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what increase the ash per centage.

No. 1943 "Coal, from the same bed as the next preceding.

Lower part of the bed. The cannel coal. Collected by P.

N. Moore."

Mostly tough, compact cannel coal, with a satiny lustre on
its cross- fractured surfaces. Some pieces more readily sepa-
rate into thin laminae. The exterior surfaces are soiled with
ferruginous and clayey matters, which will probably make the
apparent ash per centage greater than that of the clean coal
of the beds.

37



138 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE PERRY COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1938


No. 1939


No. 1940


No. 1941


No. 1942


No. 1943


Specific gravity


1.289


1-37


1-303


i. 288


1.274


i .290




Hygroscopic moisture


2. IO
36.20
61.70


3-70
30.64
65.66


2.06

36.74
61 .20


i. 60
36.10
62.30


i. 80
40.90
57-30


i .20
40.86
57-94


Volatile combustible matters . .


Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO




Total volatile matters ......


38-30

58.20

3.50

IOO.OO


34-34
57.02
8.64


38.80
5 6 -30
4.90


37-70
56.40
5-90


42.70
53-70
3.60


42.06

48.44
9-50


Fixed carbon in the coke ....
Ash


Total


100.00


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


ICO.OO


IOO.OO




Character of the coke


Light
spongy.


Pulveru-
lent.


Spongy.


Light
spongy.


Light
spongy.


Dense.


Color of the ash ... . .


Buff-
grey.


Grey-
buff.


Brown-
ish-grey.


Light
grey.


Brown-
grey.


Light
grey.




Per centage of sulphur


0.836


0.654


1.436


0.836


J-339


0.634





These Perry county coals are remarkably good, containing
much less than the average quantity of sulphur, and leaving,
generally, but a small amount of ash. With the exception of
the cannel, they are semi-bituminous or splint coals, of the
same character as the celebrated Block coal of Indiana. The
coals of the eastern coal field of Kentucky, as yet measurably
unknown and undeveloped, promise to be more valuable in
the future than any in the State.

PULASKI COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1944 "'Coal, from the Cumberland coal banks ; mine owned
by W. S. Brown and Wm. Owens; two miles south from the
Cumberland river ; nine miles from Rockcastle Springs ; eigh-
teen miles from Somerset. Sub-conglomerate coal. Bed forty
inches thick, without a parting. Average sample taken fifty
feet from the mouth of the mine. By John H. Talbutt."

318



CHEMICAL REPORT.



139



A pure-looking coal; somewhat tough, with but little fibrous
coal and some fine granular pyrites between the laminae.

No. 1945 "Coal, from Doolin coal bank ; owned by Allen Jones;
one mile from Cumberland river; ten miles from Rockcastle
Springs. A sub-conglomerate coal. Average sample taken
from the head of the drift, seventy-five feet from the mouth.
By John H. Talbutt. Bed fifty-one inches thick, containing a
good deal of pyrites in some places."
A pitch-black splint coal, with but little fibrous coal between

the laminae, but much pyrites.

COMPOSITION OF THESE PULASKI COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1944.


No. 1945.




i . vtf


I T7








Hygroscopic moisture


2 4O


2 OO




76.76


3C -?Q


Coke ...


60 84


62 7O








Total .... ...


IOO OO












T.Q. l6


77 -jo


Fixed carbon in the coke


CQ. 24


C2 QA


Ash


10 60


976








Total


IOO.OO


IOO OO








Character of the coke


Snonpv.


Light






spongy.


Color of the ash


Brownish-


Dark




lilac-grey.


lilac-grey.




2 A.QA.


j c.6c









These two samples resemble each other considerably.
They are good and profitable coals, although their ash
and sulphur per centages somewhat exceed the average.

No. 1946 "CHALYBEATE WATER, from Rockcastle Springs.
From a natural spring on tJie north side of Rockcastle river,
near its margin, and below high-water level. Water said to

319



I4O CHEMICAL REPORT.

come from a bed of shale ; is confined in a box about eighteen
inches in diameter, from which it flows in aJialf-inch stream.
Brown-ochreous, ferruginous incrustation on the box. Sample
collected by John H. Talbutt."

COMPOSITION OF THIS CHALYBEATE WATER IN IOOO. PARTS.

Iron carbonate 0.0145 )

Lime carbonate 0438 > Held in solution by carbonic acid.

Magnesia carbonate .0148 = .0731 J

Lime sulphate .0029

Magnesia sulphate .0036

Soda sulphate 53 I

Sodium chloride 0026

Silica .... .0128



0.1481

The water contained 0.0930 per thousand, by weight, of
free carbonic acid.

Although containing but a very small proportion of saline
matters or of iron, this water may be not the less available
in the treatment of many diseases. Indeed, some of the
most celebrated mineral waters of the world are nearly pure
water. The undoubted curative or restorative effects of such
waters depend, not only on their depurative influence, when
regularly taken in proper quantity, and the alterative influ-
ence of minute proportions of iron compounds or other ingre-
dients present in them, but also on the exercise, change of
scene, relaxation of mind, and regular diet and regimen, which
are generally to be found at the watering-place. (See Whit-
ley county for other chalybeate springs of this neighborhood.)

ROCKCASTLE COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1947 "'Coal, from Myzner s and Myers 1 bank. Livingston.
An inter-conglomerate coal. Average sample by A. R. Cran-
dall ; taken one hundred and fifty yards in entry No. I. Av-
erage thickness of the bed twenty-eight inches."
A pure-looking, glossy-black splint coal. But little fibrous

coal between the laminae, and no apparent pyrites.

No. 1948 "Coal, from same mine. Entry No. 2. Average
Sample collected by A. R. Crandall."

Much like the preceding in appearance.

320



CHEMICAL REPORT.



141



No. 1849 "Coal, from Grisham s coal mine, near Livingston.
First above the conglomerate. Upper ' brashy coal' bed; aver-
age thickness two feet. Average sample by C. J. Norwood."
A splint coal. Fibrous coal and much granular pyrites be-
tween its thin laminse.

No. 1950 "Coal, from same mine. From the lower nine inches
of tJie two feet bed. Local name, 'Block coal! By C. J. Nor-
wood.

A deep-black, glossy coal, iridescent in parts. But little
1 fibrous coal or pyrites apparent.

COMPOSITION OF THESE ROCKCASTLE COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1947.


No. 1948.


No. 1949.


No. 1950.


Specific gravity ...


1 .318


I . 7S7


I .-127


I . i7d












Hygroscopic moisture


2.OO


2. 2O


2. 2O


2 IO


Volatile combustible matters ... ...


36.66


36. SO


3=;. 86


3O rn


Coke


6 1 34


61 .30


6 1 .04.


C8.4.O












Total


100.00


100.00


IOO.OO


IOO.OO














38.66


38.70


?8 06


41 .60




"JI .04


si .70


CA QA


<to 86


Ash


0.40


Q .60


7 oo


8 ?4.












Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO












Character of the coke , . . .


Light


Light


Soon^y.


Sponcrv.




spongy.


spongy.






Color of the ash . . . . . .


Lilac-rrev


Dark


Light


Purplish-






lilac-grey.


chocolate.


grey.


Per centage of sulphur


2.2CK


4.802


4. 302


2.Q77













These coals greatly resemble, in general composition, those
from near the Cumberland river, described under the head of
Pulaski county.

No. 1951 "CLAY, from Pine Hill coal mines. Rockcastle
county. Collected by John H. Talbutt."

A light-grey plastic clay, mottled with ferruginous.

321



14-2 CHEMICAL REPORT.

This was only examined for its proportion of alkalies. It
was found to contain of potash = 3.083 per cent, of the dried
clay (at 212) ; soda = 0.524 per cent.

It therefore would not probably prove to be a very refractory
clay.

No. 1952 -"METALLIC IRON. Brought by Mr. Jones, of Lex-
ington."

Said to be from Holley farm, on the dividing ridge between
Goose creek and Rockcastle river, head waters of Rockcastle
river, near the line of Laurel county. It is similar to a speci-
men brought to the writer from near Manchester, Clay county,
in 1854, by the late Daniel White. Said by both these indi-
viduals to be abundant on the surface. It is similar in appear-
ance to some specimens obtained by Mr. C. J. Norwood and
others from near Manchester, Clay county, and said to be
abundant there.

It presents the appearance of medium fine-grained "mill
iron;" is dark-colored; yields to the file, but is quite brittle,
extending very little under the hammer. The surface of Mr.
Jones' specimen was polished and treated with nitric acid; but
while this produced a fine-radiated, Damascus-like appear-
ance, no Widmanstattian figures were produced.

The pieces obtained all seem to be portions of a slab, about
one and a half inches thick, the exterior surfaces of which
have a coating about one sixteenth of an inch thick of oxide,
which looks as though it had either been caused by heat or by
a long exposure to the atmosphere.

It was found, on examination, to contain of carbon, about
two to three per cent. ; silicon, about one per cent. ; a doubt-
ful trace of copper, but no nickel.

The per centage of iron was not ascertained, nor was the
analysis carried further.

The .fact that so many pieces of this iron have been
brought to the laboratory, and that so many persons bear
testimony to its abundance on the surface in the region in
question, is interesting. Is it a meteoric iron? If not, how
322



CHEMICAL REPORT. 143

came it to be scattered over the ground at such a distance
from iron furnaces ? Persons in the part of the country where
it is found might perhaps throw light on the subject.

WEBSTER COUNTY.
MINERAL WATERS.

No. 1953 " Water, from the 'Sulphur Spring' Sebree Springs.
Collected by C. J. Norwood. ' '

The water, when brought to the laboratory, had deposited
a slight black sediment in the bottle, containing some iron sul-
phide, and had lost its sulphuretted hydrogen. It still con-
tained free carbonic acid gas, the amount of which was not
estimated. It gave a slight alkaline reaction. (Analyzed by
my son, Alfred M. Peter.)

COMPOSITION IN IOOO. PARTS OF THE WATER.

Iron and manganese oxides 0.0007 1 TT ,, . ... . .,

Lime carbonate I Held in solution in the recent

Magnesia carbonate 0499} Water ^ free carbonic acid -

Lime sulphate .0617

Magnesia sulphate -57 O

Potash sulphate 0042

Soda sulphate . 1433

Sodium chloride .2760

Silica 0176

Organic matters and loss 0076

Total saline matters 0.8358 Dried at 212 F.

Unquestionably a very good saline sulphur water, contain-
ing traces of iron and manganese. Part, if not all of the
organic matters, may have been derived from the cork.

No. 1954 "Water, from the 'Chalybeate Spring' Sebree
Springs, &c. , &c. Collected by C. J, Norwood. This spring
is frequented by people from Henderson and Evansville, &c. ,
and has considerable local reputation."

Most of the iron had been deposited in the bottle as a
brownish sediment; but this was re-dissolved, analyzed, and
calculated into the whole amount in the following report of
the analysis. This analysis was also made by Alfred M. Peter.

323



144 CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION IN 1000. PARTS.



Iron carbonate 0.0297

Manganese carbonate trace.

Lime carbonate ' O2 47

Magnesia carbonate - OI 79

Lime sulphate 0218

Potash sulphate 0042

Soda sulphate .0205

Sodium chloride .0026

Silica ooio

Organic matters and loss 0066



Held in solution by carbonic acid.



Total saline matters 0.1290 Dried at 212 F.

The proportion of free carbonic acid in the water was not
determined, as doubtless much of it had escaped in transpor-
tation. There can be no doubt that it may be made available
in the treatment of many maladies, under proper medical ad-
vice.

WEBSTER COUNTY SOILS.

No. 1955 "Virgin Soil. Woods pasture. Farm of Mr. Bow-
land, near Madisonville. Forest growth : elm, black walnut,
red and white oak, &c., &c. Underlying rock; sandstone.
Collected by C. W. B'eckham"

Dried soil of a brownish-buff color; contains no gravel.
The silicious residue contained a few small rounded grains of
clear quartz.

No. 1956 "Surface Soil, from a field twelve to fifteen years in
cultivation in corn and tobacco ; from same farm and near the
same tocality as the above. Collected by C. W. Beckham."
Dried soil of a dark brownish -buff color; contains no gravel.

Silicious residue contains a few small rounded quartz grains.

No. 195 7 ' ' Subsoil of the next preceding, ' ' &c. , &c.

Dried soil of a buff color; contains no gravel. Silicious
residue like the preceding.
324



CHEMICAL REPORT. 145

COMPOSITION OF THESE WEBSTER COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1955


No. 1956


No. 1957


Organic and volatile matters


4.010

4.064

145
.178
.071
not est.
.288
055
91-35
.400


2.975
3-997

.220

. 160

.118

not est.
. 104
.152
91.490
.225

CCQ


3-57S
7.289

US
.124
.061
not est.
'35
.415
88.015
.500












Potash










Total . .








100.561


IOO.OOO


100.259






1.500
1.461
-759


-375
1-534
.698


2.105
1.619
.912










Virgin
soil.


Cultiva-
ted soil.


Subsoil.





These soils are good for sandstone soils, and can be made
quite productive by proper management and the judicious
use of manures, of which phosphatic fertilizers are indicated.
They promise a considerable durability in the considerable
proportions of alkalies contained in their insoluble silicates.

WHITLEY COUNTY.
MINERAL WATERS.

No. 1958 "Chalybeate Water. L. Renfros. Cumberland
Falls. Spring about one hundred yards below the falls, on the
north side of the river. From just above the Lower Conglomer-
ate. The sandstone from which it flows is near the level of
high water in the river. The water is contained in a small
rock basin. It forms an ochreous deposit, and contains some
flocculent matter. There are other similar sources in the neigh-
borhood. Collected by John H. Talbutt.

No. 1959 "Chalybeate Water. L. Renfros. Cumberland
Falls. Spring on the south side of the river, just imder the
falls of Eagle Creek, and about three hundred yards below
the falls ; above high water. TJiis water deposits an ochreous

325



146



CHEMICAL REPORT.



sediment also. It issues from the Conglomerate rock in a
wooden spile. Collected by J. H. Talbult"

COMPOSITION OF THESE CHALYBEATE WATERS, IN 1000. PARTS OF

THE WATER.






No. 1958.


No. 1959.




Iron and manganese carbonates . .
Lime carbonate


o . 0082
.0476


0.0072

.OJXK


(Held in solution in the water


Magnesia carbonate


.O727


.O266




Silica


.OOO7


not det'd.




Lime sulphate


.OI4I


.0010,




Magnesia sulphate . . .
Iron and alumina sulphates ....
Potassium chloride
Sodium chloride


.OO5O
.0338

not est.
not est.


.0060
.0053
not est.

OD^I




Silica . ....


O2. )7


.OI 76




Undetermined and loss


.0432


.oo83




Total dry saline contents ....


o. 1860


0. 1200


In looo. parts of the water.



The amount of free carbonic acid in these chalybeate waters
was not determined. The judicious use of these waters could
no doubt be made quite beneficial in the treatment of many
maladies.

No. 1960 "Bititminous Shale, or impure Coal; from Louis

Renfro s land; Cumberland Falls. Bed fifteen inches thick ;

one hundred and sixty yards below the falls, and one hundred

and eighty feet above the river, and about the saute distance

from it. In massive sandstone ; forty feet thick, immediately

above. Inter-conglomerate. Collected by John H. Talbutt."

This shale, air-dried, gave off 2.84 per cent, of hygroscopic

moisture at 212 F., and 27.16 per cent, of volatile combustible

matters, leaving 70.00 per cent, of dense coke, which contained

26.60 per cent, of ash. The fixed carbon thus amounted to

43.40 per cent. Its per centage of sulphur was found to be

2.562; so that it may be made available for fuel, &c., in its

vicinity, notwithstanding its large proportion of earthy matter.

WHITLEY COUNTY SOILS.

No. 1961 "Soil; uncultivated; from the bluff opposite Rock
castle Springs. On the Conglomerate. Collected by John H.
Talbuttr

326



CHEMICAL REPORT.



147



Dried soil of a light umber-grey color. Contains a few
small fragments of ferruginous sandstone. The bolting-cloth
separated from its silicious residue about one fourth of its
bulk of fine, rounded, colorless quartz grains.

No. 1962 "Virgin Soil; from the top of Kings Mountain.

Eight hundred feet above the valley. ( U. S. Coast Survey

Station.} Collected by C. W. Beckham"

Dried soil of a brownish-grey color; contains about twenty
to thirty per cent, of small shaly ferruginous sandstone frag-
ments. The bolting-cloth separated from its silicious residue
a large proportion of fine, rounded grains of hyaline quartz,
and greyish, partly decomposed silicates, and a few mica scales.

COMPOSITION OF THESE WHITLEY COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.



r


No. 1961.


No. 1962.




3-075
3-429
"5
.080
.061
.008
.194
.164
91.105
i .500


4.265
2.695

.no

.084

. 140
not est.
.052
not est.
91.465
.782


















Water, expelled at 380 F


Total


99-731


99-593






i. 200
.692

.120


0.950
0.989
.291





















Better soils than might have been expected from their loca-
tion.

WOLFE COUNTY.
COALS.

No. 1963 "Coal, from C. M. Hanks' bank. Compton. Bed
twenty-eight inches thick; without parting. Sample by A. R.
Crandall."
A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Has but little fibrous

coal. Some shining pyritous scales in the seams.

327



148



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1 964 " Cannel Coal, or Bituminous Shale. James F. Elys.

Gilmore Creek. Sample by P. N. Moore." Hand specimen.

A dull-looking cannel coal, breaking with difficulty. No
appearance of fibrous coal or pyrites. Small glimmering mi-
caceous scales abundant in it.

No. 1965 "Cannel Coal. John W. Faukners. Stillwater
Creek. Collected by P. N. Moore" Not an average sam-
ple.
A dull-black, pure-looking coal, with a large conchoidal

fracture.

No. 1966 "Coal, from Hobb 's bank, on Benjamin Bakers
land ; four and a half miles from Compton. Collected by
P. N. Moore r

A pure-looking splint coal. A little fibrous coal and fine
granular pyrites between some of its laminae. One piece con-
tained some particles of light reddish -brown resin.

COMPOSITION OF THESE WOLFE COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.





No. 1963.


No. 1964.


No. 1965.


No. 1966.


Specific gravity . .


1.336


1-434


1-383


1.294

3-5
35-20
61.30






3-74
35-52
60.74


1.30
41.40
57-3


1.16

44.5 8
54.26


Volatile combustible matters . ....




Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO






39.26
52.64

8.10


42.70
28.20
29.10


45.74
32.76

21.50


38.70
56.70

4.60




Ash


Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOD.OO


IOO.OO




Character of the coke


Spongy.


Pulveru-
lent.


Pulveru-
lent.


Spongy.




Color of the ash


Lilac-grey.


Nearly
white.


Light
lilac-grey.


Lilac-grey.




Per centage of sulphur ... . . . .


2.466


0.846


0.530


1.189





328



CHEMICAL REPORT. 149

The so-called cannel coals contain so much earthy matter
that they might (one or both) be properly called bituminous
shales. They are remarkable, however, for the large propor-
tion of volatile combustible matters they yield; and hence
may be made available, if the petroleum production fails, in
the manufacture of the coal oil and other hydrocarbons, &c.,
which are now so extensively used. They will make quite
good fuel, notwithstanding their large ashy residue. Coal
No. 1966 is exceptionally pure and good, and No. 1963 is also
quite a good coal.

VOL. I.-CHEM. 22. 3 2 9



150



CHEMICAL REPORT.



TABLE I. SOILS, SUBSOILS, &c., DRIED AT 212 F.


Remarks.


^ a ^ ^'^"="5 "l"*^!

fiili^Jlfi J'Hsllf.iii

iilll|lroS||p|j|s||p:|

HH^HH2^|J'|222: isllsa'^l-?


Virgin soil.
Old field coil.
Subsoil.
Virgin soil (compact limestone).
Old field soil.
Subsoil.
Virgin soil isandstone).
Old field soil (sandstone).
Subsoil (sandstone).
Virgin soil limestone).


|i||i4j-g

c O.S'O.LC'O

2|.t2-l.^2l


-(osui aq) ui Bpog


O\OO PI ^ t* t>.vO O O PO ^ m * J?*^ "* OO fl * ^- O^ *^


^IHIsliS


N* . 00 ?0? ? c? S


0* * M


sa>BDi[is 3|qn
-]osu; aqj ui qsBjoj




iHsTHwl,^


S^s&SSS


ft S^^ ^ S &*& ^% 2> S-ft S 2^ Z S^^ ?


MM HMH.-.MM^H.WMM


IE pajpdxa JaiBjYY


N ioi^O t^t^-iAo r-.r>-ini^.C'i ior**O ** J5 N N ^O


i:,Jp.lH^J


^rx-.*o 8 t^O
^ *4 t-% ii*> io r^co i/l




'A o8

JE p3[pdX3 J3JB^\




8,X l RK38&? n jS'




MMO.O,


a[qn[osui PUB puEg




S,S 1 8NM 1 M 1 ?S'!S^


^^Os !? j ^ x h 8


S3 Z SN a So?S g\^S i^ 3> S,^ 3, <$ S


S^iSSSS-SfS,!?


*5SSffS8JS


Bpog


= sll&*lo : o 5 Ks?^8S : '8'- ^3


r* moo . , . .

-MOM'


. o . , . t^
ro O


o o ' ... . . . -
c . ...


qsBjoj


S^ll 2| RA| So,??%??S 555^


S jHff^SS?!


rom-^-oo t^


o


pi3B ounqdjng




SS555SSSSS




cccc = c = c = = cccc c = =






piDB Duoqdsoqj


as s".K8| s"8 a?s,s Kssffs^sss s>


% i s^g.ias-a < 8 : 8


<&*$$$









,,,




S > |5' ! RS-5.;R > S,vS-


M 5? b 3 ? M ?


o


n


l^afffsJ^flUf^^agf sfaS


"~. OOOO>OOOOC


'OO "A"iO Oi/l





sapixo

aS3UB3uUI pUB

uoai puB Buiumiv


5 5 K.S?S$S| ?^2 S & Illslil


C\ ^* m\O w C 5v O "*


^?| > ss a


****** *oooor.rxc,u,oo>r,*>c o. co^.rjm*-^^0v*^ 2 -0^0^_


SJ3J1EUI
3|T1B[OA pUB DIUB2JO


ISgftM*feo b 2*SE&l??8 1 58i3ifr8 > WWS65sft5&Sj?S5




3

o








cccccccccc


e

1 1 8 J B.1 jj.|




aaQaaaaaaaaaaaadBaaaaaaouu


n'u j^'nx^uTT j


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ffffiSffffflffftffffggg


r^.t>.tN.r*t>i.t*t^r ii t^i**


r^i^r^r^i^t^t^l*



330



CHEMICAL REPORT.







oo (s roo%tM oj C^H {^roM 0*0 ti- 1000 -^-^o t^o o\ m u^vo t^-^o^o t - oo t^w o * min







o o o o o






hoo OOOOOOOOOO OOvONO CNOO O O\



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oooooooooooooooooo" h i; i; o



O\O vO 00 -<f (^ O












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=^ = - ^



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'52



CHEMICAL REPORT.




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i/i 10



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e oeoojj,. .M S ? V &

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Online LibraryKentucky Geological Survey[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 23 of 34)