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southeast of Richmond. Represented to be twenty-one inches
cannel and twenty-one inches bituminous coal. Bed about one
hundred feet above the conglomerate. Sample from the weath-
ered outcrop. By Win. A. Gunn, Esq., Civil Engineer."
A rather dull-looking cannel coal. Splitting, with difficulty,

into layers, with not enough fibrous coal to soil the fingers,

and no apparent pyrites.

272



CHEMICAL REPORT



93



No. 1847 "Cannel Coal, from T. J. Ballards bank. Branch
of Horse Lick, twenty-six miles from Richmond. A sub-con-
glomerate coal. Specimen from the outcrop. By Wm. A.
Gunn, Esq.'' &c.

Resembles the preceding. Has a bird-eye structure in
parts.

COMPOSITION OF THESE JACKSON COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1846.


No. 1847.




I. ^3


I . 12\








Hygroscopic moisture


2.OO


2.OO


Volatile combustible matters


4.1 .OO


47 66


Coke ... ...


C7 .OO


14 1A








Total ... . . ....


IOO OO


IOO OO










4T.OO


4.1;. 66




4"?.'IO


4H. q8


Asli


I "? .QO


8.76








Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO










SDOIIFV.


Dense.










Very light


Grey-




buft-grey.


lavender.




I O4.Q


?.784









Although No. 1846 contains more than the average pro-
portion of earthy matters, it is yet quite valuable for fuel,
especially for domestic purposes. No. 1847 ^ s n t so liable
to this objection, and is a very good cannel coal.

JESSAMINE COUNTY.
MINERAL WATER.

No. 1848 "Salt Sulphur Water, from a bored well, ninety feet
deep, at Nicholasville. BrougJit by Mr. R. A. Downing"
The water was obtained at eighty feet, and stands in the

well at sixty feet from the surface. Lower Silurian formation.

273



94 CHEMICAL REPORT.

Specific gravity of the water = 1.023.

The water when brought to the laboratory smelt slightly of
sulphuretted hydrogen, and was quite cloudy from the pres-
ence of free sulphur, derived from the decomposition of that
gas. It also contained free carbonic acid gas.

The per centage of saline matters contained in it is 2.828,
dried at 212 F. They consist of lime and magnesia sul-
phates, and a considerable proportion of sodium chloride, with
some lime, magnesia, and iron carbonates, marked traces of
lithia, iodine, and bromine, and doubtless of salts of potash
and soda.

A quantitative analysis was not made at this time, but the
water resembles the salt sulphur waters generally obtained by
boring into the Lower Silurian limestone formation, of which
several analyses are given in previous volumes, and all of
which are more or less like the celebrated waters of the Blue
Lick Springs.

JOHNSON COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1849 " Cannel Coal, twenty-seven inches thick. Lick

Branch, half a mile above the mouth of White House Creek.

Ten miles above Peach Orchard. Collected by A. R. Cran-

dalL

Contains some bright pyrites, and is somewhat incrusted
with ferruginous material. Is generally a tough cannel coal.

No. 1850 ''Rice s Coal. Head of Jenny s Creek. Thirty
inches thick. Average sample by A. R. Crandall."
A pure-looking, glossy-black coal, with but very little fibrous

coal or pyrites. Somewhat hard and not breaking into so thin

laminae as the usual splint coals. Ferruginous stains on some

of the seams.

No. 1851 ''Coal, from Wheelers bank, near Paintsville. Bed
four feet six inches thick, without parting. Average sample
by A. R. Crandalir
A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Rather firm. Has but

little fibrous coal. Some few bright pyritous scales apparent.
274



CHEMICAL REPORT. 95

COMPOSITION OF THESE JOHNSON COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1849.


No. 1850.


No. 1851.


Specific gravity




1.291


1.294


1.281




Hygroscopic mo
Volatile combus
Coke ....


sture


2.OO

38.20
59.80


3.10

38.60
58.30


2.66
38.04
59-3


tible matters




Total . . .




IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO






Total volatile mi
Fixed carbon in
Ash




40.20
51.00

8.80


41.70

53-50
4.80


40.70

56.30
3.00






Total . .




IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO






Character of the


coke


Dense.


Light
Spongy.


Spongy.




Color of the ash




Light
lilac-grey.


Light
brownish-
grey.


Brownish-
grey.




Percentage of su




0.956


1-735


1.291





Remarkably good coals, containing less than the usual pro-
portions of sulphur and earthy matters. Being also quite
firm, they might very probably be employed, without coking,
in the smelting of iron in the high furnace.

KNOX COUNTY.

No. 1852 FERRUGINOUS LIMESTONE. Labeled "Rock from
Poplar Creek; farm of W. H. Hutching. Specimen obtained
from CoL John G. Eve by Prof. N. S. Skaler ; together with
a specimen of metal smelted from it. ' '

A compact, fine granular, grey rock ; weathered yellowish-
brown on the exterior. Fracture flat conchoidal. Some very

small bright crystals of pyrites on the seims.

275



96 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Iron carbonate 13.532 = 6.532 per cent, of iron.

Alumina 2.699

Manganese carbonate ... not del'd.

Lime carbonate 42.260

Magnesia carbonate 3-7 2

Phosphoric acid .089

Sulphuric acid not det'd.

Silicious residue 31.860

Undetermined and loss 6.488



This ferruginous limestone is too poor for use in smelting,
except in mixture with richer ores, to answer as flux. Possi-
bly it might make a hydraulic cement if properly calcined.

The bright white metal which accompanied this limestone,
said to have been smelted from it, and supposed to contain
silver, is simply white pig metal, containing more than ninety-
two per cent, of iron, nearly one per cent, of phosphorus,
0.785 per cent, of silicon, 0.104 per cent, of sulphur and car-
bon, &c. It is quite brittle and crystalline, somewhat in ap-
pearance like antimony. Its color is more grey than that of
silver.

KNOX COUNTY SOILS.

No. 1852 (a) "Virgin Soil, from the farm of A. B. Britton,
three miles north of Barbourville, at the foot of Paint Hill
Knobs. Collected by C. W. Beckham. Rock substratum;
sandstone.

Dried soil of a light-brownish-grey color ; contains some
rounded ferruginous concretions. The bolting-cloth removed
from the silicious residue a considerable proportion of small
irregular particles of partly decomposed silicates, and a few
minute scales of mica.

No. 1852 (6) "Surface Soil, from a field twenty years in cul-
tivation, from same farm and near the locality of the next pre-
ceding. Collected by C. W. Beckham."

Dried soil, containing some friable lumps, of a light-grey,
clayey soil, mixed with a light mouse-colored powdered soil
and some ferruginous sandstone and cherty fragments. The

bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue a consider-
276



CHEMICAL REPORT. 97

able portion of particles of partly decomposed silicates (as
above).

No. 1852 (c) " Virgin Soil, from the top of Paint Hill Knob,
three and a half miles north of Barbourville. Forest growth
almost exclusively oak, hickory, and chestnut. {Location of a
Signal Station of the U. S. Coast Survey^) Substratum sand-
stone. Collected by C. W. Beckham"

Dried soil of a dark, brownish-grey color; contains small
cherty and ferruginous sandy fragments. The bolting-cloth
removed from the silicious residue a considerable portion of
minute particles of undecomposed silicates, a few reddish
rounded quartzose particles and minute scales of mica.

No. 1852 (d} " Virgin Soil, from woods, on the farm of Judge
Tuggle, one and a third miles south of Barbourville, in the
Cumberland River Valley. Principal forest growth : oaks,
hickories, &c. Substratum sandstone. Collected by C. W.
Beckham"

Dried soil of a light-umber-grey color. Quite a light soil
as light as wood ashes contains no gravel. The bolting-
cloth removed from the silicious residue a considerable pro-
portion of small rounded quartzose grains.

No. 1852 (e) "Surface Soil, from an old field sixty years in
cultivation ; now in meadow. Same locality as the next pre-
ceding," &c., &c.

Dried soil of a lighter umber-grey than preceding; resem-
bles it in other respects.

No. 1852 (/") ''Subsoil of the next preceding," &c., &c.
Dried soil of a lighter grey-buff color; contains no gravel,

&c. (as above).

277



9 8



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE KNOX COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1852 a


No. 1852 b


No. 1852^


No. 1852 d


No. 1852 e.


No. iSsa/.


Organic and volatile matters
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides. . . .
Lime carbonate


3-453
5-45<5

.100

.158
.179


4-374
8.781

. 120

.158
.104


5-658
7.825
.095
.158
-185


2.800

2-835
.045
.016
055


2.765
1.904
.130
.029
.061


1.750
3-644
045
.025
.031
not est.
.130
not est.
93- 21 5
1-675


Magnesia




Sulphuric acid


Potash


.125

MB


.26l


-467


. 112
.O2I

93 79
5 2 5


.094
not est.
94-53
-535


Soda


Sand and insoluble silicates


89.115
741
.097


85.165
.621
.416


84-765
.909


Water expelled at 380 F. . ,


Loss


Total










IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


100.062


100. 199


100.048


100.515




Hygroscopic moisture


0.815
1.648
.130


1.648

.446


i .025
2.320
.546


0.950
0.399
235


0-435
.409

.15


o.435
.718
.119

Subsoil.


Potash in the insoluble silicates


Soda in the insoluble silicates




Character of the soil


Virgin
soil.


Cultiva-
ted soil.


Virgin
soil.


Virgin
soil.


Old field
soil.





Soils a, b, and c contrast favorably with soils d, e, and f;
containing less sand and insoluble silicates and more potash,
phosphoric acid, organic and volatile matters, &c. A ^marked
difference may also be observed in the proportion of alkalies
contained in the insoluble silicates. The first three named
soils, indeed, are peculiar in containing more silicates of the
felspathic and micaceous character than common, indicating
a different origin from the latter named soils, and containing
a large proportion of the alkalies. The soils d, e, and /~may
be called quite poor, naturally; but they can be made produc-
tive by proper management and the use of fertilizers, if they
are sufficiently drained.

LAUREL COUNTY.
SOILS.

No. 1853 "Virgin Soil, from a farm near Jackson s Steam
Mill, nine miles south of London. Forest growth principally
oaks and hickories. Geological formation, carboniferous sand-
stone. Collected by C. W. Beck ham."

Dried soil of a brownish umber-grey color ; contains some
irregular fragments of ferruginous sandstone. The bolting-
cloth separated from its insoluble silicious residue quite a
large proportion of small rounded white quartz grains.
278



CHEMICAL REPORT. 99

No. 1854 "Surface Soil, from an old field. Same locality as

the preceding'' &c.

Dried soil of a lighter. and more yellowish color than the
preceding ; contains less of fragments of ferruginous sand-
stone, but fully as much of fine rounded white quartz grains.

No. 1855 " Subsoil of the preceding, ' ' &c.

Of a still lighter and more yellowish color (brownish-grey);
contains no gravel, but a large proportion of minute white
quartz grains.

No. 1856 "Virgin Soil, from woods. Farm of Jefferson Can-
nifax, half a mile south of London. Forest growth almost
exclusively oaks, a few maples, hickories, &c. Collected by C.
IV. Beckham."

Dried soil of a brownish umber-grey color; containing
clods of somewhat lighter color. Contains fragments of fer-
ruginous sandstone or concretions in considerable quantity.
Silicious residue contains some rounded white quartz grains.

No. 1857 "Surface Soil, from an old field sixty-five years in
cultivation ; uninclosed. Said to be worn oiit. Adjoining the
woods from whence the preceding sample was taken. Substra-
tum , carboniferous sandstone. Collected by C. W. Beckham."
Soil lighter colored than the preceding; contains fragments

of ferruginous concretions or sandstone. Silicious residue

contained some rounded white quartz grains.

No. 1858 " Subsoil of the next preceding, ' ' &c.

Dried subsoil of a brownish-buff color; contains some fer-
ruginous sandy concretions ; less than in the two preceding.
The insoluble silicious residue contained but a few quartzose
grains.

279



IOO CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE LAUREL COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1853


No. 1854


No. 1855


No. 1856


No. 1857


No. 1858


Organic and volatile matters. . .
Alumina and iron and mang. ox's


6. no
5.298
. no

.Oil

.077
.229
.149
87.330
1 .100


3.625
4.882
.130
025
.083
.312
.268
90.230
725


2.450
5-7I9
145
.016
.071
. no

.228

90.780
.400

.081


5-993
7-339
.070
.124
.096
.217


3-475
7-36i

. 120

053
.099
.074


3-740
9-385

. IIO

075

. IOO

447


Magnesia




Potash


Soda ....


Sand and insoluble silicates . . .
Water, expelled at 380 F. . . .
Loss


84.415
1-075
.674


87 . 740
-675
403


85-365
725
053


Total






100.414


100.280


IOO. 000


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO




Hygroscopic moisture


0.865

.843
.171


0.55
.661

.211


0.575
.892
.214


1-535
939
.400


0.800

.862
.623


1.425

975

575


Potash in the insoluble silicates .
Soda in the insoluble silicates . .


Character of the soil


Virgin
soil.


Old field
soil.


Subsoil.


Virgin
soil.


Old field
soil.


Subsoil.





These soils are pretty uniform in character, and, but for a
paucity of phosphoric acid, which may be seen in them all,
would be classed as of good average quality.

LAWRENCE COUNTY.
BLACK BAND IRON ORES.

No. 1858 "Black Band Ore, from near Louisa; sent by Col.

John Rice. Bed said to be thirty-one inches thick, of which

twelve to sixteen inches are black-band, the rest bituminous

shale r

A dull greyish-black, fine granular ore; some little bright-
yellow pyrites apparent.

No. 1 858 (a) "Black Band Ore, from same locality as preceding.

(Gavat farm, on the west fork of Big Sandy river. A four to

six feet bed of coal just below it.) Brought by Mr. John R.

Procter."
No. 1858 (b) "Average sample of the Black Band Iron Ore, on

Louisa Fork of Big Sandy river, six miles south of Louisa.

Collected by A. R. Crandall."
280



CHEMICAL REPORT.



1OI



Thickness of the layer about two feet, of which only about
eight to twelve inches are of Black Band Ore. Latterly it
has been reported as sixteen inches, at the bottom of the
black shale which constitutes most of the bed.

These several samples were examined as to their propor-
tions of iron, phosphorus, sulphur, &c., with the following re-
sults :





No. 1858.


No. 1858*.


No. 1858 b.


Specific gravity ......... .


7.. I CI


not det'd.


not det'd.










Iron


77 264.


-11 Q2'I


2C 74.6


Phosphorus .. .... ... . ..


not det'd.


not det'd.


CC7.




.487


not det'd.


.7,1:4,


Lime


not det'd.


not det'd.


.Q24.


Magnesia


not det'd.


not det'd.


. I <<O


Bituminous matters


not det'd.


not det'd.


17. 7OO




7.460


not det'd.


6.^60


Alumina


not det'd.


not det'd.


17 .Q2O











The iron is mostly in the form of carbonate in the ore, as
are also the lime and magnesia, and the phosphorus and sul-
phur in that of phosphoric and sulphuric acids. The propor-
tions of these two latter ingredients are somewhat large, but
yet not so great as to prevent this ore from being made prof-
itably available for foundry iron, &c., if it is to be obtained in
sufficient abundance and as rich in iron as the samples 1858
and 1858 (a).

LAWRENCE COUNTY COALS.

No. 1859 "Peach Orchard Coal. (Coal No. 3.) Millers
Branch opening. Collected by A. R. Crandall"
A pitch-black coal, breaking in thin laminae, with some
fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between. Some exter-
nal ferruginous stain.

No. 1860 "Peach Orchard Coal. (Coal No. 3.) Same local-
ity. Sample somewhat weathered. Collected by A. R. Cran-



28l



VOL. I.-CHEM. 19.



IO2



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1 86 1 "Cannel Coal. Little Laurel Creek. Collected by
A. R. Crandalir
Shows very little pyrites.

COMPOSITION OF THESE LAWRENCE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1859.


No. 1860.


No. 1861.




I-3I7


not est.


1.245






3.26
34.22
62.52


3-24
36.56
60.20


1.84
48.16
50.00


Volatile combustible matters


Coke . .




IOO.OO


100.00


IOO.OO




Total volatile matters ............


37.48
55-36
7.16


39.80
54.96
5.24


50.00

44-74
5.26




Ash


Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO






Dense.


Dense.

Light
lilac-grey.


Dense.






Light
brownish-
grey.


Buff.






0.901


i .189


1.076





The Peach Orchard coal has a high reputation where it is
brought into market, and many samples show a much smaller
proportion of ash than is given above. An analysis reported
by the late Dr. Owen (volume I, old series, Kentucky Geolog-
ical Reports, page 69) gives only the small ash per centage of
2.85. The proportion of sulphur is also quite small. This
coal is a semi-cannel or splint coal, and might very probably
be employed with advantage in the smelting of iron, without
coking. It is an admirable fuel for domestic purposes.

LAWRENCE COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES.

No. 1862 "Limestone Ore; portions of three samples, from dif-
ferent localities, mixed. On upper Blaine Creek. Collected

by A R. Crandalir
282



CHEMICAL REPORT.



10;



No. 1863 "Red Kidney Ore, from near the mouth of Cherokee
Creek, about fifty feet above the limestone ore. Collected by A.
R. Crandall."

COMPOSITION OF THESE LIMONITE ORES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1862.


No. 1863.




67. SK


<;<;.6Qi




I 280


I I C I




not est.


not est.




a trace


a trace.




a trace.


a trace


Phosphoric acid


. i^


284




427


202




IO. I sO


10. 510




20 . 480


71 28O




.017


780








Total


IOO.OOO


IOO OOO










4.7 .2 ?O


?Q IO?


Per centage of phosphorus ..


.OSQ


124




. I7C


.III


Per centasje of silica


16.960


25 660









These are quite good iron ores, rich enough in iron, and
containing less than the usual proportion of phosphorus.

No. 1864 -"BITUMINOUS SILICIOUS PETRIFACTION. Irish Creek.

Probably associated with Coal No. 2. Collected by A. R.

Crandall.

Presenting the appearance of fibrous coal which has been
infiltrated with silica.

COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.





80.66




I \ . 4.O




1. 80


Lime carbonate .. ..


.26




T.88






Total


IOO OO







LEE COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1865 "Coal, from Daniel Scott 's bank, three quarters of a
mile above Proctor. Bed thirty-six inches thick. Sample by

A. R. Crandalir

283



IO4 CHEMICAL REPORT.

A pitch-black splint coal, having but little fibrous coal.
Some fine granular pyrites between the thin laminae.

No. 1866 "Coal, from the same locality as the last, from another
entry. Bed forty -one inches thick. Sample by A. R. Cran-
dall"
Resembles the preceding.

No. 1867 "Pryses Coal. Lower Stufflebean Creek. Three
quarters of a mile west of Beattyville. Average sample from
two places, two hundred and two hundred and eighty-six yards
from the mouth of the entry. By A. R. Crandall. Thick-
ness of bed thirty -six to forty inches"

A pure-looking, pitch-black, glossy splint coal, with very lit-
tle fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between the laminae.

No. 1868 "Coal, from Phillips bank, on Mirey Branch. Prob-
able average thickness of the bed forty inches. Average sam-
ple from the stock pile, by A. R. Crandall."
Resembles the preceding; contains some small scales of

bright pyrites.

No. 1869 "Coal, from R. B. Jamesons bank, two miles below
Beattyville, on Mike s Branch. Average sample by A. R.
Crandall"
A splint coal. Has some fibrous coal and granular pyrites.

284



CHEMICAL REPORT. 105

COMPOSITION OF THESE LEE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1865.


No. 1866.


No. 1867.


No. 1868.


No. 1869.


Specific gravity .......


i 111


i 774.


I 7O7


I 7O7
















Hygroscopic moisture
Volatile combustible matters . .


2.30
38.10

CQ. OO


2. IO
38.10

iQ.So


4.OO
35-50
60. ^O


3.10
36.64
6O 26


3-40
32.70

67 QC














Total


I OO . OO


IOO OO


IOO.OO


IOO OO


IOO OO














Total volatile matters


A.O AO


40. 20


5Q. CQ




76 10


Fixed carbon in the coke . . .
Ash


51.64
7.Q6


51-54

8.26


55-50
c, .00


56.96

37O


57.60

6 70














Total


IOO OO


IOO OO


IOO.OO


IOO OO


IOO OO














Character of the coke


Light
spongy.


Spongy.


Light
spongy.


Dense
spongy.


Spongy.


Color of the ash


Lilac-grey.


Lilac-grey.


Light
lilac-grey.


Light
buff-grey.


Light
lilac-grey.


Per centage of sulphur ....


2-356


3-991


1 .041


1.030


1.368



These coals resemble, in their general properties, those of
Lawrence county, reported on above ; and although some ol
these contain a little more sulphur than those, the remarks
appended to the latter are equally applicable to these.

LEWIS COUNTY.
SOILS.

No. 1870 "Soil, from the Ohio bottom, border of creek ; ten feet
from its surface, about three and a half miles above Quincy.
Collected by N, S. SJialer,

Dried soil mostly in friable lumps, of a light brownish-grey
color; contains no gravel. Silicious residue contains quartz-
ose sand, which will not pass through fine bolting-cloth.

No. 1871 "Subsoil of the preceding ; taken one to three feet

beloiv the surface" &c., &c.

Dried subsoil in friable lumps, somewhat lighter colored
than the surface soil ; of a light yellowish-grey color.



io6



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1872 " Old Field Soil, cultivated for over fifty years ; never
overflowed. Back of the Ohio bottom, on Scaffold (or " Scuf-
fle"} Creek, three and a half miles above Quincy, and above
locality of the two preceding. Produces forty bushels of corn
to the acre on an average. Collected by N. S. Shaler."
Dried soil of a light-grey color, slightly less yellowish than

the next preceding, and slightly darker.

COMPOSITION OF THESE LEWIS COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1870.


No. 1871.


No. 1872.


Organic and volatile matters ..... ......


3 -J?C


2 665






i o. o,6s


8 QQ;


9C4.C




. I2S


a trace


1 80




.266


002


208


Phosphoric acid . .......


|2<


I2C






a trace.


.01 c


050




en I


1$7


462




.116


.128


174




OQ5


.OQs


085




Si 4.6;


86. 16$


83 too




i 025


685


I 72C






.44.8












Total .


100 008


100 ooo


IOO I IQ












1 .000


2. 22C


2 I'll:




1.847


I 21T.


I 138




1 .0^6


868


OCJ.












Surface


Subsoil.


Old field




soil.




soil.



These soils, evidently composed of fine detritus deposited
by the water of the river, contain more than the average
quantity of potash in a state of combination soluble in acids,
and hence immediately available for plant growth. The pro-
portions of organic and volatile matters, of phosphoric acid
and lime, as well as of the alkalies in the insoluble silicates,
are not more than the average. No. 1871 subsoil is especially
deficient in lime. Yet they may well be characterized as fer-
tile soils, more especially No. 1872.
286



CHEMICAL REPORT. 1 07

LINCOLN COUNTY.

No. 1873 "CLAY, from the head waters of Green river, on the
land of Mr. Tkos. W. Varnon. Bed two to four feet from
the surface, and said to be forty-two to forty -five feet thick ;
resting on black shale, which is fifty feet thick. Salt water is
found by boring at the depth of eigJity- four feet, and some little
petroleum in the sandstone. Sent by Senator Varnon."
Clay imperfectly laminated, of a dark olive-grey color.

Fuses before the blow-pipe. Burns of a grey-buff color.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Silica


61.580




2"?. 046




5.814




.2OI




.8150




J . CA2




.1,62




C.7CK




not det'd.






Total


IOO.OOO







The considerable proportions of the iron oxide, lime, pot-
ash, and soda prevent this clay from being refractory in the
fire. But while it is therefore unfit for the manufacture of
fire-bricks, it will yet answer well for ordinary pottery, terra
cotta work, or tiles.

CRAB ORCHARD SALTS (SO-CALLED).

The saline matters obtained by the evaporation of the saline
waters of Crab Orchard and vicinity, Lincoln county.

No. 1874 "Crab Orchard Springs Salts; put up by the Crab
Orchard Salts Company. Said to be obtained from the waters
of various springs mixed. Evaporated at the Springs, and
warranted genuine, as sold in sealed bott/es by J. B. Wilder



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