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No. 1588


No. 1589


No. 1590


No. 1591


No. 1592


No. 1593


Specific gravity


1.316


1.281


I-376


1-349


1-350


1.284

2.50
39-oo
58.50

100.00

41.50
54.76

3-74

IOO.OO

Spongy.




Hygroscopic moisture .


4.60

35-70
59-70


5.10
35-30
59.60


3-30
35-16
61.54


2. 10
33-90
64.00

100.00


2.50

38.56
58.94

100.00


Volatile combustible matters. . . .
Coke


Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Total volatile matters


40.30

53-28

6.42


40.40

1:7.80
"1.80

100.00


38.46
47.84
13.70


36.00

56.00
8.00


41.06
5'-44
7-5


Carbon in the coke. .......


Ashes


Total


100.00


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Character of the coke


Spongy.


Light
spongy.


Dense
spongy.


Friable.


Light
spongy.




Color of the ash


Light
lilac-grey


Light
jrey-bufl".


Dark
lilac-grey


Yellow-
ish-white


Grey-
purple.


Brownish
grey.




Per centage of sulphur


1 .080


0.736


2.109


0.736


3-785


1. 066





With one or two exceptions, as is readily to be seen, these
are remarkably good and pure coals, which will compare favor-
ably with the best Ohio and Indiana coals.

It is interesting to notice in the above table the nearly con-
stant relation of the specific gravity to the relative proportion
of ash, to-wit:
136



CHEMICAL REPORT. 137

In No. 1589 the specific gravity is 1 .281; per centage of ash = 1 .80.



1593

1588

I59 2
1591
1590



1.284;
1.316;

1-350;
1-3495
I-376;



3-74-
6.42.

7-50-

8.00.

13.70.



This relation of the specific gravity to the proportion oi the
ash is not constant in coals generally.

No. 1594 RED HEMATITE "Found on top of hill near Louisa,

Lawrence county. By A. R. Crandall."

Nodular lumps, of various sizes, of very hard, dense, dark
colored ore, with hardly any soft ochreous material. Powder
of a brownish-red or maroon color.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F. SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 4.184.

Iron peroxide 80.004 = 56.028 per cent, of iron.

Alumina 3-474

Manganese, brown oxide .250

Lime .360

Magnesia .396

Phosphoric acid .172= 0.075 per cent, of phosphorus.

Sulphuric acid .055 = .020 per cent, of sulphur.

Silica and insoluble silicates 14.200 = 13.500 per cent, of silica.

Water and loss . i . 089



The red hematite is an exceptional ore in the coal measures,
but is found in abundance in the Clinton Group.

LIVINGSTON COUNTY.

No. 1595 GALENA. "From Roy all Mines, Mineral Point, Cum-
berland river. Taken one hundred and twenty-Jive feet from
the surface ; sloping away from the river. Collected by Prof.
N. S. Shalerr
The galena is mingled with colorless and violet-colored'

fluor-spar.

No. 1596 GALENA. "From same mines, taken forty-Jive feet

from the surface, &c., &c."

The galena, separated from the gangue, of both these sam-
ples, was reduced by the usual flux and tested for silver.

VOL. I.-CHEM. 10. 137



138 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1595 gave a button of lead weighing 79.34 per cent, of
the weight of the galena, and No. 1596 one which weighed
79.052 per cent.

These were severally dissolved in diluted nitric acid and
tested for silver by the addition of the watery solution of lead
chloride to the diluted nitrate of lead solution ; and in neither
case was more than a minute trace of silver chloride obtained.
So that these galenas cannot be profitably worked for the
extraction of silver.

LYON COUNTY.

No. 1597 " LIMONITE iron ore from old Suwannee Furnace,
Big Showing. Sub-carboniferous. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A dense, dark-brown limonite, in irregular laminae, with a

small amount of investing soft ochreous ore.

No. 1598 LIMONITE. "Old Suwannee Furnace. Bank close
to the furnace. Sub-carboniferous. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A dense, dark-brown ore, in irregular laminae, with some

brown hematite and soft ochreous ore. Some cherty nodules.

No. 1599 " LIMONITE, with occasional thin layers of brown

hematite. Old Suwannee Furnace property. Railroad cut.

Sub-carboniferous formation. Average sample of the ore in

the railroad cut. Collected by P. N. Moore"

A dense, dark-brown limonite, with thin incrustations of
brown hematite and some soft ochreous ore.

No. 1600 LIMONITE. "Old Suwannee Furnace property. Iron
Mountain bank. Sub-carboniferous. Average sample, by P.
N. Moore"

Generally in dark-brown irregular laminae, with some yel-
lowish and brownish ochreous ore, and occasional small nodules
of chert.
138



CHEMICAL REPORT. 139

COMPOSITION OF THESE LYON COUNTY LIMONITES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1597.


No. 1598.


No. 1599.


No. 1600.




59.370


70.518


66. 117


69 . T.Q2




1 .622


.04?


1.064


a trace.


Manganese brown oxide


.000


.IQO


. 170


. 170




. 170


.000


.090


. 140




. loo


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.




. I7Q


.271;


.474


. tot




,<;o8


TI 3


.21"?


a trace.




8.400


Q.8S.O


Q.SOO


o. <;t;o




30 . ooo


18.910


22.77O


20.500


Moisture End loss




.OOQ
















Total


100.439


IOO.OOO


100.218


loo-oss












Per centage of iron


41 . eco


4Q. 7.6 3


46.810


48. <;74












Per centage of phosphorus .........


.077


. 1 20


.189


. 144












Per centage of sulphur .


. 212


O4C


.083














Per centage of silica


26.800


18. 160


2 1 . 1 60


i 9 . 660













In volume 4 of Reports of Kentucky Geological Survey, old
series, may be found the amount of the analyses of other
materials from this old furnace, beginning at page 209.

Quite rich ores, and very good, except those which show a
large proportion of sulphur or phosphorus.

For an account of the analysis of the water contained in the
interior of a geode of "pot ore," see the Appendix.

MENIFEE COUNTY.

No. 1 60 1 COAL. "Sub-conglomerate, forty feet above the sub-
carboniferous limestone. Hawkins 1 Creek, near the line of
Powell county. Menifee county. Average sample, collected by
A. R. Crandall"

No. 1602 COAL. "Sub-conglomerate, forty to forty-five feet
above the sub-carboniferous limestone, near the mouth of Glady
Creek, on Ledfords land. A thin bed. Collected by A. R.
Crandall.



140



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1603 BITUMINOUS SHALE. ''Sub-conglomerate (mistaken for
coal]. Twenty to twenty -two feet thick ; immediately above the
sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample, by A. R. Cran-
dall"

A friable shale, resembling some kinds of cannel coal, of a
dull brownish-black, with some thin ferruginous incrustation.
Fracture irregular; sub-conchoidal.

COMPOSITION OF THESE COALS AND THE SHALE, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1601.


No. 1602.


No. 1603.


Specific gravity


I . 1IQ


not est.


not est.










Hygroscopic moisture


2. 04


2.66


2.80


Volatile combustible matters


33.06


"J4.O4


I S.2O


Coke (or fixed residue)


64..OO


6^ . 7O


82.00










Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO










Total volatile matters


76.OO


"?6 . 70


18.00




s6.6o


SO. 24


24. 10




7 -4O


IT. 06


"?7 -7O










Total


I OO . OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO










Character of the coke, &c


Dense.




Pulverulent










Color of the ash


Light
brownish-


Dark


White.




grey.


lilac-grey.




Per centage of sulphur


O QQ7


4 OQ2


not est.











Some of the sub-conglomerate coals are found to be quite
good. The bituminous shale described above, however, hardly
contains enough combustible matters (having only eighteen
per cent.) to make it available for fuel.

Samples of various rocks and minerals were brought to the
laboratory by Mr. J. M. Vanarsdall, from this county, from the
vicinity of Glady Creek ; consisting of iron ores, pyrites, marly
clay, zinc sulphide, &c., with some small globules of a white
metal which he obtained from the ashes of the furnace of the
140



CHEMICAL REPORT. 14!

so-called "James Kirk's silver mine." The metal contained
tin and copper, and the furnace was probably used by counter-
feiters, who, selecting out-of-the-way regions for their opera-
tions, seem frequently to conceal the character of them by the
pretense of working a silver mine.

This county has not as yet been thoroughly examined by
the Geological corps ; and doubtless contains much more
mineral wealth than is indicated by these few analyses here
reported.

MONTGOMERY COUNTY.

No. 1604 "QUICKLIME. Star Lime Company's lime. Burnt
at (or near) Mt. Sterling. Obtained from Williamson &
Bro., Lexington."
Not remarkably white, presenting an oolitic structure in

some of the pieces.

COMPOSITION.



Lime


08 . 701




.002


Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides ..


.74.7


Phosphoric acid


.023


Sulphuric acid


not est .


Potash


.012


Soda


.01 1


Silica and insoluble silicates


814.






Total


IOO.OOO







This analysis, made by the youngest son of the writer
(Alfred M. Peter) under his inspection, indicates a degree of
purity which fits this lime for all purposes of construction,
except, perhaps, for the whitest finishing coats in plastering.

MUHLENBURG COUNTY.

No. 1605 LIMONITE Labeled "Iron ore from near No. 4 entry.
Airdrie Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore"
A porous, yellowish, and deep brown ore.

No. 1606 LIMONITE. "Iron ore from Jerry M. Hopes land,
near Muddy river. Average sample, by P. N. Moore, of the
surface limonite from the upper part of the bed."
A cellular limonite (fossiliferous), of a bright yellowish-brown

color externally, with darker, hard, curved laminse included.



142



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1607 LIMONITE. "Ore from the lower and middle parts
of the bed. Jerry Hopes land, &c. , &c. Average sample^
by P. N. Moore"
A porous, brownish-yellow, fossiliferous ore.

No. 1608 LIMONITE. "Martin ore from near Greenville
Average sample, by P. N. Moore."
A cellular limonite, with ochreous incrustation, &c.

No. 1609 " ROASTED ORE from the Airdrie Fiirnace stock pile.

Has been weathered seventeen years since roasting. Collected

by P. N. Moore."

Apparently a "Black-band ore," so-called, originally. The
roasted ore is of a dark, reddish-brown color, varying to lighter
tints. Some portions are cellular, as though they had been
fused.

COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES,

&c., DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1605.


No. 1606.


No. 1607.


No. 1608.


No. 1609.




3.246








5-65^












63.048
5.290
.090
.680
930
.147

.112
12.430
I7. 2 50


60.492

7-075
.360
i .980

1-55
.083

.185
12.530
15-560
-185


46.866

5-93
.103

2-535
1-073
.179

059
9-550
33-53
-175


69 546
3-9I4
.230
.480
.921

US
.216
n .250
12.730
598


59.810
2.972
.720

*2 . 263
4.270
.223
.065
.200
29.880




Brown oxide of manganese . . .








Water expelled at red heat . . .
Silex and insoluble silicates . . .


Total






100.077


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


i oo . 403






44-133


42.344


32.806


48.822


41.867




Per centage of phosphorus . . .


.064


.035


.078


.050


.097


Per centage of sulphur


.044


.074


.024


.086


.026




Per centage of silica . . .


16.500


1 3 . 660


32.860


11.300


25.260




Lime.
142



CHEMICAL REPORT. 143

These Airdrie Furnace limonites are all good and profit-
able ores, which would yield a good quality of iron if properly
smelted, as they contain but a moderate proportion of the
injurious ingredients, phosphorus and sulphur.. Although it
is probable that the "roasted ore" was from the so-called
"Black-band ore" (bituminous clay iron-stone), it is properly
tabulated with these limonites. The analyses of other similar
iron ores from this region are detailed in the previous volumes
of Kentucky Geological Reports. (See volume i, pages 345
and 346, and volume 4, page 229.)

No. 1610 CLAY IRON-STONE. Bituminous. So-called "Black-
band" ore. From the Airdrie Furnace stock pile ; weathered
seventeen years. Not roasted. Collected by P. N. Moore"
A shaly ore, varying in color, in layers, from nearly black to

dark grey-brown.

No. 1611 CLAY IRON-STONE. Bituminous. Labeled "Slate
iron ore, from Buckner Furnace. Weathered thirty years.
Average sample, by P. N. Moore."
A Black-band ore, of a dark umber-brown color, varying in

tint. Shaly, and containing carbonaceous matter.

No. 1612 CLAY IRON-STONE "From the lower part of the bed
at Jerry Hopes bank, near Muddy river. Collected by P. N.
Moore"
A rough, greenish and brownish, fossiliferous and silicious

carbonate ore.

143



144 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE CLAY IRON-STONES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1610.


No. 1611.


No. 1612.




7. T76


not deter'd.


not deter'd.










Iron carbonate


47 ,8lO


42.QSO


26 . 64?




Q.OCI4


29.618


18.374




C .2CK


2.4154


6.548




-1 .740


2.490


I 3 . 4 }O




7.l8o


4.828


15.608




.707


1. 081


a trace.




. 170


.083


.211


Sulphuric acid . . . .


21*1


I . ?q6


.185


Silica, and insoluble silicates


17 OIO


Q.O7O


22.230




8.788


S.868


6.681










Total


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO










Per centage of iron


20.418


^6.016


27. 136










Per centage of phosphorus ....


.078


.035


.002













.004


.638


.074










Per centage of silica


12 QOO


6. 220


20 . 660











These clay iron-stones are not very rich in iron, except the
one (No. 1611) from Buckner Furnace, and this has a large
proportion of sulphur. The others are probably too poor in
iron to be separately smelted with profit; but they might be
mixed with richer ores with advantage. Other analyses of the
so-called Black-band ores of this region are to be found in
volume i, Kentucky Geological Reports, pages 346 to 350.
It will be seen, by reference, that these vary in their propor-
tion of iron from 31.17 to 36.80 per cent, of the ore.

[No. 1314 " LIMESTONE from Barren river, near the mouth of

Jasper Creek. Used formerly as a flux at Airdrie Furnace"

(See Butler county.} ]
No. 1613 CLAY "From Ross coal mines, Owensboro Junction.

(Fire-clay below the coal in the lower drift} Collected by C.

J. Norwood."

A dark-grey, soft, shaly clay.
144



CHEMICAL REPORT. 145

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Silica 63.180

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides 26.281

Lime .203

Magnesia .255

Phosphoric acid .179

Sulphuric acid 3.282 = 1 .312 per cent, of sulpbnr.

Potash 2.000

Soda .425

Water expelled at red heat, and loss 4. 195



Much of the sulphur and iron doubtless exist in the clay,
not as sulphuric acid and iron oxide, but in combination, as
iron sulphide. The considerable proportions of potash, lime,
magnesia, and iron oxide may prevent this from being a very
refractory clay ; although it may very well answer for the
manufacture of stone-ware and ordinary fire-bricks.

No. 1614 PIG IRON. (Silver-grey.') "An old sample, from a
former smelting at Airdrie Furnace. Collected by P. N.
Moore"

No. 1615 PIG IRON. (Silver-grey.) "From a former smelting,
Airdrie Furnace,



No. 1616 " PIG IRON (silver-grey,) &c., &c., as above.

No. 707 (See volume 3 Kentucky Geological Reports (old
series), page 340, for an analysis of a somewhat similar pig
iron from this furnace, made when the furnace was in blast.)

145



146 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE AIRDRIE FURNACE PIG IRONS.





No. 1614.


No. 1615.


No. 1616.


* No. 707.




6.826


6.826


7 782


7OO7












Iron


86 636


8c ACC


86 842


88 426


Graphite


.000


.480


74O


i 760




2.080


i . t;6o


I 460


I QO




. 202


696


5CC


980




7.704


7 .747


8.614


6 216


Slag


2.260


7.460


2 760


7 OQO




. 121.


.008


OS4


OQO




,04.^


.080


112






.O7C.


OI7


056




Potassium


not est.




















.271;


44.7


127


2OQ




1 04.


122


122














Total


TOO 774


100 167


100 876
















2.980


2 040




T ceo













* Of old series of Reports.

The analyses of these samples of the pig iron of old Air-
drie Furnace show inordinate proportions, in all of them, of
silicon, slag, phosphorus, and sulphur; which caused the very
bad quality of the iron, as they all tend to make it brittle,
whether hot or cold. But the examination of the ores, lime-
stone, and coals of the neighborhood of this furnace, shows
that, with due care in the selection of these materials, and a
proper management of the furnace, as good iron could be
produced by it as by any using pit coal or coke for fuel.

It appears that, in its early working, the limestone used for
flux was very sulphurous, containing much pyrites ; that the
manager had too strong a preference for the so-called " Black-
band" over the limonite ores, which former frequently contain
much sulphur and phosphorus ; and that, moreover, the blast
was too slow and too hot conditions which all tended to the
production of impure iron.

An account of the examination of some of the coke used

formerly in this furnace is appended, as follows :
146



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1617 COKE. "Airdrie Furnace coke, weathered sixteen
years ; made from the No. 1 2 coal. Collected by P. N.
Moore."

COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.



Hygroscopic moisture (expelled at 212 F.) 7-5

Moisture, &c., expelled at red heat 4.20

Dry coke 88.30

Total 100.00

Total moisture and volatile matter 11.70

Fixed carbon 82.90

Ashes, of a light yellowish-grey color 5 .40

Total 100.00

Per centage of sulphur 0.64

The ash of this coke was also analyzed.

COMPOSITION OF THE ASH.

Per cent, of
the coke.

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides 0.40

Lime . . . , .34

Magnesia .18

Phosphoric acid .08

Sand and insoluble silicates 4.32

Loss .08

Total 5 .40



The analysis of the coal of which this coke was made is
given in the following (Nos. 1618 and 1619):

No. 1618 COAL. "No. 12 of Owen. Airdrie Furnace, near
No. 4 entry. Average sample, by P. N. Moore."
A deep-black coal, with some thin shaly laminae.

No. 1619 COAL. "No. 12 of Owen. From the old stock pile,
at the entrance of the drift ; where it has been weathered for
sixteen years. Average sample, by P. N. Moore"
Like the preceding, but altered somewhat by weathering.

147



14-8 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1620 COAL. "Average sample of the lowest division of
the bed at Paradise mines. Airdrie Furnace. (No. n of
Owen.) By P. N. Moore.' 1

A bright, deep-black coal; with but little fibrous coal be-
tween the layers, but containing small bright crystals and
incrusting scales of iron pyrites.

No. 1621 COAL. "Average sample of the middle stratum of
same beds of Paradise mine. By P. N. Moore."
A pure looking, deep-black coal, with shining fracture ;
showing less fibrous coal and iron bi-sulphide than the pre-
ceding.

No. 1622 COAL. "Average sample of the upper stratum of

Paradise mine, &c. By P. N. Moore"

Like the two preceding; having a shining fracture, like
that of asphaltum. Very little fibrous coal or pyrites to be
seen in it.

No. 1623 COAL. "From Muddy river coal mine. Averaged by
P. N. Moore."

A deep-black, glossy coal, with but little fibrous coal or

pyrites apparent in it. Like the Paradise mine coal.

148



CHEMICAL REPORT. 149

COMPOSITION OF THESE AIRDRIE FURNACE COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1618.


No. 1619.


No. 1620


No. 1621.


No. 1622.


No. 1623.


Specific gravity


1.278


1-332


i-33i


1.326


1.274

3.60
38.70
57-70

IOO.OO


1. 221

3-80
32.70
63-50

IOO.OO




Hygroscopic moisture


3.60
31.40
65.00


4.70
30.60
64.70


4.20
36.10
59-70


4. 10

35-90
60.00

IOO.OO


Volatile combustible matters. . . .
Coke


Total


IOO.OO

35.00
58.50

6.50

IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Total volatile matters


35-30
58.80

5-90

IOO.OO


40.30
50.50

9.20

IOO.OO


40.00

53-60

6.40

100.00


42.30
53-70

4.00

IOO.OO

Spongy.


36.50
58.60
4.90

IOO.OO

Dense
spongy.

Brownish
salmon-
grey.




Ashes


Total




Character of coke


Dense

spongy.


Dense
spongy.


Spongy.


Spongy.




Color of ash


Lilac-
grey.


Light
ilac-grey


Dark

lilac-grey


Dark
lilac- grey


Light
lilac-grey




Per centage of sulphur


1.438


1-455


4-573


4-394


3.158


1.923





It appears that the No. 12 coal contains the least sulphur,
while the No. 1 1 coal of the Paradise mine is quite sulphurous,
the upper stratum being the least objectionable in this respect.
They are all very good coals for ordinary uses, and might be
measurably purified from sulphur by careful coking, and thus
probably made available in the iron manufacture. The coal of
the No. 12 bed of Owen is, however, preferable for this pur-
pose.

No. 1624 COAL. "Ross coal mine. Owensboro Junction. Top
bench ; above the clay parting. From the upper drift. Aver-
age sample, by C. J. Norwood." (Coal A.}
A jet-black coal, with fibrous coal between its thin laminae,

and but little apparent pyrites.

149



I5O CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1625 COAT,. "Mercer coal mines. Louisville and Pa-
ducah and Southwestern Railroad. Collected by C. J. Nor-
wood." (Coal D.}

A jet-black coal, with shining pyrites, and some fibrous coal
between the laminae.

No. 1626 COAL. " Upper seam of the old drift. Muhlenburg
coal -mines. Collected by C. J. Norwood" (Coal A.}
A glossy, pure-looking, pitch-black coal ; with very little

fibrous coal or pyrites apparent. Some little incrustation of

lime sulphate in the seams.

No. 1627 COAL. "Mithlenburg mines. Main working bed,
near Mercer Station, Louisville and Paducah and Southwest-
ern Railroad. Collected by C. J. Nonvood." (Coal B.}
Like the next preceding, but has a little more fibrous coal
than that, and some thin pyritous and lime sulphate incrusta-
tions.

No. 1628 COAL. " Muhlenburg mines (John Pollock, Super-
intendent}, near Mercer Station, &c., &c. Taken from head
of main entry. Average sample, by C. J. Norwood."
A pure pitch-black looking coal ; beautifully iridescent on
some of the seam faces. But little fibrous coal or pyrites
apparent, but some slight lime sulphate incrustation.

No. 1629 "FIBROUS COAL OR MINERAL CHARCOAL. "From
above the main working. Thickness from one half to one inch.
Muhlenburg mines, &c. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
A very soft, friable mass of carbonaceous matter. Some in

light powder, but much in the form of charred, fibrous, reedy

stems, &c.

No. 1630 CARBONACEOUS MUD OR CLAY. "Filling cavities
occurring in the bituminous shale overlying the coal. Muh-
lenburg mines. Collected by C. J. Norwood."

A brownish greyish-black indurated mud, or carbonaceous
clay.

150



CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY COALS, &c., AIR-DRIED.





No. 1624


No. 1625


No. 1626


No. 1627


No. 1628


No. 1629


No. 1630


Specific gravity


1.407


1-358


1.297


1-332


1.280


i-53


....




Hygroscopic moisture . .
Vol'ile combustible matters
Coke


4. 16
37-44
58.40


3.60
34.00
62.40


3.10
40.68
56.22


i-52
40.00
58.48

IOO.OO


2.98
43.08
53-94

100.00


I .20

7-5
91.30

IOO.OO


3.56
13.68
82.76

IOO.OO


Total


IOO.OO


loo.oo


IOO.OOO




Total volatile matters . .
Carbon in the coke . . .
Ashes


41 .60
49.80

8.60

IOO.OO

Light

spongy.


37.60
50.60
11.80


43-78

50.66

5.56


41.52
50.92

7.56


46.06
50.22

3-72

IOO.OO


8.70
86.48
4.82

100.00


17.24
6.82

75-94


Total


IOO.OO


100.000


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Character of the coke . .


Light

spongy.


Spongy.


Spongy.


Spongy.


Powdery.


Powdery.


Color of the ash ....


Light
lilac-grey


Lilac-
grey.


Lilac-
grey.


Lilac-
grey.


Lavendar
grey.


Dark-
brown.


Brownish
grey.


Per cent, of sulphur . . .


2.727


4.032


2-779


2.840


3-125


3-431


1-983



These coals are generally of very good quality, although
some of them contain a little more than the usual proportion
of sulphur. Some of this, however, is in combination, in the
form of lime sulphate. To ascertain how much was in this
state, coals Nos. 1626 and 1629 were boiled in solution of
soda carbonate, &c., &c., and the proportions of lime sulphate
ascertained. The quantity in No. 1626 was only 0.168 per
cent., while No. 1629 was found to contain 3.632 percent, of
this substance. In addition, No. 1629 was treated with bi-
sulphide of carbon, by the method of displacement, and was
thus found to contain a certain amount of uncombined sul-



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