Copyright
Kentucky Geological Survey.

[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) online

. (page 16 of 34)
Online LibraryKentucky Geological Survey[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 16 of 34)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


8

o


in P) ro
PI ro PI


2
U3




Z


in i^ O in -

C oo


8


PI N


O


00
00
vO


O O "10O PO " t^ O O '
m PI ONOO ON j; ON -* in


-t


m in

OO PI PI


'o


o


TJ- OO O ^o '
C 00


8


PI


3
CD


00
vO


PI * OO m PI f rooo * O O
ON OO PIO "'i-iO '-iPO





ONTj-

m o *


2


o


in 'NO O ro n

C 00


8


PI PI







A _






























































































G











-










. rz u






a "




fe w ^






~ 00




3


t




^




2 3


o




^rt <u 2 rt
> v '* rt -'"2 ' "3 ^ '

JiJlJ-jl-j -|s

tlllllfllljll

O<MShJS0Ha)(^iiy3co^J


'o


4J Ul
I t 4_l O

<u c-

| 5

^ PH C/3


Character of the



D
O
U



214



CHEMICAL REPORT. 35

As might have been expected, considerable local differences
are exhibited by the chemical analyses of these mountain
soils, caused, probably, in most cases, by the action of the
drainage ; as may be seen by comparing the relative propor-
tions of the potash, phosphoric acid, the organic and volatile
matters, lime, magnesia, and alumina, &c., &c., with the silex
and insoluble silicates, as well as by the relative quantities
of alkalies in the insoluble silicates.

Thus the soils of the valley, or those subject to overflow,
as for example, Nos. i687-'8 'Q-'QO, as well as 1693-' 4 *5 '6
located in the valley, are richer than those on the mountain
slopes. A remarkable difference in the proportions of phos-
phoric acid can be observed in soils Nos. 1677 and 1678,
which may possibly have been caused by the residence on the
latter of the prehistoric people who built and occupied the
ancient earth-works located there.* The subsoil No. 1679,
underlying the latter, is by no means as rich as the surface
soil, based as it is on a substratum of rounded sandstone boul-
ders and pebbles, and no doubt offering quite a free drainage
to the waters from above, which tend to wash away the soluble
ingredients.

The soil from the plateau, at the summit of Brison Moun-
tain, No. 1684, is much richer than might have been expected.
Its large proportions of organic and volatile matters, as well
as of alkalies in the insoluble silicates, indicate the influence
of the primeval forest growth, with which it is yet covered, in
retaining the elements of fertility on the surface. The unu-
sually large proportion of silicates, rich in alkalies, in the rock
material from whence the soil was derived, may have been
another cause.

BOONE COUNTY.

No. 1697 " CLAY, from three miles west of Burlington. Sent

by W. W. Walton."

Presents thin stratified layers of various tints of light-
brownish-grey and light dove color. Burns hard, and of a

*A similar increase in the proportion of phosphates on and near the site of these pre-
historic earth-works was observed in Fayette county, on the farm of the writer.



36 CHEMICAL REPORT.

handsome light brick color. Melts at a high temperature;
hence, is not a fire-clay.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Alumina, with iron and manganese oxides and phosphoric acid
Silica ....


33.060
48 360




1 OC7




?6?


Potash


<i 66.1




I 706




8 786






Total


IOO.OOO







While its large proportions of alkalies and of lime, as well
as of iron. oxide, prevent it from withstanding the melting
influence of a high heat, it may yet be quite available for so-
called terra cotta articles. It is probable, also, that, if found
in sufficient quantity, it may be quite useful in the improve-
ment of worn-out sandy soils in its vicinity.

BOYD COUNTY.

No. 1698 "GREY LIMESTONE ORE, from J. P. Jones drift,

near Ashland. Collected by P. N. Moore."

Interior portion Grey clay iron-stone, made up of fine
light-brownish granules, embedded in a whitish material. Ex-
terior portion Generally dark reddish-brown, with some little
lighter ferruginous and ochreous, the whole exhibiting a fine
granular or oolitic structure, and showing the same whitish
material observed in the grey interior portion.

The analyses of the interior and exterior portions were
made separately, with a view to the study of the changes
which occur when clay iron-stone is changed into limonite.

Similar comparative analyses are recorded under Carter
county.

No. 1699 "YELLOW KIDNEY ORE. Point of hill. Catletts-
burg, Boyd county. Collected by A. R. Crandall. A cabinet
specimen."
A kidney of fine-grained iron carbonate, invested with thin

layers of reddish and yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow

limonite.

Interior and exterior portions separately analyzed.
216



CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION OF THESE ORES, DRIED AT 212 F.



37





No.


1698.


No.


1699.




Interior.


Exterior.


Interior.


Exterior.


Iron carbonate . .


62 002








Iron peroxide . .




fie -JQC






Alumina ..


2 9OO


j jX/i >






Manganese carbonate . . .


CC7




6.128




Manganese oxide












6 880


8 580


8 280




Magnesia .


*2 2A7


i 0^8






Phosphoric acid






686






-3O2


->->(,


IA7








Q 74.6




12 600




22.660


10 480


8 070


14 1 80












Total


Q7 68<5


IOO OOO


O7 7O7


ion AC i














20.072


4.C .776


7? .7CI


A.2. 7QQ




.06=;


. IQ2


2QQ


.l8l


Per centage of sulphur


. 121


. ltd.


O?Q


.080


Per centage of silica


1 6 360


9760


7 4.6O


II 86O













* Carbonate.



Taking for a basis of comparison the relative quantities of
iron in the two portions, which are nearly in the proportions of
one in the interior part to one and a half in the exterior in
No. 1698, and somewhat less in No. 1699 (or as i : 1.27), we
find that in the former there has been a notable increase of
phosphorus, a slight increase of lime, a great diminution in
the proportion of silica, and slight diminutions in the propor-
tions of sulphur, magnesia, and alumina; in specimen 1699,
a decrease in the phosphorus, and an increase in the sulphur,
silica, and alumina. The lime and magnesia are also greatly
diminished. So that there seems to be no regular law in
relation to the changes which occur; which may be effected
by very varying conditions of chemical action and infiltration.

PIG IRONS FROM BOYD COUNTY.

No. 1700 "Pig Iron. Hot-blast. Mill iron, from Bellfonte

Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore"

A fine-grained, dark-grey iron. Yields readily to the file.
Extends quite considerably under the hammer.



VOL. I.-CHEM. 15.



217



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1701 "Hot-blast, Silver-grey Iron, Bellfonte Furnace.

Collected by P. N. Moore"

Coarser grained than the preceding; somewhat harder and
more brittle. Of a light silver-grey color.

COMPOSITION OF THESE PIG IRONS.





No. 1700.


No. 1701.




6.Q2I


6 163










Q2.q62


8q . 002




2. IOO


2.QOO




I . "?IO


.070




2. "\2;


q.082




.220


.280




.<;68


.4.17




. 1 14


. 1 14.




not est.


not est.










QQ . 7QQ


08.761;










-j .4.10


2.Q7O









The principal difference in the composition of these two
samples is in the much larger proportion of silicon and some-
what smaller amount of iron in No. 1701.

BREATH1TT COUNTY.
COALS FROM BREATHITT COUNTY.

No. 1702 "Coal, from Roberts bank, on Troublesome Creek.

Upper seam. The so-called bituminous coal. Collected by P.

N. Moore"

A splint coal, splitting into very thin laminae, with fibrous
coal between, but with no appearance of pyrites. The sam-
ple has a weathered and tarnished appearance, showing ferru-
ginous and earthy stains. Hence, the ash per centage found
is greater than that of the clean coal of the interior of the
bed.

No. 1703 "Coal, from Roberts' bank, Troublesome Creek. Sam-
ple from the lower part of the bed, called cannel coal. Aver-
aged by P. N. Moore.

218



CHEMICAL REPORT. 39

A pure-looking coal, with but little fibrous coal and no ap-
parent pyrites. Sample somewhat mixed in character. Some
pieces of cannel coal ; others splint coal ; others apparently
shaly.

No. 1704 "Coal, from the same bank. Sample from the mid-
dle part of the seam. Called bituminous. Collected by P. N.
Moore.

Rather a dull-looking coal. Apparently pretty pure, having
but little apparent fibrous coal or pyrites between its laminae.
Exterior of some of the lumps covered with ferruginous in-
crustation.

No. 1705 "Cannel Coal. Haddock's bed. North Fork of
Kentucky river, above the mouth of Troublesome Creek. Col-
lected by P. N. Moore."

A very tough coal. Sample somewhat tarnished by weath-
ering, &c., showing ferruginous and clayey incrustation on
parts of the surfaces, which may probably make the ash per
centage found greater than that of the bed. It has but little
fibrous coal, but some evident pyrites.

See volume I, page 354, old series, &c., for other analyses
of this coal.

No. 1706 "Cannel Coal. G. W. Johnsons. Nichol 's Fork
of Frozen Creek. Sample from near the outcrop. Collected by
P. N. Moore r

A dull-black coal, very difficult of fracture. Has some lit-
tle appearance of bright pyrites, and some ferruginous incrus-
tation. No fibrous coal. Some of the seams beautifully
polished.

No. 1707 "Cannel Coal. G. W. Johnsons. Same locality as
" the preceding. From another outcrop. Sample from hand
specimen only."
Similar in appearance to the preceding.

No. 1708 Coal, from Frozen Creek, a quarter of a mile above

Wm. Days. Collected by P. N. Moore."

219



4O CHEMICAL REPORT.

A pure-looking splint coal. Has very little fibrous coal and
some little fine granular pyrites between the laminae; is easily
fractured.

No. 1709 "Cannel Coal. Quicksand Creek. Alfred Little s
drift. Collected by John R. Procter."

Contains some small bright scales of pyrites. Some por-
tions give an imperfect bird-eye fracture ; others show an im-
perfect fibrous structure, somewhat like that of lignite. Coal
generally tough.

No. 1710 "Coal, from Jackson Wells' bank. Near the mouth
of Troublesome Creek. Sample from the outcrop, where the
coal is dirty, and hence will give somewhat more than the aver-
age ash per centage. Collected by P. N. Moore.
A splint coal, with thin partings of fibrous coal containing

fine granular pyrites.

No. 1711 "Cannel Coal, from George s Creek. Collected by P.

N. Moore."

A pure-looking coal. Has some ferruginous stain on the
exterior surfaces, but no apparent pyrites.

No. 1712 "Coal, from Simon Hollands bank. Collected by

P. N. Moore."

A pure-looking, splint coal, with not much fibrous coal be-
tween the laminae, and no apparent pyrites. Easily fractured.

No. 1713 "Coal, from Wolf Creek bank. Collected by J. R.
Procter and P. N. Moore. Sample from coal long weath-
ered"
A pure-looking, soft splint coal, in thin laminae, which have

quite a glossy cross fracture. Very little fibrous coal or fine

granular pyrites between the laminae.

No. 1714 "Coal, from William Spencer s mine. North Fork
of Kentucky river. Collected by P. N. Moore"
A bright, pure-looking coal, showing very little fibrous coal

or granular pyrites.



CHEMICAL REPORT.



D

O






S;


xO *O OO
in moo


8


M ro in


8




x


00


p.


M


A SJ!


8


ro in


8


1,1


)&


H


d












J o.


HH rt




55



















A


&


VOMVO


8


^ o^o
-* in o




o


" >,


1


vo"


Is

d


H


H >O


8




8


M^

a|


|,'|g>

J = bo


00

d


55














>.




w


1


S3x8


8


82>&


8


cj


u 1


S








*S8


8


>n -4-


8


bo

3


bo


^


d












o.


if




j


1


^00 OO


8


?J>S?


8


j


u&


P





'


A"*-


8


if) ro M


8


S


P


H


d












Q


J -i




o


o\


00 N O


8


?, 3TS.


8


u


X


m


J?


to


M ^


8


, jvo


8


g ^


il


M


1










M


l


3_^




j


s


O O O


8


0^5


8





i


if


I-H


.


ro


d


in to M




00


bo


.


d

55













o
a
t


j

J




00




O O


o


O MOO






o


3O


8.


H




o

8


VO M M


8





2


00


d












p-3 a.


n




'-"














Q




o


eg


o o o

M 05 o


8


gAft


8




b3


.


-


M '


M 00 O


8


Q i ui *
vO ro


8


1
o


It




d












a


i


O


t


5


000

VO N <N


8


cSoo 5-


8


3


f

3


1





'


" ?S


8


?R3


8





*


e?


d












3






*












a,


3




n


vo


o o o


8


5- m


8




2


r





'


M ' 5?t?i


8


oo' r^.


8


c
u


'5 ><
S S


*?


d












Q


o bo




2














aa




#


O


o o
C* vo


8


*vo


8


J


i


JO














bo


00










8




g


c






d












o


_rt


N


fe












CO


3




o 1


1


000


8


o o

00 O\ IN


8


<u


^ >.


A


c - .


_J


m ?E


d
o


VO VO vO


8


.2


S?


VO

d


o












*C






is












fi


I







m


O -rvo




*vo O






(




fc

M


5


mvo


8




8


c2

u ^rt


^ .


1
d


d































l*H


K









E
rt




,










S


s 8 '


u




3






53 .


S-C '


o
u




O.




X


'35 .

e 3


^

E.S


V


5


3




J


-Q *


u




rt


o




s

H


O o


^ .

J-s . .


^


1


1




1C

1

o


III 1


1 : 1

0.2 -5 H


1

rt
JB


_o
"o


3
c
u
u




C/5


ffi>


Hfe<!


O


O


a,



221



CHEMICAL REPORT.



These coals are, generally, superior in quality to the aver-
age. Some few of them contain an inordinate proportion of
ash ; but this will not prevent them from being quite valuable
as fuel. The per centage of sulphur in them is generally low.
Some, however, exceed somewhat in this respect, especially
No. 1712, which contains much more than is indicated by its
external appearance, amounting to about three fourths of the
weight of the ash a fact which shows that much of it is in a
free state, or in organic combination in the coal.

The usual relationship of specific gravity to ash per centage
is shown in these coals, as follows :



Number.


Ash per cent-
age.


Specific grav-
ity.


Number.


Ash per cent-
age.


Specific grav-
ity.


1713


4.00


.290


I74t


7.46


.290


1712


4-30


.290


1711*


II .14


.280


1714


4-5


.297


1709*


11.44


398


1707*


4.70


.180


1702


I5-50


405


'70S


6.24


.280


1710


16.76


.398


1708


7.18


.300


1706*


21.40


.360


1705*


7-30


.265









* A cannel coal.



f Partly cannel.



The cannel coals are well known to be less dense than the
splint and bituminous, and hence show a discrepancy in the
comparison instituted. They contain a much larger quantity
of hydrogen also, as exhibited in their large proportion of
volatile combustible matters, as shown in the above table.

CARTER COUNTY.

No. 1715 " BLOCK ORE. Joe Harris . Jordan Branch of Ty-
gerf s Creek. Collected by A. R. Crandall" A cabinet speci-
men.

A kidney of dark-grey, fine granular iron carbonate, in-
vested with concentric layers of limonite ore (hydrated per-
oxide) of various tints, from dark-brown to brownish yellow.
The interior and exterior parts were submitted to analysis
separately, as were Nos. 1698 and 1699 (which see), for the
purpose of studying the causes of the change from carbonate
to limonite.



CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



43





Interior.


Exterior.




3 7. i 80






<;.6i6


42. C4.8


Alumina, and manganese oxide


27. 101;


22 084




12. I 80


5 1 80




i .oas








. IIP




2.060


2.2l8




a trace.


a trace.




4..77C


7.671




14. 380


19.280








Total


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO








Per centage of iron


iq.oe-2


2Q.Qi;'l


Per centage of phosphorus


.8qq


.068




a trace.


a trace.




14. 3OO


19.280









The relative proportion of iron is notably increased in the
limonite ; the water, phosphoric .acid, and silica are also in-
creased ; while the lime, magnesia, and alumina are diminish-
ed : indicating, like the previous analyses above referred to,
no regular order of change.

PIG IRON OF CARTER COUNTY.

No. 1716 " Hot-blast Mill Iron, from Mount Savage Furnace.

Collected by P. N. Moore"

A dark-grey, fine-grained iron. Yields to the file ; extends
considerably under the hammer.

No. 1717 "Hot-blast No. 2 Foundry Iron. Mount Savage

Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."

A moderately fine-grained iron. Yields to the file ; extends
somewhat under the hammer.

No. 1718 "Hot-blast, Silver-grey Iron, from Mount Savage

Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."

Whiter, coarser grained, and more brittle than the preced-
ing.

223



44 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE MOUNT SAVAGE PIG IRONS.





No. 1716.


No. 1717.


No. 1718.


Specific gravity


6.030


7OA2


7A1Z












Q3.268


01 $8d.


89.687




J.QCO


2 6OO


2 7OC




.77o


I O7O


5OO




I .7QQ


3.ot;8


c. eve


Slag .


. 1 60


.620


.660




.680


609


.600




.081


.IC2


.n6










Total ...


100.708


on 60 7


QQ J.67












4. 72O


3 .670


2.80O











A regular diminution in the proportions of iron and carbon
from No. 1716 to 1718, together with a similar increase in the
proportions of silicon, slag, and sulphur, as well as of the spe-
cific gravity, may be noticed in these samples, corresponding
with the quality of the iron. The phosphorus, which is in full
average quantity, seems more constant.

CHRISTIAN COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1719 "Coal /, from Coal ton banks. Sample from the

stockpile. Collected by C. J. Norwood"

A glossy, black splint coal, breaking into thin laminae, with
very little fibrous coal and some little granular pyrites between
them.

No. 1720 "Coal L, from two miles south of Petersburg. Sam-
pled for analysis by C. J. Norwood"

A splint coal, showing fibrous coal and some pyrites. Sam-
ple appears to have been weathered.

No. 1721 "Coal J. At Petersburg Station. St. Louis and
Southeastern Railroad. Miners Cooperation Mine. Aver-
age sample by C. J. Norwood."
A dull-looking splint coal, but glossy on the cross-fracture

of the thin laminae, between which there is some fibrous coal

and granular pyrites.
224



CHEMICAL REPORT. 45

COMPOSITION OF THESE CHRISTIAN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1719.


No. 1720.


No. 1721.




i . 7,07


I .T.T.2


1.308










Hygroscopic moisture


4.60


^. 10


*. 70


Volatile combustible matters


71 .04.


"32. <iO


T.2. S6


Coke ...


6? .46


62 40


6^1 74










Total


IOO.CO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO












16. "?4.


"?7.6o


^6.26




"U.^6


ec .70


SO. 04


Ash


q. 10


6.70


11.70










Total


100 oo


IOO.OO


IOO.OO










Character of the coke


Dense.


Very dense


Light








spongy.


Color of the ash


Light


Light


Greyish-




lilac-grey.


lilac-grey.


brown.




1 .460


I . 277


7.716











MI-NERAL WATER OF CHRISTIAN COUNTY.

No. 1722 "Salt Sulphur Wafer, from a bored well Jive inches in
diameter ; bored one hundred and thirty-four feet deep ; on the
premises of Mr. John B. Trice, Hopkinsville" Bored through
solid rock, except through the first sixteen feet.
The water stands at about one hundred feet higher in the
well than the level of the lowest part of the town.

The sample of the water, although brought to the lab-
oratory in a well-corked stone jug, had lost its free hy-
drosulphuric acid. It smelt slightly sulphurous, and tasted
pleasantly saline. It had a light greenish-yellow tint, in-
dicative, probably, of the presence of a little sulphuretted
sulphide. It exhibited a slightly alkaline reaction with red-
dened litmus.

225



46 CHEMICAL REPORT.



SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 1.005 TO 1.006.

COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS.



Lime carbonate 0.1223

Magnesia carbonate O2 53

Iron and manganese carbonates, with

a trace of alumina .0013

Silica . ... .0112



Held in solution in the water by
carbonic acid.



0.1601 In the sediment formed on boiling.



Sodium chloride 3-3647

Sodium sulphide not estimated.

Soda carbonate .2366

Soda sulphate -5347

Potassium chloride a trace.

Lime sulphate -I'S^

Magnesia sulphate -4329

Magnesium iodide .0018

Lithia and bromine . . . . marked traces.



4.6863 In the boiled water.



Total saline contents 4.8464 In 1000. parts of the water.

The water at the well contains free hydrosulphuric and car-
bonic acids, the proportions of which can only be found by
operation on the freshly drawn water.

The analysis of this water shows it to be quite a good salt
sulphur water, which may be made available in the treatment
of many diseases under proper medical advice.

SOILS OF CHRISTIAN COUNTY.

No. 1723 ''Virgin Soil, from woods adjoining the cultivated
Jield from which the next described soil was taken. Farm of
H. C. Me Cord. Crofton Station. On the flats. Underly-
ing rock sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beckham"
Dried soil of an ashy-grey color. It contains a small quan-
tity of shot iron gravel. The silicious residue, after digestion
in acids, all passed through bolting-cloth, except a few small
angular grains of white and red quartz.

No. 1724 "Surface Soil, from a field fifteen years in cultiva-
tion, adjoining the woodland from which the preceding sample
was taken. {Principal crops cultivated, corn and tobacco?)
Collected by C. IV. Beckham."
Dried soil of a brownish-grey color; much darker colored

than the preceding. Contains a little iron gravel. Silicious

residue contained fewer quartz grains.

226



CHEMICAL REPORT. 47

No. 1725 "Subsoil of the next preceding. Collected by C. W.

Beckham"

Dried soil of a grey-buff color ; contains a little iron gravel.
Silicious residue like next preceding.

No. 1726 " Virgin Soil ; farm of S. W. Williams. St. Louis
and Southeastern Railroad. Petersburg. Forest growth prin-
cipally oaks. Collected by C. W. Beckham."
Dried soil of a light brownish-grey color ; contains very
little iron gravel. Silicious residue passed through bolting-
cloth, except a few fine round grains of clear quartz.

No. 1727 "Surface Soil, from an old field forty -five years in
cultivation in corn and tobacco; on same farm, and about a
quarter of a mile distant. Field about thirty feet above the
flats. Collected by C. W. Beckham."
Dried soil of a grey-buff color; contains no gravel. No

quartz grains in the silicious residue.

No. 1 728 "Subsoil of the next preceding," &c.

Dried soil of a light yellowish-brown color ; contains no
gravel or quartz grains.

No. 1729 "Virgin Soil, from the farm of Mr. Durty, near
Hopkinsville. Forest growth : cedar, white and red oak, black
jack, white walnut, &c. Underlying rock very compact lime-
stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham."

Dried soil of a light-greyish color ; contains no gravel.
The silicious residue passed through bolting-cloth, with the
exception of a few small angular quartz grains.

No. 1730 "Surface Soil, from an old field about fifty years in
cultivation in corn, tobacco, and wheat. From the same farm
as the next preceding. Collected by C. W. Beck ham. 1 '
Dried soil of a light yellowish-grey-brown color. The bolt-
ing-cloth separated but few small angular quartz grains from
the silicious residue.

227



48 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1731 Subsoil of the next preceding, &c.,

Dried soil of a light brick color. Silicious residue contains
a few small angular quartz grains.

No. 1732 "Virgin Soil ; farm of E. F. Kelly. Kelly s Sta-
tion, on the L. & E. E. Railroad, eight miles north of
Hopkinsville. Underlying rock, sandstone. Principal forest
growth : white, black, and post oaks and hickory. Collected
by C. W. Beckhamr
Soil of a dirty-buff color. All passed through the coarse

sieve, except two small ferruginous concretions. The siiicious

residue all passed through bolting-cloth, except a few small

grains of clear quartz and of reddish silicate.

No. 1733 "Surface Soil, from a field fifty years in cultivation;
principal crops tobacco and corn. From the same farm as the
next preceding. Collected by C. W. Beckhamr
Dried soil of a light grey-brown color ; contains no gravel.

Silicious residue contains a few more small quartzose grains

than preceding.

No. 1734 "Subsoil of the next preceding. Collected by C. W.

Beckhamr

Dried soil of a dark grey-buff color ; contains no gravel and



Online LibraryKentucky Geological Survey[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 16 of 34)