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Kentucky Geological Survey.

[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) online

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Snonfrv.










Chocolate-


Brownish-




grey.


grey.




1.874.


2.608









1 68



These are both very good coals ; ranking amongst the best.



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



169



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VOL. I.-CHEM. 12.



169



170



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



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170



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



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Remarks.


S. C., Barren river, Airdrie Furnace.
Lower Silurian.
Boone Furnace (flux).
Iron Hills Furnace (flux).
Mt. Savage Furnace (flux).
Oolitic, sub-carboniferous.
Sub-carboniferous, upper part.
Sub-carboniferous, lithographic.
Quicklime (Lower Silurian).
Impure calc. spar (Lower Silurian).
Pea Ridge (ferruginous).
Used as flux, Raccoon Furnace.
Used as flux, Kenton Furnace.
Buflalo Creek (ferruginous).


Blue argillaceous (Lower Silurian).
Quicklime (Star Lime Company).
Cane Ridge limestone.


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171



172



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



TABLE III (A). IRON ORES (LIMONITES), DRIED AT 212 F.


Remancs.


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172



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



173



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174



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



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CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



175













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176



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



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176



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



177



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177



178



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



Remarks.


Marly shale, near Clinton Furnace.
Silicious mudstone.
Red under clay (ferruginous).
Marly shale, Cincinnati Group.
Marl (mudstone).
Clay shale, Newport Reservoir.
Clay shale, Newport Reservoir.
Clay, brick clay.
Sandy, ferruginous clay.
Ferruginous clay.
Sand, moulding sand.
Sand, beneath brick clay.


rly shale, Cincinnati Group.
rly shale, Cincinnati Group.


dy sub-soil. Little Sandy river,
en marly shale.
re marly shale,
rly shale (mineral paint).
rly shale (mineral paint).


:ious clay (indurated),
sandstone or silicious concretion,
sandstone or silicious concretion,
sandstone or silicious concretion,
t Tertiary clay, Grand Chain.
rly shale, Sunset Lick.


ie, analyzed by fusion.


sandstone, Horse Branch.


rl (cut of Cumberland * Ohio Rallr'd, Eminence).


:ious grit.
:ious grit.
rly clay, Cincinnati Group, Lower Silurian.
:k clay,
rly shale, Cincinnati Group,
rly shale, Cincinnati Group.




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178



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



H

a

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d


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H


Remarks.


Fire-clay, Boone Furnace property.
Fi e-clay, Boone Furnace property.
Fi e-clay, Boone Furnace property.
Fi e-clay, under coal, Old Orchard diggings, Boone Furn. property.
Fi e-clay, Boone Furnace property.
Fi e-clay, under twelve inch coal, Geo. Ossenton's.
Clay shale, Grayson.
Porcelain clay, of St. Yrieiex.
Porcelain clay, of China.


Stourbridge fire-clay.
Crucible clay, of Almerode.

Post Tertiary clay, foot of Grand Chain.

Fire-clay, Kenton Furnace, Louder's land.
Fire-clay, Kenton Furnace, Powder-mill Hollow.
Clay, Pea Ridge.
Clay, Pea Ridge, near Hunnewell.
Clay, Pea Ridge, two and a half feet bed.
Clay, Pea Ridge, fourteen inch, third bed.
Fire-clay, Thomas' bank, Shultz's Creek.

Ross' coal mines, fire-clay, below the coal.


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CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



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GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY.

N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.



CHEMICAL REPORT



OF THE



SOILS, COALS, ORES, IRON FURNACE PRODUCTS,
CLAYS, MARLS, MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS, &C,

OF KENTUCKY,
BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC., ETC.,

CHEMIST TO THE KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
ASSISTED BY

JOHN H. TALBUTT, S. B., CHEMICAL ASSISTANT.



SECOND CHEMICAL REPORT IN THE NEW SERIES AND THE SIXTH SINCE THE
BEGINNING OF THE SURVEY.



181



INTRODUCTORY LETTER.



CHEMICAL LABORATORY OF THE J

KENTUCKY STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,

LEXINGTON, February, 1877. J

Professor N. S. SHALER, Chief Geologist, &c.:

DEAR SIR : I have the pleasure to report the results of the
chemical work performed by myself and Mr. Talbutt, for the
State Geological Survey, during the past year, or since the
preparation of the last report nearly up to the present date.

Very respectfully,

ROBERT PETER.

183



CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, COALS, ORES,
IRON FURNACE PRODUCTS, CLAYS, MARLS,
MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS, &c., OF KEN-
TUCKY, BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC.



The chemical analyses of eighty-three soils, from twelve
counties of the State, are given in the following detailed re-
port. The limits of the variations of their several essential
ingredients are shown in the following table, viz :





Pr. cent.


No.


County.


Per cent.


No.


County.


Organic and volatile matters vary from . . .
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides vary


11.565


in 1684


in Bell ....


to i . 052

to 2 815


in 19031$


in Muhlenb'rg.
in Bell.


Lime carbonate varies from


i -'45


in 1781


in Fayette


a trace.


in 1871


in Lewis.


Phosphoric acid varies from. . . .;...
Potash varies from . . .


54

755


in 1780
in 1783


in Fayette
in Fayette


o .061

o .068


m sever
in 1680


al.
in Bell.














al.


Sand and insoluble silicates vary from ....
Water expelled at 380 F. varies from ....
Water expelled at 212 F. varies from . . . .
Potash in the insoluble silicates varies from .


72-540
2-515
3-525
2.640


in I? 8 3
in 1696
in 1783
in 1696


in Fayette
in Bell . .
in Fayette
in Bell . .


095-115
o -035
o -435
o -399


in 1683
in 1684
in 1852^
in 18520?


in Bell,
in Bell.
in Knox.
in Knox.

















This table of extremes of composition shows wider limits
than that of volume I, and may be supposed to exhibit the
relative chemical composition of very good and very poor soils.
The rich soil being characterized by larger proportions of
organic and volatile matters (within certain limits), causing
the soil to absorb and retain much hygroscopic moisture (ex-
pelled at 212 F.); larger relative quantities of alumina, &c.,
&c., which hold more water, &c., expelled at 380 F.; but
especially being more rich in the available alkalies, potash
and soda (particularly potash) ; by containing more phosphoric
acid, lime, &c., and having less sand and insoluble silicates.
The poor soil generally contains a larger quantity of sand and
insoluble silicates and smaller proportions of the other named
ingredients. Exceptions occur to these general statements,
of course ; for great excess of lime or magnesia carbonates,



VOl,. I.-CHEM. 13.



I8 5



6 CHEMICAL REPORT.

of organic matters, or of clay, may make a poor soil ; or, on
the other hand, the absence of any single essential element in
it may render unavailable normal proportions of all the others.
The study of the soil in relation to its productiveness presents,
indeed, a complex problem ; many conditions, both physical
and chemical, enter into it, all equally important. Even the
relative state of division, whether fine or coarse, of two soils
otherwise presenting similar chemical, physical, and atmos
pheric conditions, is found greatly to influence its fertility.

Another varying condition is the influence of water upon
the soil, which, in the valley, may bring fertilizing ingredients
to the soil from the higher grounds by deposit of suspended
mud left by the overflowing fluid, or may carry dissolved ele-
ments of plant food into its interior by gradual infiltration.
On the other hand the flood, on the higher slopes, not only
carries off to the lower levels the richer and finer solid mate-
rials, but, by a continued leaching process, may actually dis-
solve and remove the alkalies, lime, magnesia, phosphates,, and
organic matters, and even gradually decompose the insoluble
silicates and carry off the store of alkalies naturally contained
in some of them. The examination of some of the soils of
the mountain region seemed to show that underground
drainage, through a measurably open subsoil, had thus acted
on the silicates contained in them.

In many cases the subsoil in the samples examined was
richer in the mineral elements of fertility than the surface soil,
and in some few cases 'it seemed to have had a different origin.
The influence of the subsoil, when more or less mixed with
the upper soil in the processes of cultivation, was measurably
observable in studying the gradual exhaustion produced by
cropping. In some cases seemingly making the soil of the
old field fully as rich as the virgin soil, supposing both orig-
inally to have been similar in composition, which is not always
true. The comparison of the old cultivated soil with the vir-
gin soil of the immediate vicinity does not, therefore, in all
cases, show an apparent reduction of the elements of fertility
in the former; yet, the fact is demonstrated, in a large propor-

186



CHEMICAL REPORT. 7

tion of cases, where the soil is uniform in the region and care
has been taken in the selection of the samples. Superficial
impurities, which might greatly interfere with the results, are
easily to be avoided in the collection of the soils in most cases.

But the subsoil, although quite rich in potash, soda, phos-
phates, and other mineral fertilizers, does not always improve
the immediate fertility of the soil when brought up to the sur-
face in too large quantity at one time. Indeed gardeners find,
generally, that it reduces the fertility of the surface unless it
is liberally mixed with organic manures. Hence, while they
may loosen the earth to a considerable depth, by a process of
subsoiling, to favor drainage, the penetration of the atmos-
pheric gases and the free spreading of the roots of their veg-
etables, they are generally careful not to trench the soil so as
to throw much of the heavy subsoil upon the surface. Of
course subsoils vary in composition ; but the subsoils of this
region are usually quite rich in potash, soda, and phosphates,
held in firm combination, however, in the silicates which are
insoluble in the ordinary acids; they contain more of the ma-
terials of clay alumina, iron oxide, &c. than the surface soil
generally, and but a small quantity of organic and volatile
matters.

As the organic compounds of the soil are greatly instru-
mental in bringing the mineral elements of plant food into a
soluble or available condition, and as they even act on the
insoluble silicates, to set free and make soluble their constit-
uent alkalies and phosphates, &c., the measurable absence of
the organic matters from the heavy subsoil may have much to
do with its inertness as compared with its chemical composi-



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