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No. 1802 "Pig Iron. No. i hot-blast silver-grey or glazed

pig. Pennsylvania Furnace."

Moderately fine granular; whitish. Yields to the file and
extends very little under the hammer. Quite brittle.

No. 1803 "No. i Foundry Iron. Pennsylvania Furnace."

Coarser grained and darker than the preceding. Yields to
the file; extends a little under the hammer.
256



CHEMICAL REPORT.



77



No. 1804 "Mill Iron. Pennsylvania Furnace."

Finer grained, darker, and more dull than the preceding.
Extends considerably under the hammer.

No. 1805 "No. 2 Foundry Iron. Pennsylvania Furnace."

Moderately fine-grained. Yields to the file ; extends but
little under the hammer.

No. 1806 "No. 2 Cold-blast Iron; made from bhte ore alone.

Laurel Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore"

A dark-grey, fine-grained iron. Extends somewhat under
the hammer, but is brittle.

No. 1807 "Mill Iron. Hot-blast. TJiird casting with stone-
coal. Raccoon Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A fine granular iron. Yields to the file, and extends some

what under the hammer.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY PIG IRONS.





No. 1801


No. 1802


No. 1803


No. 1804


No. 1805


No. 1806


No. 1807














6.680


6.927














Iron


92.284
2.960
.690
3.011
.880

474
not est.


90.630
2.500
.830
4.969
.360
.741
.040


92.060
2.700
.630
3.104
.300
.710

0.53
.4.6 \


94.764
2.900
.780

i-i93
.200
.860
031


92.856
3-230

2-545
.360

.817
.046
.146

100.000


92.697

2. IOO
I .000
I.8I3

not est.

454
.218
1.718


91.596
2.900
.250

3-477
.800
.247
237
493


Graphite . ....


Combined carbon . . .


Slae


Phosphorus


Sulphur. ....


Undetermined and loss .


Total










100.299


100.070


100.000


100.730


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO




Total carbon


3-650


3-33


3-330


3.680


3-230


3.100


3-150





While the total quantity of carbon in these pig irons does
not vary much, there is a considerable difference in the pro-
portions of silicon and phosphorus, both of which tend to
make the iron brittle in the cold. The condition of the car-
bon, whether it be in the state of graphite or in combination

257



78 CHEMICAL REPORT.

with the iron, makes a great difference in the quality of the
metal, as is well known.

The cold-blast iron. No. 1806, made mostly from the "blue
ore" (clay iron-stone), seems to contain nearly as much sul-
phur as the hot-blast iron, No. 1807, made with stone coal.
The label does not state what was the character of the fuel
used to smelt the former.

No. 1808 "!RON FURNACE SLAG, from Raccoon Furnace, Green-
up county. 'Mine -fall cinder,', with which little iron is made,
but much slag. Collected by A. R. Crandall"
Of a dark bottle-green color ; nearly black in the mass ;
transparent in the thin edges. Quite fusible, without intu-
mescence, before the blow-pipe.



SPECIFIC GRAVITY

COMPOSITION.



2.868.



Silica


47 Q6o






2A OO2




18.841




8.807




Lime ...


2O 462




5 8lQ




Magnesia . . . . . .


I "K4.




4CI




Iron protoxide


8.489


6.062 iron


1.887




Manganese protoxide . . .
Phosphoric acid. . ....


not est.

. 127


055 phosphorus.








. IQ2


-O77 sulphur.






Potash


2.O4.I;




. 34.7






.4.O <\




. I O4.














Loss


. I2S




I7.4.IC


24 . QO2












Total. .


IOO.OOO



















The proportion of oxygen in the bases to that in the silica is
as i : 1.423 in this slag, and as the proportions in a good slag
are about as i : 2, it is evident that too little lime has been
used in the flux, and that consequently a large proportion of
iron oxide has formed glass with the excess of silicious matter,
causing a serious loss. This cinder contains quite a consid-
erable proportion of alumina, which seems to have carried
with it more than the usual quantity of phosphoric acid into
the cinder. The fact that the iron furnace slag may contain
this injurious ingredient, and that probably alumina, lime in
sufficient quantity being present, might be more instrumental
25?



CHEMICAL REPORT. 79

than any other material in the flux in removing it from the ore
in the smelting" furnace, contrary to the prevalent belief, was
pointed out by the writer in volume 4th of the first series of
Kentucky Geological Reports, page 44.

SOILS OF GREENUP COUNTY.

No. 1809 "Virgin Soil. Woods. Sample taken to six inches
below the sitrface. Top of a hill (ridge), eight feet above bed
of coal. WJiite Oak Creek, near Kenton Furnace. Collected
by J. A. Monroe."
Dried soil of a brownish-grey color, mostly in friable lumps.

Contains some fragments of ferruginous sandstone, and no

quartz sand.

No. 1810 "Subsoil to the preceding, taken eighteen inches below

the surface. By J. A. Monroe!'

Dried soil somewhat lighter colored than the preceding.
Contains more ferruginous sandstone fragments, and some
small hollow nodules of limonite ore. The bolting-cloth sep-
arated from the silicious residue a few minute quartzose parti-
cles.

No. 181 1 "Surface Soil to the depth of six inches, from a corn-
Jield which has been in cultivation ten years. Valley of White
Oak Creek. About ten feet above the bed of the creek. Col-
lected by J. A. Monroe."
Soil of a light umber-grey color, mostly in friable lumps.

The silicious residue contained a few small rounded grains of

hyaline quartz.

No. 1812 "Subsoil to the preceding, taken at eighteen inches

below the surface. J. A. Monroe."

Subsoil of a light umber-grey color, slightly darker than
the preceding. Contains fragments of brownish ferruginous

sandstone.

259



8O CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F





No. 1809


No. 1810


No. 1811


No. 1812




5-590
12-357
.04=;
.366
.083
.003

433
.023
.130
79 500
1.250
.220


5.600

I5-693
.070

375
.147
a trace.
.474
.305
095
76.060

950
.231


4-375
7.060
.270
.083
.115
.027
.008
.068
.080
86.890

I . 100


3-79<>
6.656

745
.067
. 109
033
193
.163

135
87.665
.910


















Sand and insoluble silicates


Water, expelled at 388 F.


Loss


Total






100.000


100.000


loo. 166


100.466




Hygroscopic moisture


1 .900

2.301

.509


2.235
2.829

.368


1.150
i .220

.520


I. COO

0.817

.380




Soda in the insoluble silicates. ......






Virgin
woodla'd


Subsoil.


Cultiva-
ted field.


Subsoil.





As is frequently the case, there is great variety in the
character of these coal-measure soils ; those from the hill-
top being quite rich, while the others from the valley are
much less fertile : anomalous differences, evidently attributa-
ble to the original sources whence the soils were derived, or
to the action of drainage waters, or other causes not known to
us.

HANCOCK COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1813 " Camiel Coal, Cloverport Oil Company's mines,
about eight miles south of Cloverport. Entry No. 12, at main
breast. Base of the coal measures. Average sample by C. f.
Norwood. Average thickness of the coal two and a half feet.
It varies from tiventy-two to thirty -six inches."
A dull-looking, very tough cannel coal. Has no marked

appearance of pyrites.
260



CHEMICAL REPORT. 8 1

No. 1814 " Coal, from Hancock Coal Company's mines, below
Hawesville. (Owned by the American Cannel Coal Com-
pany,) Collected by P. N. Moore."

Quite a pure-looking, firm, pitch-black coal. Has some lit-
tle bright pyritous scales and fine granular pyrites between
the laminae.

No. 1815 "Coal, from Milton Lawsori s bank. Lead Creek,
three miles from Hawesville. Average sample by P. N.
Moore"

A splint coal, splitting into thin laminae, with considerable
fibrous coal and some granular pyrites between. Some exter-
nal ferruginous stain. Has the appearance of having been
weathered.

No. 1816 "Coal, from Robt. Estes bank. Back of Lewis port.

Sample by P. N. Moore."

A pitch-black, rather firm coal, not all breaking into thin
laminae. Has much fibrous coal and granular and lamellar
pyrites.

No. 1817 "Coal, from James Masons bank, between Hawes-
ville and Lewisport. Sample by P. N. Moore."
Generally pitch-black and glossy partly dull on the cross
fracture. Not generally breaking into thin laminae. Has not
much fibrous coal, but considerable appearance of granular
pyrites, and some external ferruginous incrustation.

No. 1818 "Coal, from Colbert's dank, near Lewisport. Sample

by P. N. Moore."

A firm, pitch-black, glossy coal. Not much fibrous coal,
but considerable shining pyritous scales and granular pyrites.
Does not all split into thin laminae.

No. 1819 "Coal, from Bergenrottis bank, near old Reverdy

mines. Sample by P. N. Moore"

A firm coal, not all breaking into thin laminae. Has consid-
erable fibrous coal between the laminae, and some granular

pyrites and external ferruginous stain.

261



82 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1820 "Coal, from John C. Schafer s bank. Blackford

Creek. Sample by P. N. Moore."

A pitch-black, firm, glossy coal. Considerable fibrous coal
between some of the laminae, and a few thin shining pyritous
scales in the seams.

No. 1821 "Coal, from the Breidenback bank. Lead Creek.

Sample by P. N. Moore."

Generally glossy pitch-black, with some dull, thin laminae,
having fibrous coal between, and visible pyritous scales and
granular pyrites.

No. 1822 "Coal, from the Davidson bank, near Hawesville.

Sample by P. N. Moore."

Appears to be a weathered specimen, having considerable
ferruginous stain. Otherwise resembling the preceding.

No. 1823 "Coal, from R. S. Lanums bank, near Hawesville.
Sample by P. N. Moore."

Resembles No. 1821.
262



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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8/1 CHEMICAL REPORT.

Coal No. 1813, from the Cloverport Oil Company's mines,
is remarkable for the large proportion of volatile combustible
matters it yields.

IIARLAN COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1824 "Cannel Coal or Bituminous Shale, from Long
Branch of Martin s Fork. Average sample of the weath-
ered outcrop by P. N. Moore. Bed thirty -eight inches thick."
A dull-black, tough cannel coal. Fracture large conchoid-
al, somewhat in layers. Some ferruginous and earthy incrus-
tation.

No. 1825 "Coal, from J. C. Howard's bank. Clover Fork of
Cumberland river, one mile above Mount Pleasant. Sample by
P. N. Moore from near the limited outcrop. Bed four and a
half feet thick."

A bright, pitch-black coal (semi-bituminous), having very
little fibrous coal, and no visible pyrites.

No. 1826 "Coal, from Martin s Fork, Skidmore Creek. Taken
from near the outcrop, by A. R. Crandall. Bed forty-two
inches thick"

A much weathered sample, containing much powdered coal.
264



CHEMICAL REPORT. 85

COMPOSITION OF THESE HARLAN COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1824.


No. 1825.


No. 1826.


Specific gravity


i . ;io


1.280


i . 716










Hygroscopic moisture


i .40


I 7O


<; .20




74.60


71. 7O


71 .26




64 oo


62 60


67. 14










Total


IOO OO


ICO.OO


IOO.OO












76.00


-27.40


76.46




in .40


^0.60


60.08


Ash


24 60


-J .00


7.46










Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO










Character of the coke


Dense


Very light


Pulveru-






spongy.


lent.


Color of the ash .


Chocolate


Light buff.


Light buff.












I .271


O.7CO


0.618











No. 1824 contains a very large proportion of earthy matter,
and might probably be considered bituminous shale. This,
however, does not prevent it from yielding even more volatile
combustible matters than 1826, and nearly as much as 1825.
Its specific gravity is correspondingly high. The other coals
yield less than the average quantity of ash, and give a large
proportion of coke, and are superior coals, especially for the
manufacture of iron, &c.

HENRY COUNTY.

No. 1827 " METALLIC LEAD, from the 'Silver and Spar Mines,'
three miles below Lockport, in the Lower Silurian. Collected
by C. J. Norwood."

Brought to the laboratory to be examined for silver. On
a careful analysis, by the wet way, no evidence of the pres-
ence of that metal was found, although more than fourteen
grammes were examined.



VOL. I.-CHEM. l8.



265



86 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1828 "LIMESTONE, Lower Silurian, from the same locality

as the above. Collected by C. J. Norwood."

A fossiliferous, coarse granular limestone, of grey and buff
colors, containing more or less calc. spar, and having small
irregular cavities lined with ochreous iron oxide.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Lime carbonate ....


QS . 77O


Magnesia carbonate ....


I .^78


Alumina and iron and manganese oxides, and phosphoric acid ...


I 060


Sulphuric acid, alkalies, &c. .


undeter'ed


Insoluble silicates ... ...


.980






Total


00.188







A good limestone, containing 53.631 per cent, of lime.

HOPKINS COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1829 "Coal D, from Diamond coal mine, about three
quarters of a mile south of Earlington. (St. L. & S. E.
R. jR.) Average sample from along the entry, by C. J. Nor-
wood."

A splint coal. Outer surfaces of most of the lumps some-
what soiled with dirt.

No. 1 830 ' ' Coal D, from Saint Bernard coal mines, near Earl-
ington. Upper drift. Bed three to four and a half feet thick.
Average sample by C. J. Nonvood"
A deep black, glossy splint coal, with but little fibrous coal

between the laminae, and no appearance of pyrites. Some

thin plates of gypsum in the seams.

No. 1831 "Coal B, from Fleming coal mine, one mile below
Earlington. Bottom part two feet thick. Sample by C. J.
Norwood."
A pitch-black, glossy coal. Some fibrous coal and fine

granular pyrites between some of the laminae, and bright py-

ritous and lime sulphate scales in some of the seams.
266



CHEMICAL REPORT. 87

No. 1832 "Coal B; same locality as the preceding. Top por-
tion; four feet thick. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
Resembles the preceding.

No. 1833 "Coal B, from Hecla coal mines. St. L. & S. E.
R. R., near Earlington. Average sample by C. J. Norwood."
A pitch-black, glossy coal. But little fibrous coal between

the laminae. The sample has some thin scales of gypsum in

some of the seams, and has some fragments in it of a thin

pyritous shaly parting.

No. 1834 "Coal B. Hecla mines, near Earlington. Average
sample from the lower bench; about two feet four inches thick*
By C. J. Norwood."
Resembles the preceding.

No. 1835 "Coal B. St. Bernard coalmines, near Earlington*
Lower drift. Average sample from the upper member ; four
feet thick. By C. J. Norwood." (See also 1830.)
Resembles No. 1830. Has some scaly incrustations of lime

sulphate.

No. 1836 "Coal D, from Hecla coal mines. Earlington. Care-
fully sampled by C. J. Norwood.

A pitch-black coal. Very little fibrous coal. Some scales
of lime sulphate, stained with iron oxide, in the seams, with

some little shining pyrites.

267



88



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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CHEMICAL REPORT. 89

All of them good coals, although some few of them exceed
the average per centage in ash and sulphur.

HOPKINS COUNTY SOILS.

No. 1837 "Virgin Soil, from woods, at Harrison Station, L.
& S. E. R. R., about thirty miles from Henderson. Forest
growth : white and red oaks, hickories, &c. Geological form-
ation above the sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beckham."
Dried soil of an umber-grey color; contains a very little

ferruginous gravel. The silicious residue all passed through

the bolting-cloth.

No. 1838 "Surface soil, from a field twenty years in cultiva-
tion in corn and tobacco ; adjoining the locality of the preced-
ing soil," &c., &c.
Color of the soil like that of the preceding. It contains no

gravel nor fine silicious sand.

No. 1839 ''Subsoil of the next preceding," &c., &c.

Dried subsoil of a brownish-buff color; contains no gravel
nor fine silicious sand.

No. 1840 "Virgin Soil, from wocds. Farm of J. D. Morton.
Mortons Gap. St. L. & S. E. R. R. Forest growth : dog-
wood, sweet gum, white oak, &c., &c. Substratum sandstone.
Collected by C. W. Beckham."

No. 1841 "Surface Soil, from an old field fifty years in cul-
tivation ; next adjoining the preceding locality. Field said to
have been once exhausted and overgrown with sassafras, black
jack, elm, &c. Has been cleared again, and is now in tobacco.
It has been most of the time in red-top meadow. Collected by
-C. W. Beckham."
Contains no gravel or fine silicious sand.



No. 1842 "Subsoil of the next preceding," &c.,
Contains no gravel or sand.



269



9O CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1843 "Virgin Soil, from the farm of John Wilson, near
Nortonsville. St. L. & S. E. R. R. Underlying rock sand-
stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham."
Contains no gravel, but the bolting-cloth separated from the

silicious residue a considerable quantity of clear quartz grains,

rounded and angular.

No. 1844 "Surface soil, from an old field fifty years in cultiva-
tion; now overgrown with blackberry, sumach, &c., &c. Same
locality as preceding," &c., &c.
Contains no gravel, but a considerable proportion of fine

clear quartz grains, rounded and angular.

No. 1845 "Subsoil of the next preceding," &c.,

Like the preceding, contains fine quartz grains.
270



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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271



Q2 CHEMICAL REPORT.

These soils do not appear to have been derived from the
sandstone which underlies them, being richer than might be
expected from such an origin, and containing no great quantity
of sand. They have -doubtless been formed by the disinte-
gration of other superincumbent strata, richer in the fertilizing
mineral elements, or been modified by the admixture of light
drift material. The exhausting influence of culture is to be
seen in each case, as shown by the generally smaller propor-
tions of potash, phosphoric acid, organic and volatile matters,
&c., and the large quantity of sand and insoluble silicates in
the old field soil, as compared with the virgin soil of the next
adjoining field.

These soils are not generally deficient in potash, except soil
No. 1838, but their proportion of phosphoric acid is generally
small, so that there is every reason to believe they would be
much improved in productiveness by the use of phosphatic
fertilizers, such as bone dust, superphosphate, or guano. As
the tobacco culture is especially exhaustive of potash and
lime, wood ashes, or some other fertilizer containing potash,
might be advantageously used, together with the judicious
application of lime. Both of these are best used with a clo-
ver crop, which should be plowed in after a growth of one or
two years. By such a process the old exhausted fields might
be greatly improved.

JACKSON COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1846 " Cannel Coal, from Tom Coyle s bank, seventeen miles



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