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from the silicious residue a small quantity of small rounded
grains of reddish and hyaline quartz.

No. 1903 (b) "Subsoil of the preceding," &c.

Dried soil somewhat lighter colored than the preceding;
contains rather more of rounded ferruginous concretions.
The silicious residue contained some fine rounded quartzose
grains.

No. 1903 (c) "Surface Soil, from a field about thirty years in
cultivation; in grass all the time except for the last four years,
when it was in corn and small grain. Underlying rock ; sandy
shale. Collected by C. W. Beckham."

Dried soil of a light, buff-grey color ; contains some few
ferruginous sandy concretions. The bolting-cloth separated
from the silicious residue a considerable proportion of small
rounded, clear and reddish quartz and silicate grains.

COMPOSITION OF THESE MUHLENBURG COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT



212 F.





No. 1903 a.


No. 1903 b.


No. 1903 c.


Organic and volatile matters .... ....


7. T.2t>


I .<X2


i 242


Alumina and iron and manganese oxides


4. 1 77


T-'US


3.74Q




.^4^


.006


. 14?


Magnesia ..


.176


.167


. 122


Phosphoric acid ... ...... ...


.108


. I O2


.121




a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


Potash


. 14. 5


.167


.2Ct;


Soda ..


not est.


not est.


.477




QO. 21 C


04. 740


Q'?. I4O


Water, expelled at 380 F


I .222


I .OCO


I . 242










Total


00.763


IOO.432


IOO 4Q?










Hygroscopic moisture


1 .800


o. 77?


o 06?


Potash in the insoluble silicates . ....


I "?"?Q


i 091


I 117,




.716


. ^64


474












Virgin soil.


Old field


Subsoil.






soil.





Soils of good average quality.



304



CHEMICAL REPORT. 125

OHIO COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1904 "Coal D, from Me Henry coalmine. Me Henry Sta-
tion. This sample does not include the ' sulphur band.' Col-
lected by C. J. Norwood."

Quite a handsome, pitch-black, glossy coal. Has some
fibrous coal between some of the laminae, with granular py-
rites, and some thin pyritous scales in the seams.

No. 1905 "Coal D. Same locality as the preceding. This
sample includes the 'sulphur band.' Collected by C. J. Nor-
wood.

No. 1906 "Coal D, from Render mine. Hamilton Station.
Sample from the nut coal pile. Collected by C. J. Norwood"
A pure-looking, glossy-black coal ; somewhat soft. Has

very little fibrous coal, and no apparent pyrites. Some thin

incrustation of gypsum in the seams.

No. 1 907 ' ' Coal D, from same locality as next preceding. Sam-
ple from the slack pile. By C. J. Norwood."

No. 1908 "Coal, from Charles Wesley Stephens' . On Rough
Creek, above Hartford. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
A bright, pitch-black coal, breaking easily into irregular lay-
ers. Fracture often in natural joints, showing a coarse, irreg-
ular fibrous structure on surfaces. Contains but little fibrous
coal. Some pieces show some thin scales of bright pyrites
and gypsum.

No. 1909 "Coal, from G. B. Hocker s coal bank. On Rough
Creek, about four and a half miles above Hartford. Collected
by C. J. Norwood."

Resembles the preceding; has fewer irregular seams, more
fibrous coal, and fewer pyritous scales. Exterior with ferru-
ginous stain.



126 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1910 "Coal, from same locality as the next preceding"

&c., &c.

Resembles the preceding, but is brighter and has less py-
rites, &c. A very pure-looking coal. Some exterior ferru-
ginous incrustation.

No. 1911 "Coal, from Marion Sandifer s coal bank. Big
Muddy Creek, one mile southwest from Elm Creek. Sampled
from near the outcrop. May not be a fair sample of the bed.
Collected by C. J. Norwood."

A dull-looking splint coal, with but little fibrous coal be-
tween the laminae. Apparently weathered. Somewhat soiled
with dirt, which will increase the apparent ash per centage.
Sample also contains some bituminous shale, which will exert
the same influence in the analysis. Not much apparent py-
rites.

No. 1912 "Coal, from L. M. Pattersons mine. Point Pleas-
ant. Collected by C. J. Norwood.

A splint coal of irregular appearance. Portions are pitch-
like ; others are quite shaly. (Excluded from the sample a
lump which seemed to be a portion of a pyritous parting.)

No. 1913 "Coal D, from Williams coal bank. On Bens
Lick. Point Pleasant road. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
Resembles the preceding ; not much of it pitch-like on the

cross fracture. Shows some scales of bright pyrites and some

of gypsum. Not much fibrous coal present.

No. 1914 "Bituminous Shale (so-called cannel coal). H. D.

Bennett's coal bank; three miles north of Hartford. A lower

coal? Collected by C. J. Norwood"

A dull, brownish-black, tough bituminous shale ; in thin ad-
herent laminae, the cross-fracture of which is jet-like. Some

exterior earthy stain.
306



CHEMICAL REPORT. I 27

No. 1915 "'Coal, from Berry and Walker 's land. Headwaters
of North Fork of Muddy Creek, four miles east of Hartford,
near Ben nines' coal bank. At the old opening-, first above the
bank at Stanton Baltzel 's. Probably not a fair average sam-
ple. Collected by C. J. Norwood" (See No. 1922.)
Much ferruginous and earthy incrustation on the exterior.

Fracture bright, pitch-like. Very little appearance of fibrous

coal, but some of pyrites. It seems to be a pure coal, with

less lamination than ordinary splint coal.

No. 1916 ''Coal, from Bill Hines coal bank, four miles east
from Hartford. Sample from above the clay parting. By C.
J. Norwood"

A bright, generally pitch-like coal, with some little fibrous
coal, but with little appearace of pyrites between the laminae.
Not so much laminated as ordinary splint coal. Some ferru-
ginous stains in the seams.

No. 1917 "Coal, from the same bank. Sample from below the

clay parting. By C. J. Norwood"

Resembles the next preceding; but more of it cleaves into
thin laminse, with fibrous coal between.

No. 1918 "Coal E. On Rough Creek ; mouth of Brush Creek ;
three miles below Hartford. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
A splint coal, mostly splitting into very thin laminae, with
reedy or dull-looking fibrous coal between. Very little ap-
pearance of pyrites. Some of the thin laminae are pitch-like
on the cross-fracture. Ferruginous and earthy stain on the
exterior surfaces.

No. 1919 "Z,. D. Taylor s Coal. Collected by C. J. Norwood"
A firm splint coal, splitting into pretty thin laminae, with
fibrous coal and some fine granular pyrites between. Some
little bright pyritous scales in the seams.

No. 1920 "Coal D, from Browns coal bank, three miles south
40 west from Hartford. Taken from an entry where pyrites
were abundant. By C. J. Norwood.

307



128 CHEMICAL REPORT.

Some portions pitch-like; others dull. Generally separat-
ing into thin laminae, with fibrous coal between. Bright pyri-
tous scales and some scales of gypsum in the seams.

No. 1921 "William Wardens Coal; near the roadside, about
half a mile northwest from Centretown. From a heap, and
consequently may not be an average sample. Coal covered. C.
J. Norwood."

A rather firm coal. Some portions pitch-like. Some fibrous
coal and granular pyrites between the laminae.

No. 1922 "Coal, from Berry and Walker s land. Hines 1 tract ;
in a ravine draining into North Fork of Muddy Creek. Sam-
ple from the lower two feel. An outcrop sample. By C. J.
Nonvood.

A splint coal, mostly splitting into thin laminae; generally
dull, with some pitch-like layers. Much fibrous coal-dust in
the sample.

No. 1923 " Coal, from A. Woodwards coal bank, on Barretfs
Creek. Bed twenty -four to thirty inches thick. A low coal.
By C. J. Norwood.

Sample evidently from an outcrop, considerably soiled with
ferruginous dirt. Coal easily broken and split into quite thin
laminae, some of which present tarnished irised colors. Con-
tains much fibrous coal and bright pyrites.

No. 1924 "Coal, from Games' bank, near Fordsville. Bed four
feet thick. Average sample by C. J. Norwood"
A firm splint coal, some of it pitch-like on the cross-fracture.
Not much fibrous coal, but considerable fine granular pyrites.
Some external ferruginous stain.

No. 1925 "Coal, from H. Dooring 's mine. About four miles
east from Point Pleasant. Lower member four feet Jive inches
thick. Collected by C. J. Norwood.
A bright, pitch-black, firm coal, handsomely iridescent on

some of the seams. Has very little fibrous coal and some

fine granular pyrites between the laminae.
308



CHEMICAL REPORT. 1 2Q

No. 1926 "Coal, from Henry Thompson s coal bank. One and

three quarters of a mile from Elm Lick. A lower coal (H? ).

Sample from below the parting, three feet Jive inches thick.

The whole bed, including the parting, four feet ten inches.

Collected by C. J. Norwood."

A pitch-black coal, in very thin laminae, with much fibrous
coal of a reedy appearance. No apparent pyrites.

No. 1927 "Coal, from Mortons coal bank, two miles northwest
from Centretown. Bed from eight to nine feet thick, with a
thin clay parting. Sample from the lower member four feet
four inches to four feet seven inches thick. By C. J. Nor-
wood."

A pitch-black, pure-looking coal. Iridescent on some of the
seams. Not easily breaking into thin laminae, with very little
fibrous coal. Some pyritous and gypsum scales in the seams.

No. 1928 "Coal, from Martins coal bank, near Elm Lick.
Coal H? From the lower member ; not a fair sample, as it
is from a new opening just begun. C. J. Norwood."
In quite thin laminae, with fibrous coal and some granular

pyrites between. Seems to have been much weathered. Is

much stained with ferruginous clayey matter.

No. 1929 "Coal, from Henry Davis mine, about four miles
east from Point Pleasant. Sample from the upper member
three feet nine inches thick. By C. J. Norwood."
A pure-looking, pitch-black, firm coal. Not all easily break-
ing into thin laminae. Has some fibrous coal and granular
pyrites.

309



130



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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310



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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Per cent



132 CHEMICAL REPORT.

These Ohio county coals are generally good, and some of
them are very good; the ash and sulphur per centages of
some of them, it will be seen, exceed the average ; but none,
except the one characterized as bituminous shale, is very seri-
ously injured for all ordinary applications: even this might
be utilized as fuel in its own vicinity.

The general correspondence between the specific gravity
and ash per centage is still further exhibited in these analy-
ses.

OHIO COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES.

No. 1930 "Limonite Ore, from Alfred Ashby s land, on the
waters of Walton Creek. Seems to be slightly magnetic?
Collected by C. J. Norwood. Coal measures.

A porous, cellular, somewhat friable ore; generally of a
deep-brown color, with blotches and thin laminae of light
ochreous and irregular portions of denser, fine granular, or
specular ore, of a steel-blue color, which is slightly magnetic
and gives a red streak.

No. 1931 "Limonite, from Door ing 's iron bank. Coal meas-
ures. Sampled for analysis by C. J. Norwood.
Composed of irregular laminae ; generally of a dark-brown
color, with lighter, ochreous ore mixed and incrusting. Some-
what friable. Powder of a handsome bright yellow-ochre
color.

No. 1932 "Limonite, front same locality as preceding" &c.
&c.

Resembles the preceding. Probably a little more dense.

No. 1933 "Ochreous Limonite, from Mrs. Kate Inglehart 's
place, eight miles southwest of Hartford. Coal measures.
Collected by C. J. Norwood."

A fine granular, friable ochre, of a handsome brownish-yel-
low color.
312



CHEMICAL REPORT.



133



COMPOSITION OF THESE OHIO COUNTY LIMONITE IRON ORES, DRIED

AT 212 F.





No. 1930.


No. 1931.


No. 1932.


No. 1933.


Iron peroxide .... ...


7 e, 84.1;


^.W


^6.072


18.676


Alumina .


.8*7


0.6^6


1.148


2.481


Manganese oxide . .


not est


not est


not est.


not est.


Lime carbonate . . .


a, trace


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.




.176


.248


.176


.^8




.648


.287


.280


.07?




not est


not est


not est.


not est.




Q 277


8 860


8 920


6. I ?2




1^.8^0


26. ^o


T.2. ZOA.


72.280












Total


100.609


IOO.CKS


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO












Iron per centage


< 7 . OQ I


18. 7 ?o


39 880


IT .073


Phosphorus per centage ........


.28^


. 12?


. 177


.072


Sulphur per centage . .


not est.


not est




not est.


Silica per centage . ... . .


9060


2.1 A.2.G


24 460


69 100













No. 1930 is a good iron ore, containing 1 not more than the
average proportion of phosphorus, which may be partly re-
moved, in smelting, in combination with its large proportion
of alumina, if sufficient lime be employed as the flux. Nos.
1931 and 1932, although containing much less iron, may be
made available in mixture with other richer ores. But No.
1933 is too poor for iron production, and could only be em-
ployed as a pigment, or in mixture with very rich ores, to fur-
nish silicious matter to aid in fluxing them.

OWEN COUNTY.

No. 1934 "GALENA t ^w a vein about twenty-three inches thick,
on Twin Creek. Sent by Thos. J. Jenkins, Esq., New Liberty."
A digging has been made more than eighty feet deep, and
the vein gradually widens as it descends. The specimen sent
was obtained about five feet below the surface. Lower Silu-
rian formation.

The galena has some little zinc blende mixed with it, and
has a gangue of baryta sulphate and calcareous spar (lime
carbonate). It contains, of course, the usual per centage of
lead, being a definite chemical compound of lead and sul-
phur; and, if found in sufficient quantities in the vein, for the



VOL. I.-CHEM. 21.



134 CHEMICAL REPORT.

cheap production of lead, would be valuable ; but in this re-
gion, where galena is very frequently found, mixed in large or
small (but generally small) proportion with the baryta sul-
phate, which forms numerous veins in our "blue limestone,"
the prevalent idea is that there is a large quantity of silver
in this shining ore. Indeed, companies have been formed,
and much capital sunk in the opening and working of so-
called silver mines in the baryta veins of our Lower Silurian
limestone; with the usual result, that even the lead obtained
and the spar sold would not repay the cost of the labor, while
silver is not found.

The specimen above described was examined carefully for
the presence of silver, in the wet way, with the result that no
ponderable quantity of that metal could be separated from it.
This has been the usual result of the analyses of the galenas
of this region. They all appear to be remarkably poor in
silver. The only practical question in relation to these metal-
lic veins seems, therefore, to be, whether they can be profita-
bly worked for the lead alone. The baryta sulphate, which is
quite abundant in these veins, has not yet found a profitable
application in any quantity.

No. 1935 "BARYTA SULPHATE; massive. (Ponderous spar.)
From the same locality as the above. Hunter s Mill. Twin
Creek. Collected by C. J. Norwood.

This spar was analyzed by my son, Alfred M. Peter, mainly
for the purpose of determining the proportion of strontium
contained in it, with the following result:

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.





80 11




17 OC








I r




''Q




I 86






Total ...


IOO OO







The proportion of strontia sulphate is larger than was sup-
posed. The presence of strontium in this spar corresponds
314



CHEMICAL REPORT.



'35



with its existence in association with barium in some of the
saline waters of our State, as shown under the head of Clay
and Meade counties in the present report.

OWSLEY COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1936 "Coal, from the mines of Steffee & Samuel. South
Fork of Kentucky river, four miles above Boonesville, on the
east bank of the river. Sample sent by Mr. J. T. Stejfee, and
analyzed at the request of the Governor. Bed three feet thick"
A good-looking splint coal. Iridescent on some of its sur-
faces ; containing some bright pyritous scales, and showing
marked reedy impressions on some of the laminae.

No. 1937 "Cannel Coal, owned by Steffee & Samuel. South
Fork of Kentucky river," &c., &c. (as above).
A handsome cannel coal. Very tough. Jet-black and glossy

on its cross fracture. Has no apparent pyrites.

COMPOSITION OF THESE OWSLEY COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1936.


No. 1937.


Specific gravity . .... ....


I 204.


i 161








Hygroscopic moisture ....


2. IO


o ?o


Volatile combustible matters . . ....


2C . 24


CO 7f>


Cnke ....


62 66


10 Xo








Total


IOO.OO


IOO OO








Total volatile matters. ...


57 -1A


60 20




158.66


?2 74


Ash


4..OO


7 Aft








Total


IOO OO


IOO OO










SDODFV.


Dense










Light


Light




lilac-grey.


brown.




I 424.


not det'd









315



136 CHEMICAL REPORT.

These coals are both remarkably good and pure of their
kinds. The cannel coal exceeds the celebrated Haddock's
cannel coal in volatile matters fully ten per cent., and equals
the Breckinridge coal of Hancock county in its volatile com-
bustible matters (see No. 1813, Cloverport Oil Company's
coal), than which it has a smaller ash per centage. It greatly
resembles this celebrated coal, but is purer. Should our pe-
troleum wells run low, coals of this character will be again
profitably available for the production of so-called coal oil,
lubricating oils, and other paraffins, with the lighter hydro-
carbons, now derived almost exclusively from the mineral oil.
A greater economy in the manufacture of these from the can-
nel coal, and the profitable use of the gas and coke, which are
simultaneously produced, may favor the competition of the
coal distillates with those from the petroleum.

PERRY COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1938 " Coal, from Josiak Cobb 's bank, near Hazard. Av-
erage sample taken from the upper part of the bed, the lower
part not being uncovered. By P. N. Moore"
A pure, pitch-black splint coal, having very little fibrous coal
between the laminae, but with ferruginous stain and appear-
ance of pyrites in parts.

No. 1939 "Coal, from CampbelT s bank. Maces Creek. Sam-
pled from near the outcrop ; Iience probably will give more ash
than the coal further in. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A splint coal, very much weathered and soiled with dirt;

hence the ash per centage is probably greater than that of

the bed. The sample has much powdered (fibrous) coal in it;

probably more than belongs to it.

No. 1940 "Coal, from R. C. Combs bank; below Hazard, on
the North Fork of Kentucky river. Collected by P. N.
Moore"

A pure-looking, pitch-black splint coal. Has some ferrugi-
nous stain on some of its seams, but very little fibrous coal or

apparent pyrites.
316



CHEMICAL REPORT. 137

No. 1941 "Coal, from Logans drift. Brashear Salt-works.
Collected by P. N. Moore."
Resembles the preceding, but has no ferruginous stain.

No. 1942 "Coal, from David Grigsby s bank. Lof s Creek.

Bituminous coal, above tJie cannel coal. Collected by P. N.

Moore."

Coal, breaking into thin laminae, with but little fibrous coal
or granular pyrites between them. Exterior of the lumps dull
and much stained with ferruginous and clayey matters, as
though they had been weathered, which probably may some-



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