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No. 1771 "Limestone Ore. Logan Ridge. EstilL Furnace.
Has been weathered two years. Collected by P. N. Moore. ' '
Resembles the preceding. Ochreous matter brownish.

No. 1772 "-Ore, from Tubb 1 s bank. Estill Furnace. Has been
weathered two years. Collected by P. A 7 ". Moore. ' '
Resembles the preceding.

No. 1773 "Ore, from Horse-ridge banks. Cottage Furnace.
In sub- carboniferous limestone. Average sample from a pile
of ore weathered more than a year. Collected by P. N. Moore."
Mostly in dense, dark-colored laminae, irregularly curved or

forming a cellular structure, with some whitish and light-brown

softer material.

COMPOSITION OF THESE ESTILL COUNTY LIMONITES, DRIED AT

212 F.





No. 1770.


No. 1771.


No. 1772.


No. 1773.


Iron peroxide ........


74. 127


6s. S"?S


7C. cq8


6c. CQI


Alumina


-J . C42


2.708


I .Q7I


c .762




not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.




.-2QO


.4.CO


. S4O


traces.




.4.61


I .07 ?


.2<;S


.248


Phosphoric acid


.601


. S^?7


.601


AA.1




not est.


not est.


not est.


traces.


Combined water


ii .270


9.800


1 1 .7^0


1 1 OOO


Silica and silicates ....


Q ^80


20.480


8.QIO


16.230


Moisture and loss . ... ....


.020




. "?Q2


722












Total


IOO.OOO


100.67"?


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO












Iron per centage .


Si.SSq


At .874


52 Ql8


4.C .014.


Phosphorus per centage .... ....


.262


.2^4


.262


. IQS


Sulphur per centage


not est.


not est.


not est.


traces.


Silica per centage


7.860


18.260


7 . 260


14.1 60













PIG IRONS OF ESTILL COUNTY.

No. 1774 "No. 3 Cold-blast Charcoal Pig Iron. Red River
Furnace. Fitchburg. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A moderately fine-grained, somewhat dark-colored iron.

Yields to the file and extends a little under the hammer.
244



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1775 "No. 5 Cold-blast CJiarcoal Pig Iron. Red River

Furnace, &c. Collected by P. N. Moore."

A silvery-white iron. Hard, brittle; but the small fragments
extend a little under the hammer.

No. 1776 "Car-wheel Iron. No. I Cold-blast Charcoal Iron.

Red River Iron Works, at Fitchburg. From G. S. Moore

& Co., of Louisville"

A moderately coarse-grained, dark-grey iron. Yields with
difficulty to the file ; extends somewhat under the hammer.

No. 1777 "Car-wheel Iron. No. i Cold-blast Charcoal Iron.

Estill Furnace. From G. S. Moore & Co."

Resembles the preceding, but is somewhat coarser-grained,
with some spots of finer-grained in the centre of the pig.

COMPOSITION OF THESE ESTILL FURNACE IRONS.





No. 1774.


No. 1775.


No. 1776.


No. 1777.




0^.728


0^.06^


Q.4. 174


Q2. 1:82




7. C2O


2.OOO


2 . -340


3 COO




.780


2. c^O


I . I IO


I 2OO




.380


.l8l


not est


not est




i .202


.^6?


.447


.960


Slap- .


.160


.T2O


. "?6o


. 760


Aluminum


.264




not est.


not est


Phosphorus


.200


.^8


4O2






.080


. I O4


182


066










888












Total


100.613


100.4.6?


100 015


IOO OOO














4. "?OO


4. ?sO




47OO














7.168


not est.


7 .226


7 272













The high character of these pig metals for producing tough
malleable iron is well established.

FAYETTE COUNTY.

No. 1778 "PnospHATic LIMESTONE. Forming a thin layer in
the Loiver Sihirian (Blue) limestone (Cincinnati Group?}.
McMeekin s quarry. Newtown Turnpike, about three miles
north of Lexington. Said by the quarryman to be sometimes
as much as a foot in thickness. Collected by R. Peter."

245



66 CHEMICAL REPORT.

A somewhat friable rock of a bluish-grey color ; brown-
ish-grey on the weathered surfaces. Containing many mi-
croscopic marine univalve shells. Adheres strongly to the
tongue.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Phosphoric acid, lime, magnesia, alumina, iron oxide


8^.270




not est.


Carbonate of lime


Q 1 8O


Carbonate of magnesia ..


. ^71


Silica and insoluble silicates


4. 780


Alkalies, organic matters, &c., not estimated .


JQQ






Total


IOO.OOC







The phosphates in this limestone were found to contain as
much as 31.815 per cent, of the weight of the rock of phos-
phoric acid, equal to 69.452 per cent, of tribasic phosphate of
lime !

This remarkable rock, on a pile thrown out for turnpiking
purposes, attracted the attention of the writer, while riding
along the road. Although it has been long known that the
friable layers of our " Blue limestone" are quite rich in phos-
phates, a fact which the writer brought to the attention of the
agricultural public as early as April, 1849, in the Albany Cul-
tivator, of New York, yet no one up to this time, as far as is
known to him, has found any so rich in them as this.

The subject is worthy of further investigation, especially in
view of the agricultural and commercial value of the phos-
phates for use as fertilizers. As is well known, the abundant
phosphates of the rock substratum is one of the main causes
of the great and durable fertility of our "blue grass soil,"
so-called, as well as of the superior development of the ani-
mals reared and nourished on its products.

SOILS OF FAYETTE COUNTY.

No. 1779 " Virgin Soil, taken from one half inch to six inches
below the surface. From woodland pasture, which has been
grazed for about seventy years. On elevated ground, near the
remains of the old earth-works of tJie mound-builders. {De-
scribed in Collins 1 History of Kentucky and elsewhere as on

246



CHEMICAL REPORT. 67

the farm of CoL Meridith, ^vho was the earliest proprietor of
the farm.} On the farm of R. Peter. Same as described in
No. 27 in volume I, old series, Kentucky Geological Reports.
On the Lower Silurian formation. Collected by B. D. Peter."
A rich grey-brown loam, containing a little fine-grained shot
iron ore, and some small silicious particles. The bolting-
cloth separated from the insoluble silicates, left after digestion
of the soil in acids, a small portion of small roundish-whitish
grains of partly decomposed silicates, but no pure quartz
grains.

No. 1780 "Subsoil of the preceding, taken from six to fourteen

inches below the surface."

Soil rather more reddish than the surface soil. Contains,
like that, a few small grains of shot iron ore and silicious par-
ticles. The bolting-cloth separated a rather larger quantity
of small rounded grains of undecomp'osed silicates ; some
appearing as casts of minute globular shells.

No. 1781 ^Virgin Soil. Open pasture. J. H. Talbutf s farm
(" The Meadows "), late Warjields ; half a mile northeast of
Lexington. From the top of a hill to the east of the house,
heavily set with blue grass. Sample taken to the depth of six-
teen inches. Primitive growth : black walnut, black, blue, and
white ash, elm, hickories, oaks, sugar-tree, &c. Has been
long cleared. Lower Silurian formation. Sample collected
by John H. Talbutt."
Dried soil of an umber color; contains no gravel, but some

little shot iron ore, &c.

No. 1 782 "Subsoil of the next preceding ; taken to the depth of
three feet from the surface" &c., &c.

No. 1783 " Underlying clay of the same ; taken at the depth of
three feet beloiv the surface. Contains shot iron ore, manga-
nese oxide" &c.
Dried subsoil of a dirty light-brown color. The silicious

residue contained a few small quartzose grains.



68 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE FAYETTE COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1779.


No. 1780.


No. 1781.


No. 1782.


No. 1783.


Organic and volatile matters . .
Alum'a and iron and mang. ox's
Lime carbonate


4.676
9-57
.2^0


3-oSS

* i -445
. 220


7.800

I2..'6
I . I4.C


4.410
14.427
. CAC


4.400
19.921
. I ^O


Magnesia


. 140


. 140


. ^04


. ^40


. ^76


Phosphoric acid


.444


. 14O


. "564


.itf


.^64


Sulphuric acid .


not est.


not est.


not est


not est.


not est.


Potash


.287


. "?4"?


.Tif


.402


.7CC




not est.


. 192


084


301




Sand and insoluble silicates . .
Water, expelled at 380 F. . . .


82.860
1.824.


83 . 260
1-234
. 541


76.690
1 .300


77.440

.925

.8<;2


72.540
1 .200
. ^14














Total


100.031


IOO.OOO


IOO.7o8


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO














Hygroscopic moisture
Potash in the insoluble silicates.
Soda in the insoluble silicates .


2. 165
1.274
.211


1.965
1.314

.583


2-975
.718
.200


3-135

.910

.212


3-525
.644

.167


Character of the soil . .


Woodland


Subsoil.


Virgin soil.


Subsoil.


Under clay.




pasture.











*Containing: of alumina, 6.093; iron peroxide, 4.330; and manganese oxide/ .020 per cent.

The analyses demonstrate the richness of these soils, more
especially of Nos. .1781 '2 '3, which is shown in the small rel-
ative quantity of silicious residue, and the comparatively large
proportions of phosphoric acid and potash, &c. Although they
may not have been submitted to the plow, they yet cannot be
considered virgin soils, having been for a long time grazed,
and been thus altered in composition. The "Meadows" has
been mostly cultivated as a stock farm, mainly for the raising
of fine race-horses and improved cattle ; and there is reason
to believe, from the large proportion of potash in the soluble
form in this pasture land, that it was improved rather than
deteriorated by the feeding of the stock upon it: the loss
by grazing being more than compensated by the additional
food supplied to the animals, in winter as well as other times.

FLOYD COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1784 "Coal. Snipes bank. Branch of Abbotfs Creek.
Average sample from the outcrop. About two feet shown.

Collected by A. R. Crandall."
248



CHEMICAL REPORT.



6 9



A pretty pure splint coal. Some fibrous coal and fine gran-
ular pyrites between the laminae, and some external ferrugi-
nous stain.

No. 1785 "'Coal, from Harris bank, on Muddy Creek, one
mile from Prestonsburg. Forty-four inches thick. Average
sample by A. R. Crandall."

A bright, pitch-black coal, with some bright pyritous scales,
and but little fibrous coal. A somewhat hard coal.

No. 1786 "Coal. J as. H. Hatcher s bank. Mouth of Abbott 's
Creek. Bed forty -two to forty-six inches thick. Average sam-
ple by A. R. CrandalL"

A bright-looking, somewhat firm coal, with very little fibrous
coal or pyrites.

COMPOSITION OF THESE FLOYD COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1784.


No. 1785.


No. 1786.




I 289


I 27/1


T inf












-3 2O


2 CO


2 CO


Volatile combustible matters


78 80


40 80


?8 c6


Coke


c.8.oo


C.6 7O


C8 QA.










Total


100 oo


IOO OO


IOO OO












4.2 OO


4.1 3O


41 06




CC O4.


c.6 7o


C ^ A-A.


Ash .


2 96


1 2A


c en










Total


IOO.OO


IOO OO


IOO OO










Character of the coke


Light




Light




spongy.




spongy.




Light


Light


Light




chocolate.


brownish.


lilac-grey.




1.289


1.89 c.


I. QIC,











These are all remarkably pure and good coals. Their small
ash per centage corresponds nearly with their low specific



VOL. I.-CHEM. 17.



249



7<D CHEMICAL REPORT.

gravity. Their proportion of sulphur is also moderate. Their
large yield of volatile combustible matters, and their spongy
coke, may make them profitably available for use in the gas-
works. Doubtless they will be found very good for the smelt-
ing and manufacture of iron.

GRAYSON COUNTY.
COAL.

No. 1787 " Coat ', from the Soutii or Allen bank, near the Falls
of Rough Creek. Two feet thick. Collected by P. N. Moore.
A pure-looking coal, breaking easily, with a shining pitch-
like appearance, and an irregular, so-called, bird's-eye frac-
ture. Has very little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites,
except some fine granular.

COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.
Specific gravity I -343

Hygroscopic moisture. 6 ' 5 I Total volatile matters . . 36.54

Volatile combustible matters 30.04!

, .. , x , , ("Carbon in the coke 55-54

Coke (quite dense) 6 3 . 4 6J LigM lilac . grey ash ;JJ

IOO.OO IOO.OO

Per centage of sulphur .... 1.972

FERRUGINOUS AND MARLY CLAYS OF GRAYSON COUNTY.

No. 1788 " Ferriiginous Clay. Nodular. Below the upper
limestone. Hat Branch of Bear Creek. Three and a half
to four feet thick."
Of a handsome chocolate-brown color. Not adhering much

to the tongue. Powder of a handsome grey-chocolate color.

No. 1789 "Nodular Ferruginous Clay. Canolaway Creek.''
Resembles the preceding.

No. 1790 "Marly Shale, found below the limestone. Hat
Branch of Bear Creek. Four feet thick. Collected by John
R. Procter."
. Breaking easily when dry. Of a greyish-olive-green color,

with some parts brownish. Not adhering much to the tongue.

Powder of a handsome greenish-grey color.

250



CHEMICAL REPOKT.



No. 1791 "Marly Shale. Hay craft 's Lick. Similar to pre-
ceding."

Of a dark olive-grey color when dry.

No. 1792 "Red Marly Shale, same locality, &c., mixed with
the preceding in the sample"
Of a chocolate brown color.

No. 1793 "Brown Marly Clay. Cedar Knob Lick."

Of a dark reddish-brown or chocolate color when dry.
Conglomeratic, with fragment of material similar to No. 1792.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GRAYSON COUNTY FERRUGINOUS AND
MARLY CLAYS AND SHALES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1788.


No. 1789.


No. 1790


No. 1791


No. 1792


No. 1793


Alumina .... . "1


I4-45 1
i . 160

I-7I5
i .089
4.240
.948

74-36o
7.000


^12.2821

,7.588}
i . 380
1.643
see b.

5-49
i .c6o
^68.380
8.250


26.221

9.160
6.629
1.089
4.944
i. 06 1
44.760
6.136


27.811

.880
.824
. 109
5-554
-657
59.920

4-245


25-758
1.580
4-437

. IO2
S-MS

347
58 . 960

3-671


23.071

1.180

497
.089

4-093
43&
60 . 760
9.872


Iron and manganese oxides /
Lime carbonate
Magnesia


Phosphoric acid ....


Potash " Total, obtained by fusion :
Soda J includes insoluble silicates.
Silica and insoluble silicates .
Water expelled at red heat, &c.

Total


(7104.963


a 105. 632


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO





(a) The apparent excess is due to the alkalies in the insoluble silicates, which are estimated also in the total
a'kalies given above.

(6) Including phosphoric acid and manganese oxide, not separately estimated.

<c> Iron peroxide.

(d) Containing of silica : 51.020; of alumina, iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric acid, 14.330.

These ferruginous and marly shales and clays, when of a
good color, may be termed mineral paints, and be very profit-
ably used in that way; but, in consequence of their large
proportions of alkalies, especially of potash, as well as of
phosphoric acid, they promise to be quite valuable, applied
as top dressing, for renewing old worn-out tobacco soil. As
they are found in enormous quantities over a very great ex-
tent of country, the best method of making them profitably
available is matter of great interest.

Chemical analyses show that, while a portion of their alka-
line constituents is soluble in acids, the larger part of them is
locked up in the insoluble silicates. Spread upon the soil,

251



72 CHEMICAL REPORT.

therefore, without admixture or preparation, their ameliorat-
ing influence would probably result more from their large
proportion of the elements of clay, giving the soil more con-
sistence, and increasing its power of absorbing atmospheric
agencies, &c., than from the alkalies or phosphoric acid, &c.,
they contain. In short, the application of these marls to the
surface might be like the plowing up of a subsoil, rich in the
mineral elements of plant food, but poor in the organic com-
pounds which help to bring them into a soluble and available
state.

Exposed to the atmospheric agencies, however, the insolu-
ble silicates undergo a gradual, slow decomposition, and their
valuable ingredients are thus set free for the use of plants.
The decomposing remains of vegetables accelerate this pro-
cess, and hence the great propriety of using these marls to-
gether with stable manure or other organic fertilizers, or of
employing a clover or other green crop, plowed in, as a means
of disintegrating the silicates. Doubtless poor exhausted
land, which had been top-dressed with the marl, and then
sowed in clover, which, after the growth of one or two sea-
sons, was plowed in, would be found to be greatly improved
in fertility. A similar result, in some degree, might possi-
bly be obtained, in a single season, by the use of buckwheat,
plowed in at maturity.

A quicker mode of setting free the alkalies, &c., of these
marls, would necessarily be more expensive. The process
used in the chemical analysis, viz : that of heating, to a mod-
erate red heat, the mixture of the finely-ground marl with a
large proportion of pulverized carbonate of lime, and about
an equal proportion of sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride), is
quite effectual in separating all the alkalies of the insoluble
silicates. But it is somewhat expensive on a large scale. In
this process the mutual reaction of the carbonate of lime and
sal ammoniac produces carbonate of ammonia, which evapo-
rates and is lost, and calcium chloride, which, together with
the excess of carbonate of lime present (calcined in the pro-
cess partly into caustic lime), cause the decomposition of the
252



CHEMICAL REPORT. 73

silicates, and set free the alkalies. Calcium chloride and car-
bonate of lime, then, are the essential decomposing agents in
this process ; and as calcium chloride is present in the bittern
water' of all salt-works, and frequently thrown away as a waste
product in other manufactories, or may be cheaply made by
the application of hydrochloric acid to limestone, this process
would be much more economical than that of the use of the
ammonia salt. Under the head of Clay county, in the present
volume, are some remarks on the proposition to use the bit-
tern water of salt-works for this purpose an application of
this waste product, which is yet more promising, from the fact
that this water contains potash and other salts, which may also
be valuable on the exhausted soil.*

But, for the decomposition of the marl, not only must it be
brought into a plastic state or be powdered, but the limestone
or lime, with which it is to be mixed, must also be in the form
of powder, so that they may be intimately mixed together and
fully incorporated with the calcium chloride. With a cheap
power and a good mill this might not be very expensive. In
order to calcine the mixture, the plastic mass, produced by
working up together the marl, lime, and solution of calcium
chloride, should be made up into lumps or brick-like masses,
dried to a certain extent, and then calcined at a moderate red
heat, not sufficient to fuse them. The time during which they
should be maintained at a red heat need not exceed a few
hours.

Other modes might be available; as by the use of chlorine
gas, which, if the lumps of the marl are porous, would not
necessitate pulverization. This gas is to be cheaply obtained
from the low-priced hydrochloric acid and oxide of manganese
mixed, and if it be allowed to pass slowly from above through
, the marl lumps contained in a tall, tight cylindrical receptacle,
would exert considerable decomposing influence upon the sil-

*It is generally believed that magnesium chloride is injurious to vegetation. As this
is present in the bittern water, careful experiments to test its utility would be necessary.
But the magnesium chloride would be decomposed by the lime in the process of calcina-
tion, and the free magnesia thus separated would not probably be injurious, notwith-
standing the long-standing prejudice against this earth.

253



74 CHEMICAL REPORT.

icates. This process would doubtless be at least as expen-
sive as the above named.

The mere mixture of slacked lime with the powdered marl,
when applied to the land, would doubtless be beneficial in
accelerating its decomposition, and calcining them together
Lt a moderate red heat might be yet more useful, especially
if a little common salt be added. Indeed, merely calcining
the clay alone, if the heat is not sufficient to fuse it, seems to
set some of its alkaline constituents free; and hence, proba-
bly, one reason of the improvement of old soil by the English
practice of paring and burning it. In numerous cases the
writer has found the insoluble silicates to become more de-
composable by the action of the acids after ignition.*

No. 1794 "LiMONiTE IRON ORE, containing clay iron-stone.
Old Nolin Furnace property, three and a half miles north of
Bee Spring. West of the road at the head of one of the forks
of Decker Branch. On the road near the Brownsville and
Gray son Springs road. Average sample by P. N. Moore."
Generally soft and porous, of a brownish-yellow color, with
denser and darker colored irregular laminae, and some nodules
or portions of bluish-grey, fine granular clay iron-stone, which
is somewhat oolitic, with small whitish particles.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Iron peroxide 48. Qi'?") /-./-

y J y = T.6, 526 iron.
Iron carbonate 5-735J

Alumina 7- I2 5

Lime carbonate 9.410

Magnesia carbonate .144

Phosphoric acid .489 = .209 phosphorus.

Sulphuric acid . -!99 = .080 sulphur.

Combined water and loss 8.905

Silica and insoluble silicates 19.080 Containing 16.760 silica.



A good and sufficiently rich ore, with but a moderate pro-
portion of phosphorus, likely to yield a good quality of iron,
if properly smelted. It contains nearly ten per cent, of car-
bonate of lime, which will aid in fluxing it.

*The simultaneous use of the marl and slacked lime as a top-dressing on a clover crop,
or as a preparation for a crop of clover, which is subsequently plowed under, would no
doubt be quite ameliorating to the soil.

254



CHEMICAL REPORT. 75

GREENUP COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1795 "Coal, from Turkey Lick bed, on Turkey Lick. Col-
lected by A. R. Cr and all."
A splint coal. Some parts seemingly quite pure, with but

little fibrous coal ; other portions in thin shaly layers, with

granular pyrites in the fibrous coal.

No. 1796 "Coal$. Turkey Lick Coal. Pennsylvania Furnace.
Average sample from the lower and middle parts of the coal"
A splint coal, separating into thin laminae, with fibrous coal

and fine granular pyrites between.

No. 1797 "Coal, from Turkey Lick coal mines. Main entry.
One hundred and eighty feet from the outcrop. Average sam-
ple taken at that spot. By A. R. Crandall"
A splint coal, pretty pure looking, but has some fine granu-
lar pyrites in the fibrous coal between its thin laminae.

No. 1798 "Turkey Lick Coal. Old entry. Hunnewell. Av-
erage sample by A R. Crandall."
Like the preceding, but having less of the thinly laminated

portion, with fibrous coal and granular pyrites between.

No. 1799 "Coal. Raccoon Furnace. Average sample by A.

R. Crandall."

A splint coal, splitting into quite thin laminae, with much
light fibrous coal and some fine granular pyrites between them.

No. 1800 "Coke, from Coal No. 3. Turkey Lick coal. Hun-
newell Furnace. Collected by A. R. Crandall."

A bright spongy coke.

255



7 6



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY COALS AND COKE, AIR.

DRIED.



-


No. 1795.


No. 1796.


No. 1797.


No. 1798.


No. 1799.


No 1800.


Specific gravity






i 280






















Hygroscopic moisture






4 56


4 60






Volatile combustible matters .






36 68






19.20


Coke




;8 20


58 76




65 68


80 80
















Total




























Total volatile matters














Carbon in the coke










53 68




Ash






6 36






















Total
































Dense


Light


Dense


Friable.








spongy.


spongy.


spongy.








Light




Very light


Very light


Light


Nearly




mac-grey.




lilac-grey.


lilac-grey.


lilac-grey.


white.








0.682


o 667


0.925


o.66

















By comparing the sulphur per centage in No. 1796, and in
the coke made from it, No. 188, it will be seen that more than
three fourths of the sulphur of the coal appears to be removed
in the process of coking. But the smaller ash per centage
in this coke seems to indicate that a purer sample of this coal
was used in its manufacture.

GREENUP COUNTY PIG IRONS.

No. 1 80 1 "Pig Iron. No. i Foundry iron. Hunnewell Fur-
nace.
Quite a coarse-grained, light-grey iron. Somewhat hard,

but yields to the file.



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