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Picked sample.
No. 1280 (b).


Ave'ge sample.
No. 1280 (a).


Picked sample.
No. 1348 (6).


Ave'ge sample.
No. 1348 (a).


Specific gravity


Not determ'd


i .1^8


Not determ'd.


1 .4^?












Hygroscopic moisture
Volatile combustible matters . .
Coke


4.70

34-3
61 .00


3-40
3 2 -3

64. TO


4-5
37.10
C.8.4O


5-40
32.70
61 .00












Total


I OO . OO


IOO OO


100.00


IOO.OO












Total volatile matters


TO .OO


7C.7O


41 .60


38.10


Carbon in the coke


CO. O4


e e . 40-


c.6.40


C2. C.2


Ash


1 .06


8.QO


2.OO


9.7.8












Total


IOO OO


IOO OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO












Per ccntage of sulphur ....


0.983


1.230


0.571


2.356



1 4 CHEMICAL REPORT.

As the value of a coal bed bears a very near relation to that
of its average product, it is easily to be understood that the
analysis of a selected sample may be of very little utility. On
the other hand, the selection of a true average sample of the
bed may often be a task of considerable difficulty.

The determination of the proportion of sulphur in coals has
been much neglected in this country; and where it has been
done the method generally used has been to oxidate the pow-
dered coal in strong nitric or nitro-hydrochloric acid. This
mode of analysis is not so perfect as fusion with a mixture of
nitre, carbonate of soda, and salt, &c., which always, when
properly managed, brings all the sulphur into the form of sol-
uble sulphate, in whatever state it may have existed in the
coal. This exhaustive mode was employed in all our estima-
tions of this substance, and hence the quantities obtained may
seem greater than are shown to exist in similar coals which
have been treated with the acids.

As has now been extensively demonstrated, the sulphur in
coals is rarely all combined with iron as sulphide or bi-sul-
phide. Some frequently exists in a free or uncombined con-
dition, as is shown in an analysis described in the following
pages. Some of it is frequently in the form of lime sulphate.

When it is recollected that vegetable matters, decomposing
in a solution of sulphates of lime, magnesia, iron, &c., reduce
these salts to sulphides, with the production of hydrogen sul-
phide in the case of the earthy salts, and when we reflect that
this gaseous compound, HS, is decomposed, with the depo-
sition of free sulphur, on contact with the air, we can easily
understand how most of our coals must contain not only
pyrites but free sulphur, and iron sulphate.

In the thirty-four marls, marly shales, sands, and silicious con-
cretions, which have been analyzed, we find a general preva-
lence of lime, fixed alkalies, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid,
&c. Some of the marls and shales contain these in such con-
siderable .proportions as to make them locally useful for the
amelioration of poor sandy land. Some of these find an ap-
plication as mineral paint, for which they are adapted by their



CHEMICAL REPORT. 15

agreeable tint and other properties. Some of the more sili-
cious could be used in the manufacture of glass, as well as for
other purposes ; some of post-tertiary silicious clays, or soft
sandstones, might be made into bricks for scouring purposes,
&c., while others, which contain but little lime, magnesia, oxide
of iron or alkalies, would prove quite refractory in the fire.

But the fire-clays and plastic clays of the coal fields, of which
the analyses of sixteen are appended, are especially deserving
attention ; and from their abundance, superior quality, and
vicinity to fuel, should form the basis of extensive industries.
Amongst them may be found some of the best of fire-clays, as
well as some well-fitted to the manufacture of pottery ware of
various kinds, including the better sorts of delf, stone china,
or queensware. Skill, capital, and enterprise are all that are
needed, on these somewhat neglected deposits, to make them
of very great value to individuals as well as to the public.
Only the want of these essentials causes us to pay a heavy
tax to foreign nations for our pottery ware, when the materials
for the manufacture lie measurably neglected at home. It is
simply the history repeated of the importation of bricks from
Holland to build houses in Albany, and the packing of English
bricks, on the backs of horses, over the Alleghenies, to con-
struct the barracks at old Fort Duquesne on the Ohio.

The nineteen samples of pig iron which have been analyzed
are mostly of the kind known as foundry iron. On reference
to the general table of their composition, it will be seen that
they present considerable variety in this respect; as for exam-
ple :

The per centage of iron ranges between 85.4551095.840

' ' carbon ' ' 2 . 040 to 4 . 400

'* phosphorus *' 0.123 to 1.029

" sulphur " a trace to 0.150

The specific gravity " 6.40610 7.782

Of the numerous mineral waters of our State the analyses
of twenty-one are given in the present report, mostly from one
locality.

15



1 6 CHEMICAL REPORT.

BATH COUNTY.

No. 1269 LIMONITE IRON ORE. " From Block-house ore bank>

one and a half miles from the Old Slate Furnace, Bath county.

Bed ten to twelve feet thick ; on the Clinton Group. Collected

by Philip N. Moore"

Ore generally dense and dark-colored, with some dark
ochreous ore. Structure cellular and oolitic.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Iron, peroxide , 76.077 = 53.254 per cent, of iron.

Alumina 2.592

Manganese, brown oxide -43O

Lime, carbonate .130

Magnesia . 281

Sulphuric acid .030= o.on percent, of sulphur.

Phosphoric acid -73 1 = .319 per cent, of phosphorus.

Water, expelled at red heat 12.300

Silica and insoluble silicates 8.180= 6. 1 60 per cent, of silica.

100.751

The phosphoric acid determination was made by Chancel's
process, viz : by means of acid nitrate of bismuth solution,
after the separation of the iron oxide, and is believed to be
nearly correct. The iron ore in the Clinton Group, especial-
ly the "dye-stone ore," is usually quite phosphatic. This does
not prevent it from being quite valuable for the production
of iron for many purposes, although it may not be made to
yield the higher grades of bar iron or steel.

BARREN COUNTY.

No. 1421 LIMESTONE. "Oolitic Limestone. Upper layers of
upper sub-carboniferous limestone. Glasgow Junction, Barren
county. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."
A compact, nearly white, fine oolitic limestone, with a fer-
ruginous stain on the exposed surfaces probably derived from
the superincumbent soil.

No. 1422 LIMESTONE (compact}. "Upper Sub-carboniferous
Limestone. Glasgow Junction. Collected by N. S. Shaler."
A light-grey, fine granular, or compact limestone, which
might be a good lithographic stone but for the presence of
some imbedded fossils and minute specks of iron peroxide.

16



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1423 LIMESTONE. Labeled " Lithographic Stone ; below the
building stone. Upper sub-carboniferous limestone. Glasgow
Junction. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."
A light-grey, compact, or very fine granular rock, which
might be a perfect lithographic stone but for the minute im-
bedded fossils and the small occasional specks of iron per-
oxide, &c., which it contains. Some layers, however, are
reported measurably free from these imperfections, and found
to be good enough, on actual trial, for some ordinary litho-
graphic purposes.

COMPOSITION OF THESE BARREN COUNTY LIMESTONES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1421.


No. 1422.


No. 1423.


Specific gravity


2.678


2.721


2.689










Lime, carbonate


CiS.CKO


77. ceo


82.960


Magnesia, carbonate


. ^63


I 3-3 I 4


7.6?c


Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides


.CII


2.680


2.680


Phosphoric acid


.CKI


,<X1


.lie


Sulphuric acid


. 260


. 102


.260


Potash


.lie


. I C.4.


. IIS


Soda


. ^27


.188


*.
.ICO


Silica and insoluble silicates


I 060


6 060


6. 1 60










Total


100.737


100. 189


IOO. 121










Per centage of lime


50.428


43.428


46. 457










Per centage of phosphorus


.022


.022


.CKO










Per centage of sulphur


. 104


.077


. 104











No. 1421 would yield a very pure white lime.

BOYD COUNTY.

No. 1270 CLAY IRON-STONE, &c. Labeled ''Grey Limestone
Ore. J. P. Jones' drift, near Ashland. Average sample
selected by P. N. Moore."
A mixed sample, with oolitic carbonate of iron, dark grains

united with a whitish cement, portions of compact carbonate,

and of limonite ore.

17



i8



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1271 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled " Wilson Creek Blue
Block Ore. Average sample, taken from Star Furnace stock
pile, by P. N. Moore"
A fine-granular ore of various shades of dark-grey, with

some slight incrustations of limonite. Not adhering to the

tongue.



Labeled ''So-called Limestone
Star Furnace stock pile, Aver-



No. 1272 CLAY IRON-STONE.

Ore, from Williams' Creek.

aged by P. N. Moore"

A granular and oolitic proto-carbonate of iron (containing
much carbonate of lime). Oolitic grains nearly black, in a
whitish cement.

SUMMARY OF THE COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY CLAY IRON
STONES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1270.


No. 1271.


No. 1272


Iron carbonate


S2.285


66.854


19.802




I 2. 784


.276


21 .4'?'?


Alumina (by difference)


11.968


4.260


I . IQ^


Lime, carbonate


21 . 125


2.460


?o.2o<;


Magnesia, carbonate


.6OI


4.086


a trace.


Manganese, carbonate


.46;


. S72


.240


Phosphoric acid (anhydr.) ...


. 377


.700


.21:7


Sulphuric acid (anhydr.)


.267


.885


. IS7


Silica and insoluble silicates


IQ.77O


18.360


2 3 . 080


Water and- loss


.w8


i."n8


3.6?"?










Total


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO










Per centage of iron


24. SOI


32.466


Z\ . loQ










Per centage of phosphorus


. 164.


.^08


. 1 12










Per centage of sulphur


. IO7


. 3 "54


.063










Per centage of silica ...




i"?. ";oo


18.960











Of these ores, No. 1271 would be the best, as it is the
richest; but its considerable proportions of phosphorus and
sulphur will somewhat injure the toughness of the iron it

18



CHEMICAL REPORT. 19

yields. No. 1272 is not so objectionable in this respect. This
ore as well as No. 1270, containing a large proportion of lime,
although comparatively poor in iron, may yet be profitably
smelted, especially in mixture with richer ores. They will
obviously require less fluxing material than the other ores.

No. 1273 LIMONITE. Labeled "Slate Ore. Head of Cane
Creek, on the road to Star Furnace, Boyd county. Average
sample selected by P. N. Moore."
In irregular curved layers, varying in hardness and color

from yellowish-brown to blackish-brown; frequently inclosing

soft ochreous nodules.

No. 1274 LIMONITE. Labeled " Yellow Kidney Ore, sampled
from a number of places by P. N. Moore. Star Furnace

property.

Irregular curved layers of dark-colored limonite (brown
haematite), incrusted by and inclosing soft ochreous ore.

No. 1275 LIMONITE. Labeled "Limestone Ore;" average sam-
ple selected by P. N. Moore. Bellefont Furnace.
Ore varying from brownish-yellow to dark brown (mostly

dark brown), with some proto-carbonate of iron, ferruginous

limestone, and a little calc. spar intermixed.

No. 1276 LIMONITE. Labeled" Yellow Kidney Ore;" average
sample selected by P. N. Moore. Buena Vista Furnace.
Irregular curved layers of limonite, varying from soft, brown-
ish-yellow to dense, dark brown ore.

No. 1277 LIMONITE, &c. Labeled "Yellow Kidney Ore, or
Kidney Ore below the No. 7 Coal" Straight Creek, Buena
Vista Furnace. Average sample collected by P. N. Moore.
Limonite layers of various depth of color, with some fine

granular carbonate of iron and thin veins of calc. spar.

19



2O



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1278 LIMONITE. Labeled "Black Kidney Ore" Average
sample, from Stock Branch Hollow, just south of Star Fur-
nace. Collected by P. N. Moore.

In irregular curved layers, generally of a dark purplish-
brown color, with some soft ochreous nuclei and layers.

SUMMARY OF THE COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY L1MONITES,

DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1273.


No. 1274.


No. 1275.


No. 1276.


No. 1277.


No. 1278.


Iron, peroxide


^.6^


s8.Q6o


5 i . 802


6 I . 344


56.022


!4.Oii\


Iron carbonate






IO. ?Q4




8.821




Alumina (by difference) . .
Manganese, brown oxide . .
Lime, carbonate


4.3 2 4
.368
a trace.


7.284
.380
.470


4.523

a trace.
7 .480


4.236
a trace.
.7<;o


7.194

a trace.

2. CJ2O


4.919
.420
.080


Magnesia


. IOI


.227


.440


.208


i .271


a trace.


Phosphoric acid (anhydr.) .
Sulphuric acid (anhydr.) . .
Combined water. .....


313

.220

10. 150


376
.2O6
IO.8OO


570
.089
8.772


795
.041
i i .200


.526
.090
10. 126


.076
.096
10.450


Silex and insoluble silicates .
Moisture and loss


30.940


21 .2IO
. 127


5-730


2 I . 480


13-43


30 . 080
















Total


100.069


I OO . OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OS4


IOO.OOO


100. 176
















Per centage of iron ....


37-551


41.272


41.357


42.941


43-473


37-838


Per centage of phosphorus .


137


. 164


.231


347


.229


033


Per centage of sulphur . . .


.086


.082


035


.016


.036


.038


Per centage of silica ....


29.560


19.980


13.160


18.560


i i . 660


24 . 260



These are all good ores; Nos. 1273 and 1278 being the
poorest in iron and the most silicious. The proportion of
sulphur is small in all of them, and of phosphorus is probably
not enough to injure the iron for ordinary uses. Nos. 1275
and 1277 would probably be improved for smelting by a pre-
vious roasting.

No. 1279 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, from drift one quarter
mile above the store, on Furnace Branch of Straight Creek,
Buena Vista Furnace. Average sample of both parts of the
bed, by P. N. Moore."



CHEMICAL REPORT. 2 1

No. 1280 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 6, from Turkey-pen Hol-
low ; Old Clinton Tract; Belief ont Furnace. Averaged by
P. N. Moore."

No. 1281 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, three feet thick, no
parting ; Chadwick Creek. Average sample, selected by A. R.
Crandall."

No. 1282 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 5, eighty-five feet below
the yellow kidney ore, drift south side of Straight Creek, one
third of a mile from Buena Vista Furnace. Averaged by P.
N. Moore."

No. 1283 COAL. Labeled "Keys Creek Coal, No. 6. Average
sample collected by A. R. Crandall."

No. 1284 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. $, from drift on Hoods
Creek, one third of a mile southeast of Bellefont Furnace.
Average sample collected by A. R. Crandall."
A splint coal, exhibiting some fibrous coal and fine particles

of pyrites Letween the layers.

No. 1285 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 6, from Horse Branch (or
Run), near Catlettsburg , Boyd county. Average sample, col-
lected by A. R. Crandall."
A splint coal. Some fibrous coal between the layers, with a

little ferruginous incrustation.

No. 1286 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, from the Ashland
Company s mine No. 4, Coalton, Boyd county. Average sam-
ple, by P. N. Moore"
A dark, glossy, splint coal, with some fibrous coal between

the layers.

No. 1287 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, from entry No. 4;
cross -entry ; slate roof; Dry Branch. Average sample, by P.
N. Moore."
A jet-black pure-looking coal.



22 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1288 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. 7, three hundred yards
from the end of No. 4 entry. Trace Creek, Boyd county.
Averaged by P. N. Moore."
A pure jet-black coal. Very little fibrous coal or pyrites

apparent.

No. 1289 COAL. Labeled "Coalton Coal, No. 7. Two hund-
red and fifty yards from west end of No. 4 entry, &c. Aver-
aged by P. N. Moore."

Contains more fibrous coal and pyrites than the two preced-
ing.

No. 1290 COAL. Labeled "Coalton Coal, No. 7, from Mr.
Bryan s Bank, Four Mile Creek, Boyd county. Collected by
A. R. Crandall. Average sample."
Jet black. Contains very little pyrites or fibrous coal.

No. 1291 COAL. Labeled "Coal No. n. Wm. A. Bolt's
coal. East Fork of Little Sandy river, above Bolt 's Fork,
Boyd county. Average sample, collected by A. R. Crandall"
A jet-black coal. But little fibrous coal or pyrites apparent.

[See Appendix, No. 1645, for analysis of another Boyd county coal.]



CHEMICAL REPORT.





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23



CHEMICAL REPORT.



With a few exceptions these may all be considered very
good coals. These few contain rather too large a proportion
of ash. This will not prevent them from being very good fuel
for ordinary purposes. Some of them have a notable propor-
tion of sulphur, which may render them measurably unsuitable
for the working of iron, but which will not be otherwise injuri-
ous. It may be remarked, however, that the estimation given
above is of the total amount of sulphur in the coal, in whatever
form of combination it may exist. The analyses for the deter-
mination of the sulphur having been made by deflagrating the
powdered coal with a mixture of nitre, carbonate of soda, and
common salt (each chemically pure, of course), and not by the
usual process of oxidation with nitric acid, &c., the extraction
of the sulphur is therefore more complete than usual. These
are all splint coals.

The relation between the specific gravity and the proportion
of ash does not seem to be a constant one, as may be seen in
the following statement :



Specific gravity



. 279 P er centage of ash .
.304
[.308

:-3'5
.320

328
336

340
-358
3 6 4
.365
.366
.404



7-74
7.10
5.80
8.00
5.10
6.82
7.00
6.60
8.90
1 1 .50
8,74

12 00
14.74



In the appendix are given, for comparison, the analyses of
some of the most celebrated Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois coal,
which are used in the smelting of iron, &c.

No. 1292 MARLY SHALE. From near the top of the ridge
between Clinton Furnace and Cannonsburg, Boyd county.
A friable indurated marly clay, of dirty-greenish and brown-
ish colors.



CHEMICAL REPORT. 25

COMPOSITION DRIED AT 212 F.; AS DETERMINED BY DIGESTION IN CHLOROHYDRIC ACID, AC.

Aiuinma, and iron and manganese oxides 12.643

Lime, carbonate . 480

Magnesia . 929

Phosphoric acid .217

Sulphuric acid -079

Potash 1 . 387

Soda .080

Water expelled at red heat 5 . 830

Silica and insoluble silicates 77.560

Loss . 795

IOO.OOO

On treating this marl, by ignition with carbonate of lime
and chloride of ammonium, for the complete separation of its
alkalies, according to the method proposed by Prof. J. Law-
rence Smith, we obtained a total of 3.989 per cent, of potash
and 0.639 per cent, of soda. So that about two thirds of the
potash is in such a state of combination, in the silicates of this
marly clay, as to resist the solvent action of chlorohydric acid,
of specific gravity i.i, although digested for eight or ten days
in the sand-bath heat. Possibly admixture with slacked quick-
lime might help to set free this considerable proportion of
alkali, and make it an available mineral fertilizer for exhausted
light soils.

No. 1293 PIG IRON. "Hot Blast No. i, Belief ont Furnace,

Boyd county. Collected by P. N. Moore."

A moderately coarse-grained dark-grey iron. Yields to the
file, and extends somewhat under the hammer.

No. 1294 PIG IRON. "Hot Blast No. i, Foundry , Buena

Vista Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."

A coarse-grained grey iron. Yields to the file ; extends a
little under the hammer. .

No. 1 295 PIG IRON. "Mill Iron No. i , Ashland Furnace, Boyd
county. Stone-coal Iron. Sent by Col. Douglas Putnam, jr. 1 '
A very fine-grained light-grey iron. Yields to the file.

"Brittle.

No. 1296 PIG IRON. "Mill Iron No. 2. Stone-coal Iron.

Ashland Furnace. Sent by Col. Douglas Putnam, jr.

Not quite so fine-grained as the preceding. Light-grey.
Yields to the file. Brittle.

\>.L. I.-CHEM. 3. 2 e



26



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1297 PIG IRON. Foundry Iron. Ashland Furnace^
&c., &c. (as above). Coarser-grained than the preceding.
Yields to the file. Brittle.

COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY PIG IRONS.





No. 1293.


No. 1294.


No. 1295.


No. 1296.


No. 1297.


Specific gravity


7 . J-32


7 . 127


6 410


6. soi


6 406














Iron


Q"? . 2O8


Q-I 712


QI 42O


oo . 800


80 771


Graphite ..


9 -JCQ


2 OQO


2 460


2 560


I 660


Combined carbon


.220


. 2IO


. 24O


. 160


.7OO


Manganese


.OS4


.CK6


. ICK


.2^6


4.7 I


Silicon


2.^80


I 908


37OQ


C 121


6 ^08


Slae .


I 1 60


6OO


?4O


760


i 1 20


Aluminum


IQ-J


644


Not est.


Not est


Not est


Calcium


144


IO4


176


O72


I C2


Magnesium


.OCK


.OCK


2'?'?


I O6


O6O


Potassium


.O4.7


063


Not est


Not est.


Not est.


Sodium


O"?2


OIO


Not est


Not est


Not est.


Phosphorus


IO4


380


7gc


7O/1


461


Sulphur ....


.OCK


.066


082


OA1


01 s








Loss .560






Total


101 .091


100.838


IOO.OOO


100.353


100.768


Total carbon .......


? 1:70


j 2OO


2 7OO


2 7 2O


2 ACO















No. 1298 VIRGIN SOIL. "From zvoods in the valley of East
Fork of Little Sandy river, taken to six inches below the
surface. Farm of Vincent Calvin, near Cannonsburg, Boyd
county. Collected by J. A. Monroe."

Soil of a dirty-buff color. All passed through the coarse
sieve (289 meshes to the inch).

No. 1299 SUB-SOIL of the preceding, &c., &c.

Of a buff color; lighter in tint than the preceding. All
passed through the coarse sieve.

No. 1300 VIRGIN SOIL. "Southeastern slope of hill sixty feet
above the bed of the creek. V. Calvin s farm, &c., &c.
Sample taken six inches from the surface by J. A. Monroe."
Of a dark dirty-drab grey color. The coarse sieve removed

from it a considerable proportion of small fragments, many of

which are angular, of ferruginous sandstone.
26



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1301 SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken two feet below the

surface, &c., &c.

Lighter colored than the preceding; dirty-drab grey. Sift-
ed out more of ferruginous sandstone fragments than from the



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