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Of a fine oolitic structure. Colors varying from yellowish
and reddish-brown to greyish-brown, with greenish-grey infil-
tration in some parts.

No. 1656 LIMONITE, from "Old Coaling Bank" head of Clear
Creek; in Siib- carboniferous limestone. Average sample col-
lected by P. N. Moore.

Principally of a dark reddish-brown color, with some little
ol lighter color.

No. 1657 LIMONITE, from the "Richardson Bank" Clear
Creek; in Sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample col-
lected by P. N. Moore.

A dense ore, generally of a dark brown' color, with a small
proportion of greyish.

No. 1658 LIMONITE, from the "Pergam Bank" Clear Creek;

in Sub-carboniferous limestone. Average sample collected by

P. N. Moore.

A dense ore, generally of a dark brown color, with some
little ochreous.

'99



20



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE BATH COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT

212 F.





No. 1652


No. 1653


No. 1654


No. 1655


No. 1656


No. 1657


No. 1658


Iron peroxide


70.060


69.728


47-321


39.068


59.621


66.329


65-310




Alumina


4-540
not est.
.040
.021
1.620
.031
12.300
"530


8.642
not est.
.170
-045
I.I54
134
12.650
7-930


5.418
not est.
.690
.079
.161
-376
12.050
33-330


8.346
not est.
18.710
6.159
.868
-185
7-835
7-350


12.370
not est.
.500

.144
.709
a trace.
10.400
15.830


12.532
not est.
a trace.
'73
709
a trace.
9.580
9.720


11.947
not est.
730
. 140
.825
a trace.

II.OOO

9-580


Manganese peroxide . .
Lime carbonate ....
Magnesia


Phosphoric acid ....
Sulphuric acid .....


Combined water ....
Silicious residue ....

Total . .


100. 142


100.453


99-425


IOO.OOO


99.574


99.043


99.532




Iron, per cent. . . .


49.042
0.707

.012

"530


48.809
54
053

7.760


33- I2 5
.070

.150

27.600


30.734

379
.074
7.560


41-735
.309
a trace.
13.960


46 . 440

309
a trace.
9.060


44.570
.360

a trace.
9-580


Phosphorus,' per cent. .
Sulphur, per cent. . . .
Silica, per cent




Specific gravity ....


3-470


3-405


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.



All of these ores are sufficiently rich for profitable smelting.
Nos. 1652, 1653, and 1657 are more than usually rich in iron.
The first two contain more phosphorus than is desirable, but
much of this may be removed in the slag, if there be much
alumina present ; moreover, it would not be seriously objec-
tionable in ordinary castings. No. 1655, containing quite
large proportions of lime and magnesia, might profitably be
mixed with more silicious and richer ores for smelting. Sul
phur is not superabundant, except in No. 1654.

PIG IRON FROM BATH COUNTY.

No. 1659 LABELED "No. i Cold-blast Charcoal Iron; Bath

Fiirnace. Collected by P. N. Moore"

A dark-colored, moderately coarse-grained iron. Yields
readily to the file ; flattens considerably under the hammer.

No. 1660 "Pig Iron from Old Slate Furnace." Collected by

P. N. Moore.

Finer-grained, harder, and less tough than the preceding, but
yields to the file and extends somewhat under the hammer.



CHEMICAL REPORT.



21



No. 1 66 1 LABELED "No. i Cold-blast Charcoal Car-wheel
Iron" from Cottage Furnace. Sent by G. S. Moore & Co.,
of Louisville.

Moderately coarse-grained; somewhat dark grey. Yields
with difficulty to the file ; extends somewhat under the ham-
mer.

No. 1662 "No. 2 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron" from Bath

Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore.

A moderately fine-grained grey iron. Yields to the file;
extends considerably under the hammer.

No. 1663 "No. 3 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron" from Bath

Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore.

Finer-grained than the preceding. Yields to the file; ex-
tends rather more under the hammer than the preceding.

No. 1664 "No. 4 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron, from Bath

Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."

Finer-grained than the preceding. Quite fine-grained, and
dark grey. Yields to the file ; extends somewhat under the
hammer.

COMPOSITION OF THESE BATH COUNTY PIG IRONS.





No. 1659.


No. 1660.


No. 1661.


No. 1662.


No. 1663.


No. 1664.


Iron
Graphite


92.631
^.84.0


92.056
^ .640


93.106

3.860


91.924

3. AAQ


93-472

7 TOO


93.004

2 7OO


Combined carbon . .


.710

I . <!2O


.310
i .760


.590
.014


i .060

I . 7IQ


i .510

.6S2


I.4IO

I .OO7


Slag .


. TOO


. too


. 1 60


.260


. 1 60


26O




.OQO


.116


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


Phosphorus ....
Sulphur


.363

.278


1 .080

.218


527
.on


.220
. IO7


.290

. 121


.262

172
















Total


QO . C 7 2


QQ . 280


QQ. I 68


08 T^O


on. one


98 815
















Total carbon ....


4-550


3-95


4-45


4.500


4.6lO


4-IIO


Specific gravity . .


7.070


7.067


7.142


7.017


7.092


7.168



VOL. I.-CHEM. 14.



22 CHEMICAL REPORT.

The pig iron of the Bath Furnace has a well deserved rep-
utation for yielding iron of great tenacity, and hence is pre-
ferred for railroad axles. Its small proportion of phosphorus*
does- not seem to injure it in this respect. It, as well as the
other specimens from Bath county, contains more than the
usual proportion of carbon. The iron of the Old Slate Fur-
nace, prepared from the phosphatic ores of the Upper Silu-
rian Group, contains more phosphorus than is desirable in the
manufacture of tough bar iron or steel. This impurity does
not prevent it from being available in almost all ordinary cast-
ings.

BARREN COUNTY.

No. 1665 "Marly Deposit in Proctor s Cave. In the cavernous
Sub -carboniferous limestone, Barren county' 1 Said to be good
for polishing metals.

The dried lumps are very fine-grained, and are light-grey,
nearly white. Adhere to the tongue.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.





66 1 60


Magnesia carbonate


Ho8i


Alumina and iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric acid


5 800


^^ater alkalies and loss


5OO 7




8.860






Total


IOO.OOO







If in sufficient quantity, it might not only be useful for pol-
ishing the soft metals, but might be used as a fertilizer, or,
very probably, it would make a hydraulic cement, if properly
calcined.

No. 1666 " NITRE EARTH. From Grand Avenue Cave, three
miles northwest of Glasgoiv Junction, Barren county. Col-
lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."
A light cinnamon-colored earth, containing excrements of

bats, &c., &c.

* It is believed by the writer that, in consequence of the difficulties attending the esti-
mation of the phosphorus in iron, this ingredient has been often under-estimated by
chemists, and, consequently, its evil influence has been over-estimated.



CHEMICAL REPORT. 23

Qualitatively examined, it was found to contain ammonia
salt, or some nitrogenous matter which yields this alkali
under the action of lime ; also much lime sulphate.

Quantitative analysis showed, however, that it only con-
tained of nitric acid 0.0025 per cent.; of potash, .0129 per
cent. ; of soda, .0024; so that it would not prove valuable as a
source of nitre, although, if in sufficient quantity, it might be
useful as a fertilizer.

BELL COUNTY.
COALS OF BELL COUNTY.

No. 1667 ''Coal, from Abraham Lock's coal bank, Straight
Creek, Bell county. Collected by A,. R. Crandall."

A somewhat soft, pure-looking splint coal. Very little
fibrous coal and no pyrites apparent. Some ferruginous
stain in the seams.

No. 1668 " Cannel Coal, from Col. John G. Eves land, Fork
Ridge, near Stony Creek. Fourteen inches thick. Taken
from tlie bed of Mountain Creek. It is probably better be-
yond the opening."

Tough ; fracture somewhat conchoidal ; lustre satiny. No
appearance of pyrites. Some ferruginous stain on the sur-
face.

No. 1669 " Hignite Coal, from Hignite Branch of Yellow
Creek. Upper bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall."

A splint coal, with very little fibrous coal or granular pyrites
between the laminae.

No. 1670 "Coal, from the same locality as the last sample.
Middle bed. Collected by A. R. Crandall."

Does not differ much in appearance from the preceding.

No. 1671 "Coal, from the same locality. Lower bed. Col-
lected by A. R. Crandall."

203



24 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1672 "Coal, from Little Clear Creek. In the shales above
the Conglomerate. Bed two feet thick ; fifteen feet above tht
creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall."
A semi-cannel or splint coal. Very little fibrous coal and

no apparent pyrites between the laminae. Lumps slightly

soiled with mud.

No. 1673 ^ Coal, from Little Clear Creek, &c., &c. Bed two
feet thick in the bed of the creek. Collected by A. R. Cran-
dalir

Resembles the last. Some little ferruginous stain on exte-
rior surfaces.

No. 1674 "Coal, from Fork Ridge, on Stony Creek. A four-
feet bed, above the cannel coal. Collected by A. R. Crandall."
A pitch-black, pure-looking coal. Has very little fibrous

coal and no apparent pyrites.

No. 1675 "Coal, from James Barnetfs bank, six miles north
of Cumberland Gap, on a branch of Clear Fork, which runs
into Big Yellow Creek. Bed forty inches thick, with no
shale parting. Average sample collected by Jno. H. Talbutt.
( Three other beds in the same hill; one below, eighteen inches
thick', two above one eighteen inches, the other, on the top,
about three to four feet thick?)"
A pure, glossy, pitch-black coal. Has very little fibrous

coal or pyrites.

No. 1676 "Coal, from the same locality as the last. A sample
from such as is sent to market" Collected by John H. Tal-
butt '."

Resembles the preceding.

204



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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205



20 CHEMICAL REPORT.

These coals are all good, and some of them would rank
amongst the very best, and might be made available in the
smelting of iron ores without the preliminary process of cok-
ing, like the so-called "Block coal" of Indiana, which they
resemble. The proportion of sulphur, it will be seen, is gen-
erally sufficiently low, but varies in the different samples from
0.42 per cent., in No. 1671, up to 2.672, in No. 1674. ^ must
be remembered that these proportions given in the table rep-
resent the total sulphur of the coals, in whatever form it may
exist in them, and that, in the practical use of the coal for
smelting or manufacturing purposes, a considerable proportion
of this total sulphur is removed in the preliminary heating in
the upper part of the furnace, or in the coking of the coals,
or is in such a state of combination in them as to be harmless.

As shown in volume I, new series, of these reports (lower
page 287), some of this sulphur is in the free or uncombined
condition, especially in the fibrous coal, pr mineral charcoal,
which is found between the laminae. When in this state
this injurious element is quite easily removable. Indeed, it
is continually undergoing oxidation, when the coal is exposed
to the air, even at the ordinary temperature, forming, with
the atmospheric oxygen and moisture, sulphurous acid, which,
being gaseous, is constantly escaping, causing the well-known
sulphurous odor of the coal mine or coal heap, and enabling
us to understand how it is that coals gradually become less
sulphurous on exposure to the air. When the coals are heat-
ed the rate of the evaporation and oxidation of the sulphur
is rapidly increased, so that at 300 F. or below it takes fire.
Hence, none of the free sulphur of the coals used in the
smelting of iron ever gets much below the top of the furnace,
where it can do no harm, and all of it is burnt out even before
the heat is sufficiently great to coke the coal. Possibly much
of it escapes in the process of heating the coals to 212 F.,
with a view to ascertain the proportion of hygroscopic moist-
ure, thus increasing the apparent quantity of that ingredient
206



CHEMICAL REPORT. 2J

a supposition which will be made subject of further investi-
gation.*

Some of the sulphur of coals exists in combination with iron,
as sulphide or bi-sulphide. When it is in the form of bi-sul-
phide, one half of the sulphur of the compound is always
burnt out in the process of coking, or in the upper part of
the smelting furnace.

It will be seen, therefore, that while a portion of the sul-
phur of coals may, in the ordinary process of analysis, cause
an error of excess in the estimation of the hygroscopic moist-
ure, another portion increases the quantity of so-called vola-
tile and combustible matters. Still another portion may, on
incineration of the coke, be miscounted as fixed carbon.

That portion of the sulphur of coals which is not removed
by the process of coking or preliminary heating is either in
combination with iron, as iron proto-sulphide, which may injure
the quality of the metal smelted with it, or it is most proba-
bly in combination with calcium, magnesium, or the alkaline
metals, in which form it probably exerts little or no injurious
action. Hence, as practical experience has measurably dem-
onstrated, a coal may show a pretty large proportion of total
sulphur in its chemical analysis, and yet answer for the smelt-
ing or working of iron when properly managed.

Even the iron proto-sulphide, which is the most injurious
of all the forms of sulphur in coals or coke, may be easily
removed, because it speedily oxidates into iron proto-sulphate
when exposed to a moist atmosphere ; and this salt, being
quite soluble in water, is readily to be washed out.

It is interesting again to notice in this series of coals the
pretty constant relation between the specific gravity and the
ash per centage, as follows:

*As stated by Berzelius, all the sulphur may be burnt out of gunpowder at the heat of
boiling water without exploding the powder. Examined in the dark, a faint flame ap-
pears above it, in this experiment.

207



28



CHEMICAL REPORT.



Number.


Ash per cent-


Specific grav-


Number.


Ash per cent-


Specific grav-




age.


ity.




age.


ity.


1667


2.70


1 .276


1668*


7.60


1.262


1671


2.36


1.277


1674


9-3 6


1-344


1675


3-30


1.282


1669


10.50


1.346


1670


3-30


1.290


1672


13 oo


1.360


1673


6.80


I-325









*A cannel coal.



Bell county, undoubtedly, is endowed with great wealth of
coal of every good quality, as well as of iron ores, &c. ; which
only await development.

SOILS AND SUBSOILS OF BELL COUNTY.

No. 1677 "Virgin Soil, John Turners land, in the valley of
Big Yellow Creek, three and a half miles west of Cumberland
Gap. Bell county crawfish land ; subject to overflow in high
water. Timber : some trees five feet in diameter ; burr-oak,
beech, sweet gum, maples, poplar, sycamore, &c., &c. On the
coal measures. Collected by John H. Talbutt."

Soil a light buff-grey color when dry; cloddy; clods mot-
tled with light-ferruginous.

No. 1678 "Old Field Soil, sixty years in cultivation, mostly
in corn ; John Turner s land. Same locality as virgin soil.
Sample taken to the depth of thirteen inches. Field lies at the
base of Fork Ridge of Canada Mountain, between Bennett's
Fork and Stony Fork. An ancient mound exists on the same
land, which is said to have had the remains of ancient earth-
works on it. Many flint implements found on it. Collected
by J. H. Talbutt." Substratum of rounded sandstone boul-
ders and pebbles ; on coal measures.

Soil of a light umber color.

No. 1679 "Subsoil of the preceding, &c. Collected by J. H.
Talbutt."



208



Subsoil of a light grey-buff color.



CHEMICAL REPORT. 29

No. 1680 "Virgin Soil to depth of three inches. Woods. B.
F. Turner s land, three miles west of Cumberland Gap, on the
foot-hills of Big Yellow Creek. Slope to the south. Timber :
oak, beech, poplar, with underbrush. Coal measures. Col-
lected by John H. Talbutt"

No. 1 68 1 "Subsoil to the preceding. Collected by J. H. Tal~
butt."

Subsoil of a buff color.

No. 1682 " Soil from a field which has been cleared ten years.

Has been six years in corn and four in pasture. Average

yield thirty bushels of corn. Surface soil. The land slopes

gently to the south. Woodland above it and to the north.

Coal measures. Collected by John H. Talbutt."

Soil of a light buff-umber color.
No. 1683 "Subsoil of the preceding. Collected by J. H. Tal

buttr

Subsoil of a light buff-grey color.

No. 1684 "Virgin Surface Soil, from the narrow plateau on
the highest point of Brison Mountain, a fork of Mingo Ridge,
near the line of Bell county. Eleven miles south-southeast of
Cumberland Gap. Sample taken to the depth of nine inches.
Underlying rock sandstone. Has on it a fair growth of chest-
nut, oak, sugar-tree, poplar, hickory, &c., &c. Collected by
JohnH. Talbuttr

Soil of a dark grey-brown or umber color when dry ; nearly
black when wet.

No. 1685 "Subsoil of the preceding. Collected by John H.
Talbuttr

Subsoil of a lighter color and more sandy than the surface

soil.

209



30 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1686 " Vigin Soil, frcm the foot-hills of Ming o Mountain^
Big Yellow Creek Valley. Land of William T. Moss. Slope
to the north. Timber: black oak, dogwood, maple, chestnut,
&c. , &c. Sampled to the depth of ten inches by John H.
Talbutt.
Soil of a dirty grey-buff color.

No. 1687 " Soil from an old field fifty years in cultivation

thirty -five in corn without change, seven years thereafter in

clover and grass, and then two years in corn; now in wheat.

Average yield: of corn, forty bushels; of wheat, ten bushels.

Timber was black walnut, burr-oak, poplar, gum, maple,

sycamore, &c. Land of William T. Moss. In Big Creek

Valley, near the head of Big Yellow Creek. Carboniferous

formation. Top soil seventeen inches deep. Collected by John

H. Talbutt r

Soil of a light, grey-umber color.

No. 1688 " Subsoil to the preceding ; taken eighteen inches below
the surface. Collected by John H. Talbutt"
Subsoil lighter colored than the surface soil preceding.

No. 1689 " Soil from an old field in cultivation seventy years.
Farm of Henry Lane. Foot-hills of Mingo Mountains, Big
Yellow Creek Valley, three and a half miles from Cumberland
Gap. Cultivated for the last ten years in corn and wheat
alternately ; previous to which in corn for twenty-five years ;
now in wheat. Originally covered with a dense forest of black
walnut, burr-oak, beech, poplar, sycamore, and gum. Yield
of corn, thirty to forty -five bushels ; of wheat, fifteen bushels.
Value of the land, fifty dollars per acre. On the carbonif-
erous formation. Sampled to the depth of fifteen inches, by
John H. Talbutt."
Soil of a yellowish-grey, light umber color.

No. 1690 "Subsoil of the preceding. Collected by John H. Tal-
butt.

Subsoil of a lighter and more yellowish color than the sur-
face soil preceding.



CHEMICAL REPORT. 3!

No. 1691 "Soil to the depth of nine inches from an old field
now in corn, on John Colsori s land, foot of Cumberland
Range, near Cumberland Gap. Slope to the west. On coal
measures. Collected by J. H. Talbutt"
Dried soil of a light, brownish-umber color. Contains many

small fragments of decaying vegetable roots, &c., and some

small rounded quartz pebbles, and fragments of ferruginous

sandstone.

No. 1692 " Subsoil of the preceding," &c., &c.

Of an orange-grey-buff color. Much lighter colored and
more cloddy and adhesive than the preceding, and contain-
ing fewer pebbles. The silicious residue of both of these, after
digestion in acids, contained a considerable quantity of small
rounded, clear quartz grains.

No. 1693 Surface Soil to five inches in depth, from a field ten
years in cultivation; now in corn, of which it yields about
twenty bushels. J. C. Colson s land, one mile west of Cumber-
land Gap ; foot-hills of Dark Ridge. Slope to the southeast.
Carboniferous formation. Collected by John H. Talbutt."
Soil of a dirty buff-grey color. The coarse sieve removed

from it some small fragments of ferruginous sandstone. The

silicious residue all passed through fine bolting-cloth, except a

very few small clear quartz grains.

No. 1694 "Subsoil of the preceding. Collected by John H. Tal-

buttr

Resembles subsoil No. 1692, but is a little lighter colored
and more cloddy. Contains no silicious sand.

No. 1695 "Top Soil to depth of nine inches, from an old field
fifty years in cultivation. For the last twenty -five years in
corn, wheat, oats, and clover ; two thirds of time in corn. Av-
erage yield of which, thirty bushels per acre. Does not pro-
duce good wheat or oats. J. C. Colson s land. North side of
Big Yellow Creek Valley, near the foot-hills of Log Moun-

211



32 CHEMICAL REPORT.

tain, three miles northwest of Cumberland Gap. Carbonifer-
ous formation. Collected by John H. Talbutt"
Soil resembles No. 1693.

No. 1696 "Subsoil of the preceding, taken one foot below the

surface. By John H. Talbutt"

Subsoil of a reddish-brown, grey-buff color. Contains very
few grains of fine quartz sand.



212



CHEMICAL REPORT.



33




213



34



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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