somewhat

adhesive.

No. 1565 " VIRGIN SOIL, Woodland, on Hanson Duncaris
farm. Collected by C. S. Schenk."

Sample taken to ten inches in depth, at a point seven hund-
red and sixty feet east of his house ; about eighty feet below
the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad at East View. Rock
substratum limestone.

Dried soil of a yellowish light-umber color.

No. 1566 "SuB-soiL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
ten to forty -six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Dried sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color.

No. 1567 SOIL from an old field, twenty-four years in cultiva-
tion. Collected by C. S. Sckenk."

Sample taken to the depth of eight inches, at a point twelve
hundred feet, north 50 east from Hanson Duncan's house;
one hundred and seventeen feet below the railroad at East
View Station. Slope = 1:26. Substratum limestone. Rota-
tion of crops: i. corn, i. rye, 3. clover, i. wheat. No manure.
Yield : corn, thirty-five ; wheat, seventeen ; rye, six to seven
bushels to the acre.

Dried soil of a yellowish light-umber color.

No. 1568 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
eight to forty inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Dried sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color.

No. 1569 <( VIRGIN SOIL, one year in cultivation, from sand
land on Hanson Duncan s farm, near East View. Collected
by C. S. Schenk"
Sample taken to the depth of four inches, at a point four

hundred and twenty feet west of his house. Height level with

124



CHEMICAL REPORT. 125

the roof of his house. Slope = 1:7. Substratum limestone.
Timber about the same as described above. Land not much
cultivated ; considered too poor except for peaches, apples,
&c. ; but tobacco yields six hundred pounds to the acre.

Dried soil of a yellowish umber-grey ; lighter colored than
the preceding sample.

No. 1570 SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
four to thirty -six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Sub-soil of a light yellowish-brick color.

No. 1571 SOIL from an old field, sixteen years in cultivation,

on Hanson Duncan s farm, near East View. Collected by C.

S. Schenk"

Sample taken to depth of six inches, at a point seven hund-
red and fifty feet, north 20 east from his house. Height, six
feet above his house. Slope =1:7. Substratum sandstone.
In some years it has yielded eleven bushels of corn to the
acre. Is now in orchard. Produces good peaches.

Dried soil of a yellowish light umber-grey color.

No. 1572 SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at a depth of from
six to thirty- four inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Sub-soil of a light brick-color, varying in intensity. Con-
tains many angular fragments of soft, friable, ferruginous sand-
stone.

NOTE. For a continuation of this serial collection of soils, made on or near the line of the
Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, by Mr. C. S. Schenk, see Grayson and Ohio counties.



126



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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CHEMICAL REPORT.





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Character of the soil



128



CHEMICAL REPORT. 129

For the other soils of this series, collected along the line of
the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad by Mr. C. Schenk,
see Grayson and Ohio counties. The remarks appended to
the Grayson county soils will apply to these with some obvi-
ous local variations.

HENRY COUNTY.

No. 1575 GALENA. "From Roberts lode, north opening.
Carefully averaged, by Prof. N. S. S/mfar."
Cubical and granular galena, disseminated in white, compact,

baryta sulphate ; with some zinc blende (zinc sulphide).

The galena was selected from the mixed lumps, simply for

assaying to determine the presence or proportion of silver.

No. 1576 GALENA "From Roberts lode, south opening, &c.

Like the preceding ; but containing a larger proportion of
galena. The galena was selected from the lumps for analysis.

Fused with the usual flux of carbonate of soda, nitrate of
potash and salt; the former, No. 1575, gave 72.70 to 76.585 per
cent, of lead; the latter, No. 1576, gave about seventy-one and
a half per cent. This does not of course represent all the
lead existing in the selected galena, but is supposed to con-
tain all the silver.

The well washed lead buttons were dissolved, severally, in
dilute nitric acid; and to the very much diluted solutions a
solution of lead chloride was added.

The former, No. 1575, gave a faint precipitate of silver
chloride on standing not enough to justify its extraction;
the latter gave no sensible precipitate of the silver chloride.
These ores seem, therefore, to be too poor in silver to pay
for its extraction.

Another specimen of lead ore, from an unopened lode, on
Mill branch of Six Mile Creek, contained so small a propor-
tion of galena to the baryta sulphate that it was not thought
proper to analyze it.

No. 1577 MARLY SHALE or indurated marl. "Cut of the Cum-
berland and Ohio Railroad, Eminence, Henry county. Col-
lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler"

129



I3O CHEMICAL REPORT.

An olive-grey, indurated marl ; containing nodules of chae-
tetes, and portions of other Silurian fossils.



COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Silica

Alumina

Iron and manganese oxides

Lime carbonate

Magnesia

Phosphoric acid

Sulphuric acid

Potash , .

Soda .



Water expelled at red heat, and loss



Total



23 . 700

7.146

1 1 . 040

44.560

.310

1.164

.961

2. 100

.623

8.396



The large proportions of lime, potash, phosphoric acid, &c.,
in this marly shale, would doubtless make it valuable as a top-
dressing on exhausted light soils ; but it is not rich enough in
the mineral fertilizers to justify much expenditure for trans-
portation.

HOPKINS COUNTY.

No. 1578 COAL. "Mr. Wm. Mills coal, j^lst partially opened.

Nortonsville, Hopkins county. Collected by C. J. Norwood.

(Probably not a fair average sample"}

Generally a jet-black, glossy coal ; breaks in part in thin
layers, with some compressed fibrous coal between. Some
thin laminae of pyrites apparent. . (Specimen seems to con-
tain an inordinate proportion of pyrites.)

No. 1579 COAL. "St. Charles Mines. Average sample, by
C. J. Norwood. ' ' ( Coal D. )
A jet-black, glossy coal; iridescent in parts. Some fibrous

coal between the laminae, and but little appearance of pyrites.

130



CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION OF THESE HOPKINS COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1578.


No. 1579.




1 .44.8


I .'?22








Hygroscopic moisture


j .40


? 20


Volatile combustible matters


"?O.OO


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Coke


66.60


60 90








Total


IOO OO


IOO OO








Total volatile matters


Q7 .40


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I C . CQ


6 90








Total


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Light






spongy.




Dark grey-


Light lilac-




purple.


grey.


Per centage of sulphur


7 280


2 7C.Q









No. 1579 is a very good coal, containing but little earthy
matter and a moderate proportion of sulphur. The other ex-
ceeds the average proportions of these ; but is not probably
a fair sample. It is well known that coal beds vary greatly in
their different layers ; and this may prove to be a good coal
when the bed is fairly opened.

No. 1580 "LiMONiTE, ochreous> from near St. Charles Mines >
Mr. Norton s land. On the working coal. Collected by C J.
Norwood."

Flat kidney-form concretions, of a handsome brownish-yel-
low color, of different shades. Easily scratched with the nail ;
-adheres to the tongue.



132



CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Iron peroxide 50.850

Alumina 5 .462

Manganese oxide a trace.

Lime carbonate 3- I2 9

Magnesia : 1. 546

Phosphoric acid .198

Sulphuric acid .189

Water expelled at red heat 10.530

Silica and insoluble silicates 27.680

Loss .416

Total loo.ooo

Per centage of iron 35-595

Per centage of sulphur .075

Per centage of silica 22.220

Per centage of phosphorus .086



This is rich enough to be smelted for iron, and might make
a good ochre pigment on grinding.

KENTON COUNTY.

No. 1581 "SiLicious GRIT at first toll-gate, two miles from
Coving ton, on Lexington Turnpike. Collected by Prof. N. S.
Shaler"
A brownish-grey, ferruginous impure sandy mass.



No. 1582 " SILICIOUS GRIT from same locality as preceding.
Used for moulding sand. Collected by Prof . N. S. Shaler"
An impure, reddish-brown friable sandy mass ; infiltrated

with iron oxide ; varying in tint from grey to deep brown. The

sand grains are rounded.

132



CHEMICAL REPORT. 133

COMPOSITION OF THESE KENTON COUNTY GRITS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1581.


No. 1582.




77.460


7^.700


Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides


i 6 . 500


1C. 7Q7




.480


.660




. 121


.214


Potash


.828


.84?


Soda


.qSo


.762




not est.


6lQ




not est.


not est.


Water expelled at red heat


4. <;oo


<. 100








Total


100.469


00.716









The amount of alkalies contained in these impure sands is
somewhat remarkable. They exist in them, however, mostly
in the silicates which are insoluble in acids ; and were sepa-
rated in the analyses, by the process of fusion with the mixture
of lime carbonate and ammonium chloride, &c., according to
the method of J. Lawrence Smith. Notwithstanding the una-
vailable condition of these alkalies, these sands might prove
useful additions to heavy clay soils, more especially because
of their notable proportion of phosphoric acid. For this pur-
pose, however, they could only be employed in the close
vicinity of their beds, as they would not pay for long trans-
portation.

No. 1583 "CLAY, supposed to be in the Cincinnati Group of
the Lower Silurian formation. Lexington Turnpike, two miles
south of Covington. Top section just below that of the preced-
ing grits. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler"
A laminated or shaly clay of handsome light-buff and bluish-
grey colors, alternating.

No. 1584 CLAY. "Clay -pit at brick-yard. Head of Russet
street, Covington. Average of the nine-feet section. Collected
by Prof. N. S. Shalerr

A yellowish ferruginous clay ; mottled with light bluish-
grey ; containing fine silicious grains.

133



134



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1585 MARLY SHALE. "Junction of the Ohio and Licking
rivers, twelve feet above low water mark. Cincinnati {Hudson
River} Group. Collected by Prof . N. S. Shaler"
A fine-grained, dark-grey shale ; dull ; adhering somewhat

to the tongue.

No. 1586 MARLY SHALE. Labeled "Fine shales, between im-
pure limestone ; Jive feet above low water mark. Whitehall.
No fossils. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler"
A soft friable shale ; dark-grey in the fresh fracture ; adher-
ing to the tongue.

COMPOSITION OF THESE KENTON COUNTY MARLY CLAYS AND SHALES

DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1583.


No. 1584.


No. 1585.


No. 1586.


Silica


^6.4.OO


68 360


4"?. 461


47 . 1 60


Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides . .
Lime carbonate


29.971
. 760


22.256
i .000


21 .OOO

27 .040


22.850
2O. 140


Magnesia


I . 514


1.181


.680


.840


Phosphoric acid


.166


.2q8


.6O7


.128


Sulphuric acid


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


Potash


j e?8


2 I 30


2 4.47


2. 7OI


Soda


re i


906


QIC


I . coo


Water expelled at red heat . .


7 . 100


3.6t;o


T.8c,o


C..2OO












Total


IOO OOO


QQ 7:O


IOO OOO


i oo . 209













These marly shales would undoubtedly be valuable for top-
dressing poor light soils in their vicinity, notwithstanding most
of their alkaline ingredients are in a state of combination
which renders them, for the present, unavailable for plant
nourishment. The gradual action of the atmospheric agencies
and of humus, as well as that of the lime, will eventually bring
them into a soluble state. The latter two may be considered
the best for this purpose.

No. 1587 LIMESTONE. Labeled "Blue argillaceous limestone.

Low water mark. Whitehall, near Covington. Collected by

Prof. N. S. Shalerr

A fine-grained, dark-grey limestone. Not adhering to the
tongue.
134



CHEMICAL REPORT. 135

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F. SPECIFIC GRAVITY SB 2.720.

Lime carbonate 64.240 = 35. 974 per cent, of lime.

Magnesia carbonate 6.152

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides ...... 4.960

Phosphoric acid . 191

Sulphuric acid not est.

Potash .643

Soda .260

Silex and insoluble silicates 23.860

100.306

This limestone, like most of the layers of the Lower Silu-
rian limestone (or blue limestone, so-called), is, in consequence
of its large proportions of alkalies and phosphoric acid, pecu-
liarly suited to agricultural purposes. The use of this lime,
in the calcined state, upon our old fields, if properly managed
and applied just before the clover crop, in a rotation, would
doubtless be quite beneficial in restoring fertility. Would
probably make hydraulic cement.

LAWRENCE COUNTY.

No. 1588 "CoAL. No. 3, "From McHenrys coal bank, six
miles south of Louisa. Average sample, by A. R. Crandall"
A jet-black coal, with very little fibrous coal and no appear-
ance of pyrites.

No. 1589 " COAL. No. i, from, F. Swetmaris bank, Brushy

Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall."

A jet-black coal, with some little external earthy or ferrugi-
nous staining, and but little fibrous coal or pyrites.

No. 1590 COAL. No. i, "From near Henderson, Boggs Mill,

Cane s Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall"

Rather a dull-black coal, breaking into thin laminae, with
fibrous coal between, but with little appearance of pyrites.
Some external ferruginous stain.

No. 1591 COAL. No. 3. "HolbrooKs coal, Brushy Creek. Col-
lected by A. R. Crandall."
Rather a dull-black coal, breaking into thin laminae, with

fibrous coal between, but with little appearance of pyrites.



136



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1592 COAL. No. 3. "Mr. Boggs bank, one mile from
moiith of Cane s Creek. Upper portion of the coal. Collected
by A. R. CrandalC
A jet-black coal, with some fibrous coal between the laminae,

but with little appearance of pyrites.

No, 1593 COAL. No. 3. "Mr. Boggs bank, &c., &c. Lower
portion of the coal. Collected by A. R. Crandall."
Breaking into thin laminae, with fibrous coal between. Some

external ferruginous incrustation.

COMPOSITION OF THESE LAWRENCE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.



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