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very few fine quartzose grains.

No. 1735 "Virgin Soil, from woods. Farm of Mr. Campbell \
near Hopkinsville. Underlying rock, limestone. Collected by
C. W. Beckhamr

Dried soil of a dirty, dark-grey color; contains no gravel.
The siiicious residue all passed through the bolting-cloth, ex-
cept a few quartzose grains, clear and reddish and blackish,
and a small silicified entrochite.

No. 1736 "Surface Soil, from an adjoining field, about forty
years in cultivation, in corn and tobacco and meadow. Col-
lected by C. W. Beckhamr

228



CHEMICAL REPORT. 49

Dried soil of a light-grey-brown color ; contains no gravel.
The bolting-cloth separated more fine quartzose and entrochi
from the silicious residue than from that of the preceding.

No. 1737 "Subsoil of the next preceding" &c. t &c.

Dried soil of a light brick color; contains no gravel. Sili
cious residue contains about the same proportion of quartzose
grains, &c.. as that of the preceding.



229



CHEMICAL REPORT.





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230



CHEMICAL REPORT. 5 I

Several facts may be noticed, in a comparative view of these
soils; especially that the soils based on limestone are richer in
essential mineral ingredients than those on the sandstone;
that the soil on the very compact limestone is not so rich as
that on the more friable rock ; and that the subsoil, as a gen-
eral rule, containing more alumina and iron oxide, &c., in pro-
portion to the insoluble silicates, is generally richer in potash,
phosphoric acid, and other essential ingredients, than the sur-
face soil. Another fact, very generally to be noticed in the
comparative analyses of soils is, that, except in certain anom-
alous cases, and where a richer subsoil has been mixed with
the surface soil by the processes of culture, the old field soil
generally exhibits, in its analysis, a diminution of the propor-
tions of the essential mineral ingredients, as well as of organic
and volatile matters, and an increase of the proportion of sand
and insoluble silicates.

CLAY COUNTY.
SALT WATER.

No. 1738 "Salt water, from Goose Creek Salt-works, as it is
pzimped from the well. Sent by General T. T. Garrard, of
Manchester'''

The water came in a stone-ware jug, which was stopped
with a corn-cob. It was slightly turbid or opalescent, prob-
ably because of the escape of some of its carbonic acid, and
the consequent precipitation of part of its earthy carbonates,
&c.



COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 1.065.

Lime carbonate 0.0048"!

Magnesia carbonate a trace. I Held in solution by carbonic acid, and

Iron and manganese carbonates .... .0038 f precipitated on boiling the water.
Alumina, phosphoric acid, and silica . . .0140]

Sodium chloride (common salt) 65.0000

'Calcium chloride 18.8960

Magnesium chloride 5.0080

Barium chloride -393

Strontium chloride .0843

Lithium chloride a trace.

Potassium chloride a trace.

Iodine and bromine a trace.

Total saline matters (dried at 212) . . 89.4039 In 1000. parts ol the water.

23 i



52 CHEMICAL REPORT.

A remarkable circumstance is the existence, in this Goose
creek brine, of notable quantities of barium and strontium
chlorides. The former salt is present in quantity equal to
nearly twenty-three grains to the wine gallon of the water,
and the latter in the proportion of nearly five grains. As it
is well known that the soluble salts of barium exert an injuri-
ous influence on the animal economy, it is important that this
should be removed in the manufacture of the salt. It is for-
tunate that this may be very easily and economically done by
the addition of sulphate of soda, Glauber's salt, which, added
in the quantity of about forty-five to fifty grains of this crystal-
line salt to the gallon of the fresh brine, will completely pre-
cipitate all the barium and strontium in the form of insoluble
sulphates, and doubtless also aid in the clarification of the
brine.

The cheap salt, sulphate of alumina, in equivalent quantity,
would produce the same effect, and perhaps aid more com-
pletely in the clarification. Soda ash, carbonate of soda,
would be equally effectual.

Barium and strontium salts are also present in the brine of
the Glenfont Salt-works of Meade county, but in somewhat
smaller proportions. Of course, where these salts are pres-
ent we find no sulphates in the water.

No. 1739 "The Bittern Water, left after graining the salt"
Goose Creek Salt-works.

COMPOSITION IN looo. PARTS.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 1.309.



Calcium chloride

Magnesium chloride

Sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides.

Barium and strontium chlorides

Sodium bromide

Sodium iodide



350-49
92.38

24-53
not est.

5- 2 7
not est.



Various useful applications have been made of the bittern
water of Salt-works ; as in the preparation of bromine and the
manufacture of artificial stone. Doubtless it might also be
232



CHEMICAL REPORT. 53

used (if, like this, it contains much calcium chloride) in set-
ting free the alkalies, contained in the form of insoluble sili-
cates, in some of our marls and clays of the character of the
Leitchfield marls. This may probably be done by mixing the
marl with a considerable quantity of lime or powdered lime-
stone, making the mixture up into a plastic mass, with the
bittern water sufficiently concentrated by evaporation, and
then calcining, at a low red heat, the properly prepared lumps
or bricks of the mixed materials. These lumps or bricks, if
properly calcined, will slack into a crumbling mass when ex-
posed to moisture, in which the alkaline ingredients will be in
a soluble condition, available for plant nourishment.

No. 1740 "-The deep-brownish or Spanish-brown colored deposit
adhering to the interior of the wooden tube (or "g'um"^) which
conducts the brine from the well to the pans. Goose Creek Salt-
works."

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.





74 . 7O4.




7016


Lime carbonate


.280


Magnesia carbonate , . . .


680


Silicious residue


6 890




10.8 ;o






Total


IOO.OOO







CLINTON COUNTY.

No. 1741 "MARLY CLAY. Cumberland City mines. Chester
Group. (Leitchfield marls.} Collected by N. S. Shaler. "
A dull olive-grey, indurated marly clay.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Silica ....




70 800


Alumina, with a little iron and


manganese oxides and phosphoric acid . . .


18.840

* ^Q4.






a. T;8














Potash


















Total




00.626









* Equal to 1.060 per cent, of lime carbonate.

VOL. I.-CHEM. l6. 2 33



54



CHEMICAL REPORT.



(See Grayson county in this and the preceding Chemical
Report for similar marls.)

No. 1742 " COAL, from the Cumberland mines. Conglomerate

main coal. Collected by N. S. Skaler."

A pure-looking, pitch-black coal, with very little fibrous coal
or pyrites.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY = 1.329.

COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.



Hygroscopic moisture 1.56

Volatile combustible matters 37-74

Coke 60.70

Total loo.co

Total volatile matters 39-3Q

Carbon in the coke ". 50.20

Ash 10.50

Total 100. oo

Character of the coke

spongy.

Color of the ash . . .

Per centage of sulphur 2.911



DAVIESS COUNTY.
MINERAL WATERS OF DAVIESS COUNTY.

No. 1743 " CJialybeate Water, from Murray s Spring, near
Lewis. (E., O. & N. R. R.) Collected by Capt. R. S.
Trip let tr

It came to hand in a stone-ware jug, stopped with a corn-
cob, which may have somewhat altered the character of the
water. The reaction of the water is neutral. No effort was
made to estimate its gases.
234



CHEMICAL REPORT. 55



COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS OF THE WATER.



Lime carbonate 0.1155

Magnesia carbonate 0046

Iron carbonate .02:9

Alumina 0027

Phosphoric acid 0004

Silica 0107

Lime sulphate .0204

Magnesia sulphate .0768

Potash sulphate -0403

Soda sulphate 0476

Sodium chloride .0146

Lithium chloride 0013

Silica, c 0142



Held in solution in the water by car-
bonic acid, and precipitated on boil-
ing.



Total saline matters 0.3720 Dried at 212 F.

It is doubtless a valuable saline chalybeate water.

MINERAL WATERS from Dr. Hickmaii s Springs. Crow s Sta-
tion (., O. & N. R. jR.). Coal measures. Daviess county.
Collected by C. J. Norwood, as follows :

No. 1744 "Alum Spring" (labeled No. i).

This water has a brownish color and a strong acid reaction.

The cork of the jug was blackened by the presence of iron

salt.

No. 1745 "Alum Spring" (labeled No. 2).

This water resembles the preceding, but is of a lighter
color.

No. 1746 "Alum Spring" (labeled No. 6). "Sweet Spring."
Resembles No. 2 in the appearance of the water.

No. 1747 "Sulphur Spring" (labeled No. 3).

Reaction neutral. Has no peculiar taste or smell, having
lost all its sulphuretted hydrogen gas.

No. 1748 "Brick Spring" (labeled No. 4).
Resembles the next preceding.

No. 1749 "Yellow Spring" (labeled No. 5).

The water has a slightly astringent taste ; no color. In
reaction is neutral.

235



CHEMICAL REPORT.



All the alum waters deposited a brownish ochreous sedi-
ment on standing, which is mainly basic persulphate of iron,
as shown by the following analysis (made by my son, Alfred
Meredith Peter, who also made the analyses of the several
waters, under my general supervision), as follows :

One thousand parts of the water. No. i (i. e., No. 1744)
gave on boiling 0.1938 part of brownish precipitate, dried at
212, which became bright red on ignition, and had the fol-
lowing described

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Iron peroxide . . . .


78.64




14.74




^.24.


Silica


.64




.74






Total


IOO.OO







COMPOSITION OF THE ALUM WATERS IN 1000. PARTS.





No. 1744(0


No. i74S( 2 )


No. 1746(6)


Basic iron persulphate (Fe2O3, 2803)


o 87 <;6


o 0484


o 1460


Alumina sulphate . ........


i 2468


. 17O7


1 COO




OOT, 2


.OIO2


.0721




. ^QQ.6


. "5Q47


. T.27I




. 277O


. ^1 ^


. 2t;i 7




.OOO5


.0068


.OO7<1




.O724


. 2QsQ




Copper sulphate


.OOO9






Sodium chloride . . .... . .


.0031


OI27


065 I




a trace.


a trace.


a trace .




.001 3


.0014


.0022






.0270


.1878










Total saline matters, dried at 212 F


7 . 1364.


I .4sQ8


I . 4OQO












I. 00304


i .00164


I .OOl62











236



CHEMICAL REPORT.



57



COMPOSITION OF THE "SULPHUR," "BRICK," AND "YELLOW" SPRING
WATERS IN 1000. PARTS.





No. 1747(3)


No. 1748(4)


No. 1749(5)




traces.


0.0004


0.0018


Lime carbonate ...


O. I 1 06


. 1 196


.021:6


Magnesia carbonate .


.0106


.O7TI


.021 1


Lime sulphate .


.no6


.0838


. I i7Q


Magnesia sulphate . . .


. J CQA


. IOS7


.061; I


Potash sulphate


.OO3C


.0129


.OIO"J




.4^67


SOIQ


.2082


Sodium chloride .


.0809


.O2I"?


.OI27


Lithia .. .... .


traces.


traces.


traces.


Copper . . .. .. .....






a trace.




.0174


.021:4


.0208


Organic matters and loss ....


.077^




.o^t;?












i .0160


0.004.1


o. ^482










Specific gravity of the water


I .00115


I .00120


I .OOO86











These alum waters, doubtless of analogous composition with
others of the name in Virginia and elsewhere, are highly as-
tringent, and are doubtless too strong for internal use without
dilution, in most cases. They will find their remedial applica-
tions, however, under the advice of the educated physician.
The saline and sulphur waters would prove alterative, slightly
aperient, diuretic, or sudorific and hence depurative, accord
ing to the manner of their administration, under medical ad-
vice. The small amount of copper in the alum waters will
not materially affect their influence.

SOILS OF DAVIESS COUNTY.

No. 1750 " Virgin Soil, from the farm of H. Riley, on the E.>
O. & N. R. R., fifteen miles from Owensboro. On a hill-top.
Collected by C. W. Beckham."

Soil of a light grey-brown color; contains no gravel. The
bolting-cloth sieve separated from its silicious residue a con-
siderable quantity of fine, rounded quartz grains, both hyaline
and opaque.

No. 1751 "Surface soil, from an old field sixty-five years in
cultivation, in corn and tobacco principally ; noiv overgrown
with sassafras. Same locality as the preceding. Collected by
C. W. Beckham."



237



CHEMICAL REPORT.



Soil of a lighter and more yellowish light-grey-brown color;
has no gravel. Silicious residue contained very few small
quartz grains.

No. 1752 "'Subsoil to the next preceding," &c., &c.

Soil of a brownish-yellow ochre color; contains no gravel.
Very few fine quartz grains.

No. 1753 " Virgin Soil. Upland. From the farm of the Rev.
A. Hopkins. Crow s Station, E., O. & N. R. R., nine miles
from Owensboro. Collected by C. W. Beckham" Coal meas-
ures.
Soil of a brownish umber-grey color ; contains no gravel nor

fine quartz grains.

No. 1754 "Surface Soil, from an old field about forty years in
cultivation. Same locality as preceding* Substratum; sand-
stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham"
Soil of a dirty buff color; contains no gravel or fine sili-

cious sand.

No. 1755 ''Subsoil of the next preceding," &c. &c.

Soil of a brownish-orange-buff color ; contains no gravel or

fine quartzose sand.

COMPOSITION OF THESE DAVIESS COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1750


No. 1751


No. 1752


No. 1753


No. 1754


No. 1755


Organic and volatile matters. . .
Alumi'a and iron and mang. oxides


5-475
6.174

. 120
.Ol6
.141

not est.

-134
.301


3.I5
7.065

245
034
.125
not est.
053


2.715
10.654

095
.021
.061
not est.
.244


5.875
5-349
.220
.041
.086
not est.
407


2-550
5-502
.085

133

.083
not est.
.265


3-175
12.958

075

.080

. IO2

not est.
474
.075
81.300

i-i75








Potash


Soda .


Sand and insoluble silicates . . .
Water expelled at 380 F

Total


86.605
975


88.390
925


85-415
.910


86.590
1.450


90 . 890
.600


99.941


99.987


100. 115


1OO.O2I


loo. 108


99.414




Hygroscopic moisture


1-775
.887

.581


I-5I5

I . 122

.709


1.565
1.386
.680


I.7OO
975

403


0.875
1.396
729


3-5oo
*-457
639


Potash in the insoluble silicates .
Soda in the insoluble silicates . .


Character of the soil


Virgin
soil.


Old field
soil.


Subsoil.


Virgin
soil.


Old field
soil.


Subsoil.





238



CHEMICAL REPORT. 59

The comparative analyses of these soils show the usual in-
fluence of continued exhaustive culture in the diminution of
some of their essential mineral ingredients. The soils are
of full average natural fertility; the subsoils would doubtless
benefit the surface, if gradually brought up in the cultivation,
and organic matters supplied by the ameliorating influence of
clover and other green crops wholly or partly plowed in. A
considerable reserve of the alkalies is seen to be present in
the insoluble silicates, which will add greatly to the durability
of the soil ; but, doubtless, the application of available phos-
phates, and the use of wood ashes, would be beneficial in
increasing the productiveness of the old field soils.

No. 1756 "CLAV,from. the same locality; twenty feet from the
railroad and ten feet below the surface of soil No. 1754. Below
the coal at Dr. Hickman s Springs. The layer is about thir-
teen inches thick."

A sandy clay ; generally of a light-grey color, with ferrugi-
nous infiltrations in the fissures, and some old obscure vegeta-
ble impressions. It contains about fifty per cent, of fine clear
sand. It burns quite hard, and of a handsome light-salmon
color, and hence may be quite valuable for terra cotta work or
bricks or tiles.

The air-dried clay lost 1.500 per cent, of moisture at 212
F. ; .005 per cent, of moisture at 380, and 1.500 per cent, of
combined water at the red heat. It would probably shrink
less in the fire than most clays, but would not answer for a
fire-clay.

COALS OF DAVIESS COUNTY.

No. 1757 "Coal No. D? Montgomery's coal mine, about one
and a half miles above Owensboro. Collected by C. J. Nor-
wood.
A pure pitch-black coal. Has but little fibrous coal. Some

thin scales of pyrites in the seams.

No. 1758 "Coal D. Dutch mine, about one and a half miles
above Owensboro. Average thickness about three feet. Aver-
age sample by C. J. Norwood."

239



6o



CHEMICAL REPORT.



A splint coal ; some reedy fibrous coal between the laminae,
and much show of bright pyritous scales in the seams.

No. 1759 "Coal D. Bon Harbor mines. Barrett 's new bank.
Average thickness four feet and a half. Sample by C. J. Nor-
wood."
A splint coal, with much fibrous coal between the laminae,

and granular and bright lamellar pyrites. Iridescent on some

of the seam faces.

No. 1760 "Coal D. Deans mine, about one and a half miles
above Owensboro. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
Resembles the preceding.

No. 1761 " Coal, from Duncan 's bank. Richardson s property.

Friendly Grove, near Knottsville. Collected by P. N. Moore.

Mostly splitting easily into thin laminae, with considerable
fibrous coal and some granular pyrites between. Some bright
scales of pyrites in the seams.

COMPOSITION OF THESE DAVIESS COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1757.


No. 1758.


No. 1759.


No. 1760.


No. 1761.




1-323


1.340


1.318


1-337


1.285




Hygroscopic moisture
Volatile combustible matters. .


6. 20
36.20
57.60


4. 10
38.50
57-40


5.80

35 - 6
59-14


5.12
34-72
60. 1 6


6.20

41.90
51.90


Total . . ......


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Total volatile matters ....
Carbon in the coke


42.40
50.90

6.70


42.60
51 .00
6.40


40.86

50.40

8.74


39-84
5!-44
8.72


48. 10

47.40

4-5


Ash


Total


IOO.OO


I OO . OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Character of the coke


Light
spongy.


Spongy.


Light
spongy.


Light
spongy.


Light
spongy.




Color of the ash


Lilac-grey.


Lilac-grey.


Light
lilac-grey.


Light
lilac-grey.


Grey-lilac.


Per centage of sulphur ....


I-5I9


1.538


3-985


3-5 T 3


3-743



240



CHEMICAL REPORT. 6 1

EDMONSON COUNTY.
LIMONITE IRON ORES.

No. 1762 "Ore, from Still-house Branch of Bear Creek. Av-
erage sample by P. N. Moore."

In irregular curved laminae, of a deep brown color; fre-
quently inclosing nuclei of softer yellowish and reddish ochre-
ous ore.

No. 1763 "Ore, from the south side of Dismal Creek, near
Thomas Meredith 's. Average sample by P. N. Moore"
Mostly in dense dark brown irregular curved laminae, with

some softer and lighter colored ore.

No. 1764 "Ore, from the head of Sycamore Branch of Bear
Creek. Average sample by P. N . Moore."
Much like the preceding.

No. 1765 "Ore above the coal. Mill Branch of Bear Creek.

Average sample by P. N. Moore."

In thin irregular laminae, cellular in parts, of a brown color;
mixed with yellowish-brown ochreous ore.

No. 1766 "Limestone Ore. Jacob Snider s. Cane Branch of
Gulf Creek. In the Chester Group. Cabinet specimen. Col-
lected by P. N. Moore."
Mostly dense dark-colored ore, in carved laminae or cellular

masses, with some little brownish-ochreous softer ore.

241



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED

AT 212 F.





No. 1762.


No. 1763.


No. 1764.


No. 1765.


No. 1766.




40.708


47 . 724


4Q . Qo6


32.820


77 871
















I . 2Q}


2 5OI


7.-J7Q


2 3C6




Lime carbonate


a trace.


a trace


a trace.


a trace.






a trace.


a trace


a trace.


a trace.




Phosphoric acid


1 .010


607


.604


084


cnc




. ^60


3 \


. 1Q<\


28?




Combined water .......
Silica and insoluble silicates . .
Moisture and loss


7.250
50.030


8.250
41.145


9.320
36.780


8-330

55- l8


1 1 . 050

8.660
400














Total .


100 750


I OO 6"?2


100.42?




I OO OOO














Per centage of iron


28. C.CQ


3 } . AO7


74.407


22 Q7J.


C.4. CJO


Per centage of phosphorus . .
Per centage of sulphur ....
Per centage of silica


445
.207
46.760


304
.125

JQ. c6o


33
.158
1 ? . 460


43
.114

4.8 . 060


.221

a trace.
8.660















With the exception of No. 1766, which is quite good and
rich, these are rather poor, highly silicious ores, with a full
amount of phosphorus, which might be profitably used with
richer aluminous ores.

EDMONSON COUNTY CLAYS.

No. 1767 "SihcioHS Clay, from Sowder s farm, near Green
river. Chester Group. Bed four to six feet thick. Collected
by John R. Procter."

In irregular lumps ; friable ; of an olive and brownish-grey
color. Powder light grey.

No. 1768 "Clay, from Sowder s farm, on Caney Branch, one
mile from Green river. Bed seven to eight feet thick; in lay-
ers of various colors. Collected by John R. Procter."
(a) The upper or light-dove-colored layer.
(6) The second, light grey, nearly white layer.
(c] The third, grey layer.

(d} The lowest layer. Olive-grey, mottled with yellowish-
grey.
242



CHEMICAL REPORT. 63

COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY CLAYS, DRIED AT

212 F.





No. 1767.


No. 1768 .


No. 1768,*.


No. 1768 c.


No. 1768^.


Silica . .


80. i 60


77.660


74 . 460


71 . ;6o


67.560


Alum'a and iron and mang. ox's
Lime carbcrate. . .


II .600
760


16.800
480


20.440
.640


22.860
.680


22.540
.980


Magnesia . . . . . .


.560


not est.


not est.


not est.


.671


Phosphoric acid


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


.025


Potash


? Sc4


1 .002


not est.


not est.


2.470


Soda


C87


.484


not est.


not est.


.058


Water and undetermined . . .


2.483


4-340


4.460


4.900


5.696


Total


IOO.OOO


100. 766


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO















While these clays would not prove very refractory in the
fire, they may be made very useful for common pottery ware.

ESTILL COUNTY.

No. 1769 CLAY IRON-STONE. "Carbonate ore, from Tubb's
bank, near Estill Furnace. Has been weathered two years.
Collected by P. N. Moore."
A granular carbonate ore, of various tints of grey, with

more or less of limonite. In some parts somewhat oolitic.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Iron carbonate 76-49M = 39i758 per cen t. of iron.

Iron peroxide 4.049;

Alumina 2.014

Manganese carbonate not est.

Lime carbonate 5-4 00

Magnesia carbonate S I 4

Phosphoric acid .409 = o. 178 phosphorus.

Sulphuric acid .267 = . 107 sulphur.

Silicious residue 9-33 Containing 7.660 silica.

Undetermined and loss 1.526



Quite a good ore of its kind.

ESTILL COUNTY LIMONITE ORES.

"No. 1770 "Ore, from Luster drift. Thacker Ridge. Rail-
road ivest of Fitchburg. Sample has been exposed to the
weather for some time. Collected by P. N. Moore."
In irregular, dense, dark-colored, curved laminae, with some

soft ochreous ore between.

243



6 4



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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