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335



-56



CHEMICAL REPORT.



Remarks.


Poor Valley Ridge, upper bed.
Poor Valley Ridge, upper bed.
Poor Valley Ridge, middle bed.
from Old Clinton Furnace.


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336



CHEMICAL REPORT.



157



Remarks.


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158



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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Remarks.


From Proctor's Cave
From Cumberland City Mines.
Nodular ferruginous clay, Bear Creek.
Nodular ferruginous, Canolaway Creek.


Marly shale below limestone; Hot Branch, Bear Creek.
Marly shale. Haycraft's Lick.
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brown marly shale, Cedar Knob Lick.
Carbonaceous matters 13.40. Petrifaction.


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338



APPENDIX.



THE CLINTON IRON ORE. DYESTONE ORE OF TENNESSEE. FOSSIL

ORE.

In consequence of the great abundance of this valuable ore
in the mountainous region of Tennessee, very near to the
Kentucky line, and in view of the proximity of Kentucky coal
beds to these ore beds, the members of the Geological Sur-
vey collected some characteristic average samples from them,
which have been analyzed, with the following results :

A. "Clinton Ore; upper bed, in Poor Valley Ridge. Cumber-
land Gap, Tennessee. Average sample from a number of
exposures of tlie beds. By P. N. Moore. Clinton Group."

A soft ore, easily breaking into irregular laminae or scales;
filled with small disc-formed concretions or fossil casts. Pow-
der of a blood-red color.

B. "Clinton Ore; upper bed. Foot of Poor Valley Ridge, on
a branch doivn from the Virginia Road. Cumberland Gap,
Tennessee. Collected by P. N. Moore."

Very much like the preceding.

C. Clinton Ore. Middle bed of the ore ; twenty-six inches thick.
Cumberland Gap, &c. Collected by P. N. Moore."
Harder and more compact than the preceding; contain-
ing but few fossil-like concretions or casts. Externally of a
brownish-ochreous appearance. Powder of a light reddish-
brown color.

D. "Dyestone Ore, from near Cumberland Gap, Tennessee.
From old Clinton Furnace. Clinton Group."

For comparison with the above, the analysis of a similar
ore from Pennsylvania, analyzed by Professor Persifer Eraser,
of the University of Pennsylvania, is appended.

339



i6o



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



E. ''Hard Fossil Ore, or Clinton Ore. Middle bench of Dry-
sarf s mine. Pennsylvania"

COMPOSITION OF THESE CLINTON ORES, DRIED AT 212 F.





A.


B.


C.


D.


E.




5.Q42


7.014


7. IQO


















Iron peroxide .


77.780


77. O7C


47.061;


80.820


38.48


Iron protoxide .... .










4. ?7












Q. <;6




3-941


S-776


2.130




not est.


Lime carbonate


.4-2O


4. 5IO


I . 2}O




*i .06


Magnesia . .


a trace .


.266


. IQ4




a trace.


Phosphoric acid


MQ


. 7.10


. eye




1 .48


Sulphuric acid ...


a trace.


a trace


a trace




t.o<




2. SOO


7..8SO


4.000




4. troo




I <; . 060


1 1 .770


47.600




J2-54
T.-J . oq














Total


100 520


100 386


00.784




IOO.OO
















t;4. 166


ci .71:4.


77. C7c


">6. S74


30. 74


Per centage of phosphorus


. 14.0


. 140


.2(1




.21


Per centage of sulphur


a trace .


a trace.


a trace.




.O=;


Per centage of silica


IS 760


1 1 . 7 7O


42. 760


i I . 260


77.00















* Lime.



(Sulphur.



I Alkalies.



Professor J. P. Lesley, Chief of the Pennsylvania Geo-
logical Survey, states that the iron produced from this ore
is ahy,ays "cold-short," but that it is valuable to work with
richer and less fusible ores. This is the character of this ore
in other localities, and it appears to have a wide range, ex-
tending even into Wisconsin. But the samples examined in
this laboratory do not yield as much phosphoric acid as the
usual average of this ingredient ; and from experiments which
have been made in smelting this Tennessee ore, it is believed
that a good tough iron can be made from it.

F. A sample of the Pig Iron made at the furnace at the Ciim-
berland Gap, from the Clinton Ore, was obtained by Mr. P.
N. Moore, and analyzed.
The iron is fine-grained mill iron? It yields with difficulty

to the file, but extends under the hammer a little more than is

usual with pig iron.

340



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX. l6l

COMPOSITION OF THIS CLINTON PIG IRON.

Iron 92.828

Graphite 3.260) T, . , ,

Combined carbon ^.840 } Total Carbon - *' IO -

Manganese . -'53

Silicon 1.668

Slag 480

Aluminum .766

Calcium .112

Magnesium .270

Phosphorus . > -MS

Sulphur .008

100.590

It will be seen that this iron will compare favorably with the
best quality of pig metal.

G. "Coal from Winters Gap, near Knoxville, Tennessee."

In a valley about ten miles from the Cincinnati Southern
Railroad. The bed is said to be seven feet thick, and three
acres of it have been mined out without leaving a pillar. Said
to be the best pit coal in Tennessee. The sample was pre-
sented by Gen. Winder at the Centennial Exhibition. It is
quite a pure-looking, firm, pitch-black, glossy coal ; not break-
ing into thin laminae ; having no apparent fibrous coal, and
very little granular pyrites.

COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.

Specific gravity 1.256

Hygroscopic moisture. . 1.641 ~ . , , ..,

Volatile combustible matters ^ } Total volatile matters 38.40

Spongy coke . . 61 .6o{ Fixed carbon in the coke 59-90

*> } (, Carrot-colored ash 1.70

100.00 100.00

The per centage of sulphur is . 1.450

This is a coal of remarkable purity, leaving a smaller pro-
portion of ash than any coal examined during the Geological
Survey of Kentucky. Of course it cannot be considered an
average sample of the bed, yet it is evidence of its superior
quality. The proximity of this bed of coal to the Cincinnati

Railroad makes it matter of interest to our citizens.

341



1 62 CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.

GERMAN GLASS POT FIRE-CLAY, AS COMPARED WITH SAMPLES OF

KENTUCKY CLAY.

On a recent visit to the great International Centennial
Exhibition at Philadelphia, the attention of the writer was
attracted by an exhibit of this fire-clay, supposed to be one
of the most refractory known, and imported for the construc-
tion of crucibles to withstand a very high heat, but particu-
larly for our glass manufacturers, who seem to agree that no
other known clay will so completely withstand the great heat
of their furnaces, and the fluxing influence of the melted glass,
as this. It is consequently almost universally used by them
as the material for the construction of the glass pots or large
crucibles, in which the glass is made and melted.

The exhibit of this clay at the Centennial Exhibition was
made by J. Goebel & Co., importers of German clay, and
manufacturers of crucibles, &c., Maiden Lane, New York. It
showed the clay in its natural and prepared conditions ; and
accompanying the specimens was a report of the chemical
analysis of the material, said to have been made in Germany,
a copy of which is appended.

With a view to study this valuable clay, in comparison with
some Kentucky samples from our coal measures, the writer
secured a sample from what appeared to be a washed and pre-
pared specimen on exhibition, which had been moulded into a
cubical block, and which he has analyzed.

H. The Clay is of a light grey color; adheres strongly to the
tongue ; and exhibits a large irregularly concJioidal fracture.
Before the bloiv-pipe it fused only on the extremity of the small
pointed fragment, into a ivhite slag,

\ . AnotJier specimen of this German Glass Pot Clay ivas ob-
tained at the Co-operative Window Glass Works, at the foot
of Coal Hill, opposite Pittsburg (near l/ie inclined railroad).
The pot-maker, who furnished the sample from a partly used
barrel of the material, stated tJiat it was in the condition in
which it was imported from Germany.

342



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.



This had not been re-worked or washed. It resembles the
preceding, but is a little more friable, and slightly lighter col-
ored. Its powder, however, is somewhat darker than the
powder of that. Before the blow-pipe it acted like that.

J. Copy of the analysis of this clay made in Germany, as ex-
hibited by J. Goebel & Co.
For comparison with these, I append a copy of the analysis

of some clay from Carter county, Kentucky (see volume I,

Kentucky Geological Reports, new series, page 179, lower

paging), labeled

"No. 1337 Fire-clay ; average sample from the upper bed, four
feet thick, on both sides of the hill. Ridge between Grassy and
Three Prong Creek. Boone Furnace property. Whole bed
eight to ten feet thick. Collected by P. N. Moore"
This clay, forming a heavy stratum, is in a compact state
so hard as scarcely to be scratched with the nail ; breaking
into angular fragments. It is of a light-grey color, and be-
comes plastic when reduced to powder.

COMPOSITION OF THESE FIRE-CLAYS, DRIED AT 212 F. (Except J,
which seems to have been more thoroughly dried).





H.


I.


J.


No. 1337.


Silica ...


*7o.86o


t73.66o


7O.6O


4.8. <;6o


Alumina


20 . 900


19.460


21.60


17.471


Iron oxide (calculated as peroxide) . . . .


i 560


i <\6o




a trace .








I.IO




Lime ....


. 34.7


.168


.76


. 1 12


Magnesia ... .


.220


. 2OQ


4.S


a trace.




not est.


not est.


not est.


.ass


Sulphuric acid .... .......


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


Potash . . . .... ...


cyg


C2O


not est.


.280




.112


.046


not est.


.28-?


Water expelled at red heat


6.800


6. 200


3.89


12.030












Total


IOI . 777


101 .823


IOO.OO


QQ.OOO













* Including about four per cent, of fine sand.

+ Including about three and a half per cent of fine sand.

I Organic matters and loss.



The iron peroxide obtained in the analyses of H and I was
doubtless derived from iron sulphide in the clay. The appar-
ent excess is probably due mainly to fixed alkalies in the pre-
343



I 64 CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX.

cipitated alumina, which may be estimated correspondingly
too high.

The large proportion of silica in the German clay (a part
of which is in the state of fine sand) is notable in comparison
with the Carter county clay; and this large proportion of
silica or sand increases the refractory quality of the clay.
But pure fine sand or pulverized quartz could quite cheaply
be added to our clay, which, in other respects, seems to be
at least equal in quality as a fire-clay to the German article,
containing even less of those ingredients which increase the
fusibility of clay, viz: iron oxide, lime, potash, soda, and mag-
nesia. How the phosphoric acid acts in this relation is said
not to have been fully determined by experiment; but it un-
doubtedly increases the fusibility. As will be seen, the pro-
portion of this ingredient was not ascertained in the German
clay, although it is no doubt present in notable quantity.

There can be little doubt that some of our native fire-clays
can be made quite refractory by a judicious process of prepa-
ration or purification, including, perhaps, washing with water,
or water containing chlorohydric acid, which is very cheap,
the addition of pulverized quartz, &c.

In this relation we may notice a beautiful hydrated silicate
of alumina the Indiana kaolin, or what is denominated Indi-
anaite by Prof. E. T. Cox, of the Indiana Geological Survey
a large and handsome sample of which was exhibited at the
Centennial. This remarkable clay-like mineral, which was
discovered first in Illinois, and called Golconda clay, was found
in Lawrence county, Indiana, in 1875, forming a six feet bed,
just under the coal measures conglomerate, and over a bed of
brown hematite iron ore. Where it has not been impregnated
with iron oxide it is a pure hydrated silicate of alumina, of
the composition of halloysite, passing in its greenish portions
into alophane.

This so-called porcelain clay soon attracted the attention of
potters, and is now in great demand for the manufacture of
the finer qualities of pottery ware. The writer believes, how-
ever, from fhe brief examination he has given it, that it de-

344



CHEMICAL REPORT APPENDIX. 165

serves a more exalted application, being", when pure and free
from infiltrated iron oxide and lime, more refractory before
the blow-pipe than any clay he has examined. It is therefore
believed that it might find a more suitable application in the
manufacture of the most refractory crucibles, and that, when
mixed with pure fine sand or pulverized quartz, it might very
well answer for glass pots.

The general composition of the white variety, as reported
by Prof. Cox (Geological Report of Indiana, 1874, page 18),
is as follows :





4.C.QO


Alumina


40. 74




trace.


Water


i"?. 26







A specimen of this mineral, obtained by the writer from
that exhibited at the Centennial (beautifully translucent ;
nearly white, with a slight greenish tint), when examined for
fixed alkalies, gave 0.198 per cent, ot potash, and 0.204 of
soda, when dried at 212 F. It was not examined for alkaline
earths or phosphoric acid.

This mineral, which may be made so useful in the arts, may
doubtless be discovered in Kentucky in a similar geological
position with that in Indiana.

VOL. I.-CHEM. 23. 345



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF KENTUCKY.

N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.



CHEMICAL REPORT



SOILS, COALS, ORES,

IRON FURNACE PRODUCTS, CLAYS, MARLS,
MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS, ETC.,

OF KENTUCKY.

BY ROBERT PETER, M. D., ETC., ETC.,

CHEMIST TO THE SURVEY.

THIRD CHEMICAL REPORT IN THE NEW SERIES, AND THE SEVENTH SINCE THE
BEGINNING OF THE KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.



STEREOTYPED FOR THE SURVEY BY MAJOR, JOHNSTON * BARRETT, YEOMAN PRESS, FRANKFORT, KY.

347



INTRODUCTORY LETTER.



CHEMICAL LABORATORY,
KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,

LEXINGTON, KY., April, 1878.

Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey :
DEAR SIR : I have the honor to make herewith a report of
the results of the chemical work performed for the Kentucky
Geological Survey from February of last year up to the pres-
ent time.

Very respectfully,

ROBERT PETER.

349



CHEMICAL REPORT OF THE SOILS, COALS,

ORES, PIG IRONS, CLAYS, MARLS,

MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS,

&c., OF KENTUCKY.



Of the chemical analyses herewith reported, more than one
hundred and thirty in number, seventy-four are of soils, sub-
soils, and under-clays ; of which three, reported in the Ap-
pendix, are from Texas. These latter were examined for the
purpose of comparison with our Kentucky soils.

The limits of variation, in the proportions of the essential
ingredients of the seventy-one Kentucky soils, are shown in
the following table, viz :





Per ct.


Number.


County.


Per cent.


Number.


County.


Organic and volatile matters vary from . . .
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides vary


9.185


in 2,037


in Hardin


to 2.045


in 1,986


in Allen




24.465


in 2 015


in Grant


to 3.096


in 2,029


in Grayson


Lime carbonate varies from


9.425


in 2 015


in Grant


to . 030


in 1,968


in Allen


Magnesia varies from


.824


in 2 022


in Grant


to .025


in 2,042


in Hardin


Phosphoric acid varies from


.823


in 2 014


in Grant


to .013


in 1,968


in Allen


Potash extracted by acids varies from .


1.778


in 2 022


in Grant


to .035


in 2,041


in Hardin


Soda extracted by acids varies from . .


.6J 7


in 2 009


in Grant


to traces


in several




Sand and insoluble silicates vary from .


59-94


in 2 015


in Grant


1092.980


in 1,967


in Allen


Water, expelled at 380 F., varies from


2.7!5


in 2 037


in Hardin


to .483


in 2,030


in Grayson


Water, expelled at 212 F., varies from


6.575


in 2 013


in Grant


to .950


in 1,967


in Allen


Potash, in the insoluble silicates, varies from


2.910


in 2 037


in Hardin


to . 722


in 1,979


in Barren


Soda, in the insoluble silicates, varies from .


1.214


in 2 oco


in Grant


tO .022


in 2,080


in Oldham



In the sample of cretaceous soil from Collins county, Texas,
called "black waxy" soil, there were 17.085 per cent, of lime
carbonate, 0.497 f pot asn extracted by acids, while the 61.840
per cent, of sand and insoluble silicates contained only 0.443
per cent, of potash in the insoluble silicates.

The specimens from Grant county, which appear to such
advantage in this comparative table, are of heavy, tough
under-clays, excavated from some of the cuts on the Cincin-
nati Southern Railroad, some of which were called by the
doubtful name of "hard pan" by the contractors. From the
too large proportion of clay which they contain, as well as
their resulting physical constitution, they would by no means
prove as productive, under culture, as might be inferred from

351



6 CHEMICAL REPORT.

their chemical composition alone. The fact that favorable
physical conditions are as necessary to the fertility of the soil
as the chemical conditions, has long been known; but both the
chemical and physical are equally indispensable.

These heavy under-clays, which are so rich in some of the
mineral elements of plant nourishment, might doubtless be
used with advantage, in the manner of marl, as a top-dressing
on light or sandy, poor or exhausted soils. They would also
answer for common pottery or bricks.

The five samples of coals examined, from Butler, Greenup,
and Madison counties, presented the usual characteristics of
our good Kentucky coals, some of them being better than the
average, because of their small proportions of ash and sul-
phur, especially the sample from Big Hill, in Madison county.

The limonite iron ores, from Lyon and Trigg counties,
proved to be rich, containing from 46.320 to 50.195 per cent,
of iron ; they are also remarkably free from sulphur, and
contain less than the average of phosphorus, which latter
ingredient was found in them only in the proportions of from
0.079 to 0.220 per cent, of the ore. The pig irons smelted



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