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contain the largest proportions. The quantity in the white
sulphur was not separately determined, but is doubtless quite
minute.

365



2O CHEMICAL REPORT.

These waters, and particularly those d the salt sulphur
well, are applicable to the treatment of a great variety of
chronic diseases, under judicious medical advice, combining,
as they do, saline, alkaline, and chalybeate properties, with
those of the hydrogen sulphide, and the bromides and
iodides. They are found to be diuretic, diaphoretic, tonic,
and alterative, when used internally, not usually exerting
much aperient action ; and when employed in the bath, for
which purpose the salt sulphur is used exclusively, they are
valuable in the treatment of cutaneous affections, &c.

The very small proportions of barium, strontium, aluminum,
and lithium compounds, together with those of boracic and
phosphoric acids, which were detected in this recent re-exam-
ination of these waters, interesting as their discovery may be
to the philosopher, cannot be supposed to exert much influ-
ence in their medicinal action, yet, doubtless, they are not
without effect.

*

Since the detection of barium and strontium compounds in
these waters containing sulphates, the attention of the writer
was drawn to a recent communication of M. Dieulafait to the
Academy of Science of Paris, as to the very general presence
of strontium carbonate or sulphate in the sea waters, as well
as in limestone, gypsum, and the fossil remains of the mol-
lusca, and saline mineral waters generally. According to his
statement, only forty-four out of eight hundred of such
waters, &c., failed to show distinct evidence of the presence
of strontium.

On examining Liebig's analysis of the celebrated Kciser-
quelle (Emperor well), at Aix-la-Chapelle, in Rhenish Prussia,
one of the most noted waters of Europe, and an early resort
of the Romans, a remarkable resemblance in general com-
position may be seen between this and the salt sulphur water
of the Olympian Springs, as the following comparative table

shows :
366



CHEMICAL REPORT.



21





Salt sulphur
water of
Olympian Springs.


Water of
Emperor Well,
Aix-la-Chapelle.


Lime carbonate .


O. IQ7"\


o 1580




.0506


.omo




.0128




Strontia carbonate


.OOAC


OOO2




.OO2?


.OOQ6


Alumina


.OOO6 \




Manganese, phosphoric acid




traces.




,OO8?


traces.


Potash sulphate




. 1 14O


Soda sulphate ... , ............




.2850


Soda carbonate


traces.


6500






.OOO1


Lithium chloride


.0008




Calcium chloride.


02 1 1




Magnesium chloride


1089




Sodium chloride


4.8QQ7


2.6^00


Potassium chloride


O35C




Sodium bromide


Ol66


OO76






.oco6




traces.


.OIQ 1 *


Sodium iodide


traces.


traces.


Boracic acid .


traces.




Silica


O2 7 2


0661


Organic matters, &c


.O74.O


.071:2








Total saline matters in looo parts


q.4168


4. 1020








Temperature .


c.6 F.


m F.









The Aix-la-Chapelle are hot springs, and the water con-
tains more alkaline sulphates and carbonates, with less of
chlorides and bromides, than our salt sulphur water; but the
general resemblance of their chemical composition is close,
especially as they contain nearly the same gaseous ingre-
dients.

One object in view in the re-examination of the Olympian
Spring waters was to ascertain whether their proportion of
saline matters had been diminished in the lapse of nearly
twenty years since the first analyses were made by the writer.
It is interesting to see that no notable change in this respect
has occurred. (See vol. 4, p. 69, Reports Geological Survey of
Kentucky, first series}. The slight apparent difference being
probably due to less perfect drying of the total saline matters

in the former analyses.

367



22 CHEMICAL REPORT.

CHALYBEATE MINERAL WATERS OF THE OLYMPIAN SPRINGS

No. 1987 " MAIN CHALYBEATE SPRING ; in a valley, about half
a mile north of tJie main building, Olympian Springs"
The water runs, over a wooden gutter, out of the ferrugin-
ous magnesian limestone, which lies under the Devonian shale,
at the base of the hill, about four feet above the bed of the
so-called "Chalybeate Branch," which runs into Mud Lick.
The spring yields about three litres of water per minute (i. e.,
somewhat more than three quarts). The temperature of the
water is 54 Fahrenheit. It deposits a sediment in its channel
of outflow, which is of a ferruginous-brown color. The water,
as it flows out of its source, is remarkably clear, but exposure
to the air, by the removal of carbonic acid and the substitution
of oxygen, converts the dissolved iron carbonate into the hy-
drated peroxide, which is insoluble in water.

The dried ferruginous sediment, on analysis, was found to
contain about 65 per cent, of iron peroxide, about 20 per cent,
of soluble silica, with notable proportions of lime and magnesia
carbonates, and traces of manganese, phosphoric and apocrenic
acids. Hydrosulphuric acid did not detect the presence of
arsenic or any metal of that group.

No. 1988 "CHALYBEATE SPRING, flowing out of a crevice in
the ferruginous magnesian limestone in tJie bed of the Chalyb-
eate Branch, about sixty yards above the main chalybeate
spring above described."
It deposits a ferruginous sediment in the bed of the branch

of a light brownish-orange color.

368



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE OLYMPIAN SPRING CHALYBEATE WATERS.

In the 1000 parts





No. 1987


No. 1988




Free carbonic acid gas


o. 1214


o. 1269














o 0242


o oroo






0908








OIA7






























Magnesia sulphate .


I I 7O






Potash sulphate ... .


OI tj










0278




Sodium chloride


o-;o8






Magnesium chloride . .


OO7 I






Lithium chloride . ...
















Silica


(T372


0108




Loss ....


OIOA


0168












Total saline matters in 1000 parts of the waters .


0.4097


0-2935





The main chalybeate spring water is in every respect very
good of its kind, and may be used in all cases in which cha-
lybeate remedies are indicated. The principal difference in
composition between the two springs is, that the main spring
is more than twice as strong in iron carbonate, making- it a
better chalybeate remedy than the other. It also contains
more sulphate of magnesia, but less sulphate of soda. They
form a valuable addition to the Olympian Springs.

As the chalybeate and other saline ingredients of these
waters seem evidently to have been derived mainly from the
ferruginous magnesian limestone out of which they flow, and
which the waters have worn and perforated in a remarkable
manner, the writer collected some of the limestone and sub-
mitted it to analysis, with the following result :

No. 1989 FERRUGINOUS MAGNESIAN LIMESTONE, out of w hick
flow the chalybeate springs above described, as well as many
others in this region, and which forms the bed of the Chalyb-
eate Branch, at and near those chalybeate springs. It lies
immediately under Black Devonian Shale. Collected by Rob-
ert Peter.



24 CHEMICAL REPORT.

A crystalline granular limestone; grey, of various tints, in
the interior generally light grey ; light ferruginous or brown-
ish-ochreous on the exterior. Adheres slightly to the tongue,
and is more or less porous. The water has worn it irregu-
larly, and in some places perforated it by enlarging the small
crevices or cavities in it.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Lime carbonate . . ...


S-i.ooo


Magnesia carbonate


34 O27


Iron carbonate


11 . $12




.OO6


Potash


. 141




040




.280






Total


IOO.O28







The main agent in the solution of this ferruginous limestone
is, undoubtedly, the carbonic acid dissolved in the water which
flows over or percolates it. The greater part of this carbonic
acid is no doubt derived from the gradual decomposition of
the vegetable matters on the surface of the hill at the base of
which the springs and this rock are located. At present this
and the neighboring hills are covered with the primeval pine
forest, which keeps the surface continually covered with its
vegetable debris, which, by slow decomposition and oxidation,
yields an abundance of carbonic acid to the atmospheric water
which falls upon it, thus making it, what the pure water itself
is not, a good solvent of the iron and other carbonates of the
ferruginous magnesian limestone beneath. It appears, there-
fore, that the character or strength of these springs is greatly
dependent on the forest growth on the surface of the hill or
hills above them; and that if these woods on the hills above
should be at any time cleared off, and the surface of the land
deprived of its present carpet of decaying vegetable matters,
the springs would measurably lose their strength and value.
Another deplorable result from clearing off these woods and
bringing the soil into arable culture would be, that more of
the atmospheric water would run off from the surface of the
hills, and less of it would sink into the depth of the soil and
370



CHEMICAL REPORT. 25

subsoil to feed springs ; so that, if the springs were not en-
tirely dried up, except in a rainy season, their outflow would
be greatly diminished. Moreover, the beauty, salubrity, and
attractiveness of this favorite sylvan watering-place depend
greatly on the native pine forest which clothes the neighbor-
ing hills.

In addition to the sulphur, salt sulphur, and chalybeate
waters of this locality, there are others, saline and alkaline,
of various qualities, deriving their dissolved ingredients, some
from the salts of the primeval ocean under which the rocks
were deposited, some from the action of the atmospheric
waters and gases on the Devonian and other strata. One
of the oldest known, which formerly was called a salt lick, to
which the wild denizens of the forests resorted, and around
which the buffaloes made their wallows, may be described as
follows :
No. 1990 " SALT WATER from the old well at the original Salt

Lick, near the remains of the old barracks of the volunleers of

1812, about one hundred to one Jiundred and fifty yards south
from the main house."

The water flows out in a small stream, running into Mud
Lick creek. The ground about is covered with an efflores-
cence of salt. The water tastes like that of the salt sulphur
well, but it has only a slight odor of hydrogen sulphide.

COMPOSITION OF THIS SALT WATER.
Carbonic acid gas, not estimated ; hydrogen sulphtite, a trace. In 1000 parts of the water.





o. 1844






.0458


Held in solu-




.0099


f tion by the




.0041;


carbonic




.0019


acid.




.0036






.2241






.0152






.1188






4.7121






.0375






trace.






trace.






.0232






.0130












i; . 7040











371



20 CHEMICAL REPORT.

This water resembles that of the salt sulphur well in the
relative proportions of its common salt and other chlorides;
but it is more decidedly alkaline, because of its larger propor-
tion of carbonate of soda, and contains less of bromine and
lithium compounds. Moreover, it is almost destitute of hydro-
gen and sodium sulphides, which give a distinctive character
to the salt sulphur water. On examining volume IV of the
Reports of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, first series,
for the former analysis of this water, the writer finds that a
transposition of the labels on the bottles in which the waters
were sent to the laboratory by Mr. Gill must have occurred
(see pages 71, 72), so that the label "salt water," &c., &c.,
was placed on the bottle which contained the so-called " cook-
ing water," and vice versa. The analysis No. 803, page 72,
agrees pretty well with the present in the principal ingredients
and the total saline contents. This now published is of course
more complete and accurate.

THE ALKALINE SALINE WATERS OF THE OLYMPIAN SPRINGS.

No. 1991 WATER from the well at the kitchen door- of the
main house; about eight feet deep ; yields about one hundred
and thirty-Jive gallons per minute. The water is raised with
a wooden pump.

It is slightly alkaline in reaction, and deposits a slight
ochreous sediment in the bottle. Tastes somewhat chalybe-
ate, and smells and tastes faintly sulphurous. This water is
used for all ordinary purposes of the kitchen and household,
as well as for drinking.

No. 1992 WATER, called "Tea Water" from a spring or open
shallow well, on the border of Mud Lick creek, about half a
mile soutli of the main house, and above it on the stream.
The spring is inclosed in two no-headed barrels, placed the

one on top of the other, and is about four feet deep. The

water was not overflowing. Temperature of the water, 62.

Reaction slightly alkaline. As there had been rain shortly

before the sample of the water was obtained for analysis, it

may possibly be weaker than usual.

372



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE WATERS.
In 1000 parts of the water.





No. 1991.


No. 1992.




Carbonic acid gas


not est.


not est.




Hydrogen sulphide gas. .


a trace .


none .












Lime carbonate


o.o;t;6


0.0241




Magnesia carbonate ...


.0277


.00 so


Held in solu-


Strontia carbonate or sulphate


trace .


trace.


i- tion by car-


Iron and manganese carbonates and phosphates .
1 ime sulphate . . ....


.0054
.0065


.0022


bonic acid.




.0208








.0285






Sodium chloride ....


.1487


.O'?77








.OO3Q




Magnesium chloride


.004.7






Soda carbonate


. ^4.^1


.44-70




Sodium sulphide


trace






Lithia, boracic acid


trace.


trace.






.0280


.OTI <;












Total saline contents in 1000 parts. . ....


0.8686


O. "iS 12













Although these waters do not contain a very large propor-
tion of saline matters, yet their alkaline and slightly chalybe-
ate properties may make them available as diuretic, depurative,
tonic, and alterative remedial agents. Many celebrated alka-
line waters are not stronger in saline and gaseous contents
than these. These examinations and analyses were made in
August, 1877; on reexamining the water from the well at
the kitchen cloor, No. 1991, in February, 1878, after rather
a wet season, the water was found to be at least one third
weaker in saline contents.

No. 1993 "WATER, from an 'Epsom Well' about three quar-
ters of a mile northeast of Olympian Springs, on the farm of
Mr. Robinson."

The well is about twenty feet deep, walled up with stone.
The water is used by the family for drinking and all domestic
purposes, and they have become accustomed to it, so that it
produces no sensible effect upon them. Mr. Robinson had
turned the rain water from the roofs of his houses into the
well, so that the water obtained for examination had been

373



28 CHEMICAL REPORT.

much weakened by the result of a recent rain ; hence a quan-
titative analysis was not made of it. It tasted strongly of
Epsom salt, and gave decided evidence, by the usual tests,
of the presence in it of much magnesia and sulphuric acid,
considerable lime and chlorine, and traces of iron, &c., &c.

The old " Epsom Well," the water of which had been ana-
lyzed and reported by the writer in volume IV, page 70, of
Reports of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, first series,
had been filled up; but Mr. Robinson will probably reopen it.
This aperient water would be a valuable addition to the
considerable variety of the mineral waters of the Olympian
Springs, especially as the other waters do not generally exert
a laxative action.

BRECKINRIDGE COUNTY.

No. 1994 "MARLY SHALE, from Tar Creek Hill; Bowling
Green road, near Cloverport, Breckmridge county." Col-
lected by P. N. Moore.
A friable shale; of a yellowish olive-grey color; containing

many minute specks of mica. Before the blow-pipe it fuses

into a dark colored slag. Burns of a handsome bright brick

color.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.





66 . 960
15.626

8.380

493
.677

154
3- 2 95
.628

3.787


















Total


IOO.OOO





This marly shale would no doubt be useful as a fertilizer
on old exhausted soils of a light and sandy nature. Exposed
to the frosts on the surface of the ground, it would very
probably undergo complete disintegration. Its considerable
proportion of potash would gradually become available for
vegetable nourishment under the influence of the atmospheric

374



CHEMICAL REPORT. 29

*

agencies, but might perhaps be brought more quickly into use
by the simultaneous application of slacked lime on a clover
crop. It might be used for terra cotta.

BUTLER COUNTY.

No. 1995. " COAL from 'Mining City Coal Bank' recently
opened ; owned by the Gree.n and Barren River Navigation
Company. Mouth of Mud Creek. Bed thirty-six to thirty-
nine inches thick. Average sample" Sent from Frankfort
by John R. Procter.
A pure-looking coal, breaking into thin laminae, with fibrous

coal and very little fine-granular pyrites between. Specific

gravity not determined.

COMPOSITION, AIR-DRIED.





3.28




44 2O


Spongy coke .


C2 C2






Total


IOO.OO








47.4.8




48 <;6




306






Total


IOO.OO






Percentage of sulphur


3 060







A very good splint coal, resembling the "block coal'* of
Indiana, yielding quite a small proportion of ash, and contain-
ing no inordinate quantity of sulphur.

No. 1996. " MARLY GLAY SHALE OR INDURATED CLAY. (Fire-
clay?) Below the coal at the Mud Creek Mines. Collected
by John R. Procter."

Of a dark-grey or lead color, imperfectly and irregularly
laminated. Contains many minute specks of mica, and some
imperfect impressions, apparently of marine shells. It is quite

375



3O CHEMICAL REPORT.

plastic when powdered. Burns of a light yellowish-grey color,
nearly white, hence might be made available in terra cotta.
Fuses before the blow-pipe.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.





5 1 660




i c; ">6o




7 680




7.260




.817




not est .




1.276




207




12 . 44 c






Total ... .


IOO.OO







Its large proportions of iron oxide, lime, and alkalies render
it easily fusible at a high temperature.

FAYETTE COUNTY.

No. 1997. " WATER from a bored well about 80 to go feet deep,
on tlie site of the Lexington Depot of tJie Cincinnati Southern
Railroad, about three quarters of a mile from the Court-
house!' Collected by Mr. C. J. Norwood and Mr.

Tot ten, Civil Engineer.

The water is perfectly limpid and colorless, has a slight

petroleum-like odor, but contains no hydrogen sulphide.

No. 1998. " WATER from the same well after it had been deep-
ened to one hundred and fifty-three feet and a half. Sent by
Chas. A. Tasker, Resident Engineer on the C. S. R. R., at
Lexington."

The water is yet clear, inodorous, and tasteless ; like the
former sample, it gave a slightly alkaline reaction.

The object of the analyses was to ascertain the availability
of this water for use in boilers of the locomotives of the rail-
road.
376



CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION IN 1000 PARTS OF THE WATER.





No. 1997.


No. 1998.






o . 0404


0.071:8


"| Held in solution in the




.0066


.0189


water by carbonic




.01^8


.oot;8


[ acid, the proportion


Iron oxide, phosphoric acid, strontia


trace .




of which was not esti-
J mated.




.0126


.0240




Potash sulphate


.0118


.0201;






0^8 s


.oo;8






.O^Q7


.osoi






.o<;i4


.0612






.121:2


. Ift^O






.0218


.OOT.6




Lithia \










trace.














Total saline matters in 1000 parts . .


0.3318


0.3787





The water became very slightly stronger in saline matters
by deepening the well, but its character was not materially
altered. From its alkaline nature, owing to the presence in
it of a certain proportion of carbonate of soda, the writer pre-
dicted that it would prove eminently fit for use in the steam-
boiler, and that any sediment which might be deposited would
not be likely to form a hard incrustation. Subsequent practi-
cal experience has verified this prediction. The material in
the supply water which causes the hardest and worst crust in
the steam-boiler is the lime sulphate or gypsum ; as this is
only slightly soluble in water, and is much less soluble in the
very hot water of the high-pressure boiler than it is in cold
water, its presence in the feed-water is greatly feared by the
locomotive engineer. This injurious substance dissolves in
about five hundred parts of cold water; but when subjected to
the heat corresponding with four atmospheres of pressure in
the steam-boiler, or one hundred and twenty pounds to the
square inch, it deposits a crust, although contained in 1000
parts of water.

In the stronger of these waters the sulphate of lime is only
in the proportion of about one part to forty thousand of the
water; and, consequently, it would not probably form any
crust until the water was evaporated to one fortieth its orig-

VOL. I.-CHEM. 25. 377



32 CHEMICAL REPORT.

inal volume, even if unaccompanied by any decomposing
agent. But in this water, as soon as the free carbonic acid
is separated by the heat, the excess of carbonate of soda pres-
ent decomposes the sulphate of lime, producing a powdery
precipitate of carbonate of lime, and an equivalent amount of
sulphate of soda, which remains dissolved in the water. Per-
fect immunity from boiler-crust may generally be secured by
blowing off the residual water of the boiler at proper intervals,
varying in length according to the character of the water used.

In this connection, it may be of interest to give the eleva-
tion of this well above sea level, as communicated by Geo. B.
Nicholson and Chas. A. Tasker, civil engineers on the Cincin-
nati Southern Railroad, as follows:

Elevation of the top of this well above sea level, 964 feet.

Elevation of the bottom of the bore which furnished the
water for the first analysis, 876 feet.

Elevation of the bottom of the bore which furnished that
for the second analysis, 802 feet.

Elevation of the top of the well at the Lexington fair
grounds above sea level, 974 feet 3 inches.

SOILS OF FAYETTE COUNTY-

No. 1999 "SURFACE SOIL, from the laiun at Ashland, near

Lexington, homestead of the late Henry Clay, near Lexington,

Kentucky." Collected by John H. Talbutt.

The dried soil is of a dark brownish-umber-grey color. It

all passed through the coarse sieve except numerous rootlets

and some small, friable, shot iron ore. It appears to contain

no sand. The silicious residue from two grammes, left after

digestion in acids, all passed through fine bolting-cloth except

i single small grain of clear quartz, and some small, soft,

rounded particles of partly decomposed silicates.



No. 2000 " SUBSOIL of the next preceding," &c.,

The air-dried subsoil is a little lighter colored and more
brownish than the surface soil. The clods are somewhat
more adhesive. It contains a considerable proportion of fria-

378



CHEMICAL REPORT.



33



ble shot iron ore. The silicious residue gave a single minute
grain of transparent quartz only, when passed through the
fine bolting-cloth.

COMPOSITION OF THESE FAYETTE COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1999.


No. 2000.




4. 12$


3. ?3?


Alumina and iron and manganese oxides


I2.I68


15.666




.2Qi;


. 34?




.214


331




.4.O2


.604.




not est .


not est.




.268


. 372.




.038






80 . 090


77.711


Water expelled at 380 F.


i 800


I . "!OO








Total


QQ . 6QO


QQ . 868








J-ym-oscopic moisture .. . ....


2.850


3. 371








Potash in the insoluble silicates '. . ..


I 1A. 1


I 271




7CQ


772










Surface soil


Subsoil.









These present all the characteristics of our rich "blue-
grass" or blue limestone soils. In the first place, they con-
tain no gravel, pebbles, coarse sand, or even what might
generally pass for fine sand, the whole being in such a state
of fine division that, when the soft clods are disintegrated,
by the action of water or otherwise, it will pass through fine
bolting-cloth ; yet, because of the presence of more than
three fourths of its weight of exceedingly fine silicious ma-
terial, water does not lodge on it, but readily passes through
it, so that it is easily drained ; and, because of the clefts and
crevices in the limestone sub-stratum, it is usually naturally
drained through the numerous subterraneous caverns and
channels of the rock on which it rests.

These soils, moreover, present more than the usual propor-



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